Particles of Matter

This course is about the particle nature of matter, how matter changes states, and what the particles do when those changes happen.

Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Matter is made up of atoms.  Atoms take up space, have mass and are in constant motion. This course is worth 5 credit hours. 

What is matter?

Matter Vocabulary

Matter Vocabulary

Take time to study these words:

matter:     Anything that has mass and takes up space.

physical properties: Characteristics of a substance that can be observed and measured without changing it into something else.

states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas

weight: The measure of the pull of gravity on an object.

volume: The amount of space an object takes up.

mass:  The amount of matter in something

density: The concentration of matter in an object   d = m/v

mixture: Two or more kinds of matter mixed together where they each get to keep their own physical properties 

solution: A combination of substances where one dissolves into another .

physical changes: Changes in matter where no new substances are formed.

chemical changes: Changes in matter where a new substance is formed.

solubility: Has the ability to be dissolved.

reactivity: The ability to react chemically with other substances.

Matter Vocabulary Practice

 

A Few More Vocabulary Words

Boiling

Boiling is the term used to describe liquid turning into gas at a higher temperature than evaporation.  Different liquids boil at different temperatures.  You can see steam rising from boiling water as it is a mixture of water vapor and small droplets of water that make it visible.

Condensation

Condensation is the scientific term for when a gas turns into a liquid.  You can see this happening in hot rooms when the water vapor in the air touches the cold glass of a mirror or window.  The water vapor cools and turns into water droplets that make the glass look misty and cloudy. 

Freezing

Freezing occurs when a liquid is made very cold and becomes a solid.  When water is put into a freezer, it will become ice.

Melting

Melting happens when a solid turns into a liquid from being heated.  Different solids melt at different temperatures. 

Solidifying

Solidifying is when a liquid becomes a solid.  Some liquids do not need to be cold to solidify.  Chocolate is solid at room temperature, it does not need to be frozen or chilled to become solid again.

Evaporation

Evaporation is the process by which water molecules escape from a liquid phase, on the Earth's surface, to become a gaseous phase within the Earth's atmosphere.  You can observe the process of evaporation in the shrinking of puddles on the school playground and the formation of clouds in the sky.

Read each scenario and decide if it is reversible (can go back to what it was before) or irreversible (cannot go back to what it was before).

Bread being turned into toast is

Water being turned to ice in the freezer is 

Chocolate turning to liquid in the microwave is 

Flour, eggs and milk mixed together for pancakes is 

Water becoming water vapor as the pot boils is 

Raw egg being hard boiled in a pan of boiling water is 

Candle wax melting is 

Salt dissolving in water is 

Wood burnt on the fire is 

Particles of Matter

Particles of Matter Information

Particles are Everywhere!

States of Matter

Check all of the characteristics of a solid.

  • High density
  • Low density
  • Fixed shape
  • Fixed volume
  • Easily squashed
  • Flows

Check all the characteristics of a gas.

  • High density
  • Low density
  • Fixed shape
  • Fixed volume
  • Easily Squashed
  • Flow

Check all of the characteristics of a liquid.

  • High density
  • Low density
  • Fixed shape
  • Fixed volume
  • Easily squashed
  • Flows

Which image shows a solid?

Which image shows a gas?

Which image shows a liquid?

Changes of State Diagram

Change of State Diagram

Look carefully at what happens to the particles as they change state. 

Wait, there is a fourth stage of matter?

Go to this virtual lab to help with the different states of matter.

https://my.hrw.com/sh2/sh07_10/student/flash/virtual_investigations/hst/sta/hst_sta_vi.html

What Do You Know? This is the last section. If you choose to work on and complete it successfully, you will earn more credit hours.

Which of the following is a gas?

Which of the following is a liquid?

In what state of matter are the particles the farthest apart?

  • solid
  • liquid
  • gas
  • plasma

What state of matter are the particles the closest together?

  • solid
  • liquid
  • gas
  • plasma

What state of matter has no definite shape and no definite volume?

  • solid
  • liquid
  • gas
  • plasma

When water boils, it changes from a liquid to a

  • solid
  • liquid
  • gas
  • plasma

When the temperature increases, a

  • gas will change into a liquid
  • liquid will change into a solid
  • gas will change into a solid
  • solid will change into a liquid

When water freezes into ice, the matter that makes up the water

  • has a greater temperature
  • becomes a living organism
  • becomes energy
  • has not changed

Gallium is a metal that will melt when exposed to the heat of your hand. The state of matter change Gallium undergoes is

  • gas to solid
  • solid to gas
  • liquid to gas
  • solid to liquid

Water droplets forms on a cold glass of ice tea. What state of matter was the water before it formed on the glass and where did it come from?

  • NONE of these answers are correct.
  • It was liquid that leaked through the glass.
  • It was a solid in the ice cube and teleported onto the side of the glass and became a liquid.
  • It was a gas in the air.

Which of the following would take up the entire shape of the container it is enclosed within?

  • solid
  • liquid
  • both B and C
  • gas

Any sample of matter has mass and takes up space. The main reason for this is because:

  • All matter is heavy
  • Matter can be a gas
  • Matter is made up of tiny particles that have mass and take up space
  • The Earth is made of matter

When you heat a sample of a solid, the particles that make up the solid:

  • Get bigger
  • Loose mass
  • Move faster
  • Slow down

When you heat a sample of a solid, the sample gets a little bigger. This is mainly because:

  • The particles move faster and get a little further apart
  • Heat helps the particles grow.
  • Heating the sample makes it lighter.
  • Heating helps the particles slide past each other.

Completing this section could earn you up to THREE extra credit hours. It is OPTIONAL.

Go to the following website to complete the virtual lab. To receive credit, you must answer the questions.

Predict what will happen in the state of the substance and the shape of the graph when heat energy is added.

Describe what happened to the solid in the Energy Box as heat was added. What happened to the molecules and the shape of the graph?

Describe what happened to the liquid substance in the Energy Box as more heat was added. Describe what happened to the molecules and the shape of the graph.

Would you like another credit hour?

Virtual Lab

What happened when the barrier dropped? Be specific if you want to earn the credit.