This course will help you with your City and Guilds Food safety exam study all sections and answer all the question .
If you are new to food safety watch the following video if you have the knowledge skip the video.
You can take this short test if you don't get 100% you need more study. click here
As always it is important to know your enemy! We control the growth of,and therefore contamination by,bacteria by understanding how they live and die.
Bacteria are single-celled organisms that reproduce (grow) by splitting in half.They have the ability to multiply very quickly at room temperature,given the right environment. They can double as fast as every 10 minutes and so reach more than a million in about three hours,yet even a million bacteria can fit on a pinhead and are invisible.
How do we stop bacteria from growing? By restricting their environment,by removing their food,by making their food unavailable and by using temperature. Chilling slows bacteria down,freezing causes them to become dormant,cooking kills them,and hot holding prevents their growth.
All this can be abbreviated as FATTAM food,acidity,temperature,time,air and moisture.
An essential part of being a Tourism and Hospitality worker is the discipline to ensure that hygiene standards are maintained in all areas of the enterprise. Good hygiene takes effort! Why is hygiene so important?.
Prevents the outbreak/spread of food-borne diseases.
Helps maintain a clean, physical appearance of the establishment.
It is a legal requirement click here .
Produces more streamlined processes and less waste.
The first thing customers see when visiting your business is the establishment itself.
If everything is clean and tidy, then the customers can reasonably assume that the establishment will be hygienic and safe to enter.
Hygiene is also important from a business point of view. Businesses can only afford to employ people if they make money. To do this they must make more money from selling food than they spend on ingredients, staff wages and other costs of the business, such as storage and waste.
Good food safety procedures assist a business as it helps minimise waste. For example, if food is stored correctly it will last longer and less will need to be discarded.
It is important to remember that food safety is a legal requirement and non-compliance can cost the business a great deal. Fines may be issued or the business could even be temporarily, or permanently, closed down.
Food safety is a critical aspect of workplace hygiene. Even if you do not work directly with food, your actions can indirectly affect food hygiene. For example, if a housekeeper does not follow the correct procedure when handling dirty linen, bodily fluids and bacteria could get onto a room service tray. If that tray is not washed correctly, the body fluids and bacteria could be transferred to the food preparation area.
Follow these procedures in your kitchen to ensure you produce safe food.
Good personal hygiene reduces the likelihood of food contamination and applies to every food handler.
Wash hands thoroughly in the hand wash basin. Use antibacterial liquid soap, a nail brush, and warm water and dry with disposable paper towels:
In most countries 20% of the population suffer food poisoning each year, with 20% of these as a result of poor handling practices.
Approximately 10-15% of new food poisoning cases are reported daily.
Around 0.05% of people die each year from a food-borne illness.
10-20% of food-borne illnesses arise from consumer mishandling.
Authorities believe that only a small amount of food poisoning cases are in fact reported, hence the real statistics could be much higher – have you ever had food poisoning and not reported it?.
60-80% of food-borne illnesses originate from commercial food service enterprises such as canteens, hotels, cruise ships, airlines, aged-care facilities and hospitals.
Globally, instances of food-borne illnesses are on the rise.
Note: these references are an accumulation of facts from a variety of countries and specific research must be undertaken to apply data to the latest facts and local specifics!
What is Food Poisoning?
Contamination and progression into food spoilage can happen at a range of steps in the food journey from harvesting to preparation or insufficient cooking.
Food poisoning refers to the consumption of contaminated food by an individual, that results in health problems. Common indicators are diarrhoea and vomiting. Contamination agents are bacteria and viruses or toxins.
It is important to note that fresh preparation and immediate consumption of food rarely results in food poisoning.
The recent increase in reported cases of food poisoning mostly stems from changes in our lifestyle and an increasing tendency to eat food prepared by someone else. This can be in a restaurant, takeaway shop or as pre-prepared food purchased from a supermarket.Food poisoning occurs when food is prepared, stored and consumed later.
Note: It is estimated that developed countries spend 30% of their food budget on takeaway food or dining out
Which Foods are Dangerous?
Microorganisms require moisture, food, warmth, correct pH and time, to grow. Some foods are more susceptible to spoilage than others
Foods that are high in moisture, protein and fat promote bacterial growth and are, therefore, referred to as high risk foods. These foods need to be handled and stored correctly. Potentially hazardous foods are foods that meet both the criteria below:
They might contain the types of food-poisoning bacteria that need to multiply to large numbers to cause food poisoning
The food will allow the food-poisoning bacteria to multiply
Raw and cooked meat or foods containing raw or cooked meat e.g. Stews.
Smallgoods e.g. Ham, meatloaf Dairy products e.g. Milk, cheese, custard.
Seafood (excluding live seafood) fillets and all processed seafood including stock.
Processed fruit and vegetables e.g. salads or cut fruit.
Cooked rice and pasta.
Foods containing eggs, beans, nuts or other protein-rich foods such as quiche, or fresh pasta.
Foods that contain these foods, for example sandwiches and rolls; cooked and uncooked pizza.
What is Improper Hygiene?
Essentially, most food poisoning occurs through improper hygiene such as:
Biological contamination: arises from disease-causing microorganisms.
Not washing fruit and vegetables – they have often been sprayed with insecticides or are dirty.
Improper temperature control – the danger zone is between 5°C and 60°C and pathogenic bacteria multiply very rapidly in this environment.
Cross-contamination – mixing different food types, as well as cooked and uncooked food, can result in bacteria being served to a customer. Proper storage, food handling and cleaning procedures must be followed to prevent cross-contamination.
Pests – proper storage and regular pest controls are necessary because pests transmit germs and spoil food.
Improper cleaning – if cleaning and sanitation processes are not done correctly, bacteria and other pathogens will multiply and cause problems.
Correct hygiene procedures therefore take all of the above dangers into account and manage these.
Since 1 July 2013 every food premises must have a written sickness policy which must be adhered to by all food handling staff.
The sickness policy provides a system of controls to minimize the risk of food becoming contaminated from food handlers carrying harmful bacteria and viruses. It outlines general exclusion criteria, as well as, exclusion times for specific illnesses.
You can download a copy of the health and sickness templates, sickness record sheet and exclusion of infected persons information, from the Ministry for Primary Industries FCP manual.
By law, food handling staff must report any illness to their manager especially any skin, nose, throat, stomach or bowel trouble or if they have infected wounds.
It is the employer's responsibility to ensure that food handlers do not pose a risk to food safety.
Separate raw, cooked and defrosting foods
Separating food handling equipment
I have give links to some of the common foodborne illness click here for a A_Z list
Contamination times and symptoms
Times vary from an hour to several days. Common symptoms are cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and fever. Consider that in a worst case scenario food poisoning can lead to death!