α Beginning Spell Checking

Beginning Spell Checking in a project

You will learn to perform the recommended three steps for beginning spell checking in a new ParaTExt Project:

  1. Approve the spelling of frequent or common words.
  2. Check the words that ParaTExt thinks are most likely incorrect.
  3. Check similarly spelled words as a way of finding common typing mistakes.

Ongoing Spell Checking in a project

Once you have performed the three steps listed above, you will need to  spell check new materials as they are drafted.  In this course you will learn how to:

  1. Spell check one entire book
  2. Spell check from within the edit window

Course Limitations

Correcting spelling is an important task for any translation team, and involves many aspects of the overall translation task.  This course will focus on translation projects that have drafted a significant number of verses but have not yet been spell checked.  It will be assumed that the project administrator has correctly configured all of the language settings for the project since many of the spell checks that ParaTExt is able to do require these settings to be correct. This course will not cover exhaustively every issue related to spell checking.

Approving the spelling of frequent or common words

1) Marking common or frequent words as correct

If you have not checked spelling before and have several chapters drafted in ParaTExt, then there is a way to quickly mark common words (words that occur frequently in the text)  as being spelled correctly.  The idea being that if a word occurs in your text many many times, the odds that it is spelled correctly are very high.  If you believe that your text is generally spelled correctly, you can use the Approve Spelling of Common Words feature in the Wordlist tool.

The above screen shot shows the  Wordlist tool for an English translation that has eleven chapters of Mark and 2 chapters of Revelation entered. As you can see even in thirteen chapters there are words that occur several hundred times.  We can go a long way towards spell checking this project by using the Wordlist tool to mark common words as correct.  When the tool is opened ParaTExt will suggest approving all words that occur 100 times or more, but you can use a smaller number depending on how confident  you are of the spelling in the translation project. It is difficult to recommend specific numbers to use in this check because so much depends on the nature of the language and the skill of the translation team.  We can suggest that if your language uses many prefixes and suffixes that you use 10 in this check.  If the language you are checking uses no or very few prefixes and suffixes, then use the higher number 50. In the example below we will change the 100 to 400 or more appearances in the text. We will use this large number as a demonstration to more easily show how the feature works.  (Notice that all of the words are marked as unknown.)

Once we enter the minimum number of times a word must appear and click on OK, a dialogue box will open telling you how many words were marked correct.  In our example, it marked three words as correct since only three words occurred 400 or more times.

Next we click on the Yes button to close the dialogue box.

As you can see the words "the", "to" and  "and" have all been marked as correct because they appear more than 400 times in the text.

Next watch this short video showing how to approve the spelling of common words in live action:

 

 

2) Approve Spelling of Common Words Menu

Using the mouse, click on the menu that starts the process of marking common words as correct.

3) Enter in the number of appearances a word must have before it is marked as correct

Watch the video below again if you are having trouble answering the questions.

Approving the spelling of the top 150 Words from Jeff Shrum on Vimeo.

 

Click where you would enter the number of times a word must appear in the test before it is marked as correct.

4) Practice marking common words as being spelled correctly

Open the practice project PEh in ParaTExt. Open the Word List tool, then sort the entries by count.  Click on the image below that matches your result. Click on the magnifying glass icon to see more of the images, if needed.(Download the practice project PEh by clicking on the link: http://lingtran.net/tiki-download_file.php?fileId=985 . It will download as a backed up project.  You will need to "restore" PEh into your ParaTExt.  This is done from within in ParaTExt.  For information on how to restore a project, search in help for "how do I restore a ParaTExt backup".)

5) Practice using the "Approve Spelling of Common Words" tool to mark words as correct

Next with the Word List tool still open in PEh and the words sorted by count use the Approve Spelling of Common Words feature to mark all of the words appearing 200 times or more in the text as being spelled correctly.  Click on the screen capture that shows the word list sorted by count, and has the words with fewer than 200  appearances in the text that was marked as unknown. (Click on the magnifying glass icon to see more of each image as needed.)

Check the words that ParaTExt thinks are most likely incorrect

1) Spell checking using the "All Checks" feature of the Wordlist tool

Overview of Spell Checking with the  Wordlist Tool

The  Spell Check feature in the Word List tool analyzes the words in a text and finds unusual words for you.  Words that do not follow the patterns of the majority of the other words need to be looked at for spelling errors.  The Word List tool can also look at corrections that you have made in the past and use that information to find words that might have similar errors, such as transposed letters.

The Word List tool has the following "intelligent" spell checks available:

  • Missing Capitals
  • Single Character typos
  • Unusual Letter Combinations
  • Diacritic Errors
  • Common Typos
  • Unknown Morphology
  • All Checks

Watch the following video for an overview of spell checking with the  Wordlist tool, and the "All Checks" feature for spell checking.

Word List Spell Check-1 from Language Technology on Vimeo.

Note:  The “All Checks” mixes all the types of errors in one list.  If you know that you have a particular issue such as capitalization or diacritics (accents), you may want to only run that specific check so you can see the questionable words side by side in a list to help you see the problems better.  This course will go through the individual checks (minus the unknown morphology check.) in  greater detail later.
 

 

1b) Where are the spell checking tools in the Word List tool?

Using the mouse, click on the menu where the spell checking tools are located.

1c) The "All Checks" spell checking tool is usually the best to use because:

  • It will resolve spelling questions for you
  • It looks for words that are unusual in some way and are more likely to be misspelled.
  • It looks for words that have spellings similar to misspellings that you have already corrected and presents them to you for review.
  • Makes all the checks that it has information for in one step.
Click on all that apply.

1d)  Match the statements on the right about the spell check with those on the left.

  • When you have approved or corrected all the words found by "All Checks" and you want more words to check, you should:
    Click on the "More Items Available" link at the end of the list.
  • You might want to use one of the individual checks such as "Missing Capitals" or "Diacritic Errors" and not the "All Checks" when:
    You know that you have spelling problems of a specific type and you want to see only that type of error on the list.
  • You may want to stop using the Word List tool for spell checking and switch another method when:
    The spell check tool is only finding correctly spelled words that only need to be approved by you.

2) Spell checking using the "Missing Capitals" feature of the Word List tool

Missing Capitals  Spell Check

Using correct capitalization is an important part of correct spelling. The Word List tool can find words that are the same except for different capitalization.  It is likely that these words should be capitalized in a more consistent manor.  It is helpful to ask ParaTExt to find inconsistently capitalized words for you. This spell check is called Missing Capitals and is found under the tools menu in the Word List tool.

This tool examines all occurrences of a word in the text.  If 75% are capitalized, then the tool assumes that they all should be capitalized and adds it to the list to be reviewed. If all of the occurrences of the word are NOT capitalized, then the word will not be added to the list to be reviewed. This tool examines all occurrences of a word in the text. 

Watch the video below to see how the Missing Capital feature works:

word list Missing Capitals-3 from Language Technology on Vimeo.

 

 

2b) What are the steps to start the Missing Capitals spell check?

  • Tools→Word List→Tools→All Checks→Missing Capitals
  • Checking→Spell Check Current Book→Missing Capitals
  • Tools→Word List→Tools→Spell Check→Missing Capitals
Click on the choice that has all the steps in the correct order.  (Assume you are looking at an editable project, and that the Word List tool is not currently open.)

2c) How to approve the spelling of a word that can be either capitalized or not capitalized?

Click on the spot that will approve "woe" being spelled both with and without capitalization.

2d) How to approve the spelling of a word that must always be capitalized?

Click on the best spot that will tell ParaTExt that "psalm" must always be capitalized.

3) Spell checking using the "Single Character Typos" feature of the Word List tool

Single Character Typos Spell Check

The Word List tool can find words that are the same as a word with approved spelling except for one character that is different.  It is likely that some of these pairs of words are spelling errors caused by the typist pressing the wrong key.  It is helpful to ask ParaTExt to find these pairs of words for you, so you can verify their spelling. This spell check is called Single Character Typos and is found under the tools menu in the Word List tool. 

Since Paratext is doing a statistical analysis by comparing unknown words to words with approved spelling, this tool will find more possible errors as you approve the spelling of more words.

Watch the video below to see how this feature works:

 

Word List Single Character typos-2 from Language Technology on Vimeo.

 

3b) Single Character Typos spell check questions

1) Single character typo feature compares words to other words that are different by one letter AND  

2) The single character typo feature will likely find more errors, when you  

3c) Where to approve the spelling of a word that does not need to be corrected.

Click on the spot that would approve the spelling of "dinoodha".

3d Where to change the spelling of a word to a suggestion made by ParaTExt.

Click on the spot to change "murogo" to "mulogo".

4) Spell Checking using the "Unusual Letter Combination" feature of the Word List Tool

Unusual Letter Combination Spell Check

Letters occur in regular patterns in languages, and the patterns of letters in one language is different than those of another language.  ParaTExt can use this fact to help you find words that were typed incorrectly by finding words with rare and/or unusual combinations of letters.   It is likely that some of these words with unusual combinations of letters are misspelled and need to be verified.  The spell check for this is called Unusual Letter Combinations and is found under the tools menu in the Word List tool. 

This check will put words on the list to be reviewed for errors if a combination of letters only occurs in one word, and that one word occurs four or fewer times in the text. Unusual combinations of letters that occur in multiple words may be found by other checks such as the Common Typos check described later in the course.

Watch the video below to see how the Unusual Letter Combination feature works:

Word List Unusual Letter Combinations Spell Check from Language Technology on Vimeo.

 

4b) Unusual Letter Combination check questions

  • Unusual Letter Combination check will find rare letter combinations that occur in four or more different words.
  • When all the remaining words found by the check are actually correct and only need to be approved you should consider using the "Spell Check Current Book" or "Display Spelling" features for further spell checking.
  • Unusual Letter Combination check will not list words with unusual letter combinations that occur more than four times.
  • It is possible to manually correct the spelling of word when the correct spelling is not in the Suggestions pane of the Correct Spelling pop-up window.
Mark all of the true statements.

4c) Unusual Letter Combination tasks

Click on spots to 1) approve the spelling of "foxy", 2) mark the spelling of "mixop"as incorrect, and 3) ask ParaTExt to add more words to the list for checking.

5) Spell Checking using the "Diacritic Errors" feature of the Word List

Diacritic Errors  Spell Check

Many languages use accents or other diacritics.  For languages that use diacritics,  it is a useful check to compare all words that are written the same except for differences in diacritics (accents). By comparing these words, you may  find inconsistencies or other errors on how diacritics are being used. You can ask ParaTExt to do this comparison. This spell check is called Diacritic Errors and is found under the tools menu in the Word List tool. 

This check works by comparing an unknown word to an approved word that is different only by a diacritic.  When it finds such a word, it is added to the list of words to be reviewed.

Watch the video below to see how the Diacritic Errors feature works:

word list diacritic errors check-1 from Language Technology on Vimeo.

 

6) Spell Checking using the "Common Typos" feature of the Word List Tool

Common Typos  Spell Check

Paratext uses information about the mistakes that you have found and corrected in the past to discover words that are common typographical mistakes. For example, if you type "teh" instead of "the", then you notice it and correct it, Paratext can make a guess that other words like "tehm" might be a similar mistake and suggest that you might have meant to type "them".

Now what you have done is given ParaTExt the information that "th" is often typed incorrectly as "ht".  After you have corrected a good number of words you can ask ParaTExt to look for "common" errors for you using your corrections as patterns of what to look for.  This spell check is called Common Typos and is found under the tools menu in the Word List tool. 

Watch the video below to see how the Common Typos feature works:

word list Common Typos-1 from Language Technology on Vimeo.

 

Check similarly spelled words

1) Finding common spelling mistakes

The Word List tool can help you find common misspellings such as confusing "s" and "z", or "m" and "n" or whatever pairs of letters that are a problem in your target language.

In the Word List tool, click on the Tools menu, then click on Find Similar Words.

Enter the letters that sound or look alike that you want to compare in the Letters that sound alike box.  Note: Letters that look alike, but do not necessarily sound alike, such as "b" and "d", can be worth checking, because misspellings involving them can trick the human eye.

In this example we want to compare all the words in the project that are spelled the same except for the letters "m" and "n".  Notice that we separate the letters to be compared with a forward slash "/".

 

After you have entered the letters that sound alike, click OK to continue or Cancel to cancel.  After you click on OK, the Word list tool will open with of all the words that look alike except for "m" and "n".

 

The video below will demonstrate finding words that have "th" typed in wrong as "ht".

 

2) How to start a search for similar words

Click on the menu that will open the window where you can ask ParaTExt to find all words that may have confused the two similar letters "s", and "z".

3) Entering letters that are commonly confused

Click on the spot where you would enter similar or easily confused letters.

4) Starting the search for similar words.

Click on the button that will start the search for similar words with the letters "s" and "z".

5) Practice using the "Similar Words" tool to find words that may have been misspelled because they have easily confused letters in them.

Open the practice project PEh in ParaTExt. Open the Word List tool, then sort the words by count, then using the Find Similar Words feature of the Word List tool, make a list of words that may have confused "f" and "ph".  Click on the screen capture that matches your results, then click on  Submit.  You may click on the magnifying glass icon to see more of an image if needed.  PEh practice project

Spell Check Current Book

1) Spell checking can be done for whole books

After working with the Word List tool to approve the most common words, running All Checks in the Word List tool, and finding words with similar spellings, you can spell check the words in a book that you are currently working on.  The Spell Check Current Book feature is found under the Checking menu.

When you click on it, the Word List Tool will open but will be set to only show words from the book you were currently working on. The list will be sorted to only show incorrect or unknown words.  In this example we are spell checking Romans.

Next click on the word or the white space on the line of the word that you want to spell check. In this example we clicked on "amukala-kala".  Notice that it is highlighted in gold, and a bit of the context from Romans 16:26 is shown to help us see what the word means.

This word is spelled correctly, so we want to mark its spelling status as correct.  To do this, click on the green check mark.

It will then look like the example below.  Notice that it is now marked as being spelled correctly.

We are ready to spell check the next word in the list.  To begin checking "bapama" click on the white space on the line that has "bapama".  Do not click on the blue words, or the three spelling status buttons because they do other things.

After clicking on "bapama" or any white space on the same line, it will be highlighted in gold color, and any verses in the translation project that have the word "bapama" will be shown in the bottom of the pop-up window. There is a difference between this case and "amukala-kala". The Word List tool has added two words in blue "wapama" and "yapama" underneath "bapama".  ParaTExt has looked at all of the words in the translation project and thinks they may be related to each other, and that bapama might possibly be a misspelling.  Why might we think that "bapama" is spelled incorrectly?  Because there is only one occurrence of the word in the text, while "wapama" occurs 84 times and "yapama" occurs 33 times.  So the reasoning is that a word that only occurs once but  is very similar to other words that occur many many times, is likely to be a mistake.  But since it could still be spelled correctly, ParaTExt shows you such words, so you can tell ParaTExt if it is correct or not.

Note: The Word List might show 1 occurrence of a  word in a particular book, however, in the replacement process it will look in all  books in the project. You will see this in the concordance list of the correction window.

A speaker of the language has looked at the Romans 7:16 and has told us that "bapama" is spelled correctly in the context "Mulugu bapama", so we  click on the green check mark and approve this spelling.  The Word List tool window will then look like the example below:

The next word on the list is "dakopolo".  ParaTExt thinks that this word may be spelled incorrectly because there are 6 occurrences of a very similar word "akopolo".  A speaker of the language has told us that "dakopolo" is incorrect and that it should be "akopolo".  To make this change you click on the blue "akopolo" and ParaTExt will change "dakopolo" to "akopolo".  Also, ParaTExt will "remember" that you have taught it that "dakopolo" is an incorrect spelling and will mark "dakopolo" as incorrect if you ever type "dakopolo" in the future.

When you click on a blue word, that will begin the process of changing the incorrect spelling to the correct spelling.  ParaTExt will present you a window like the one below that shows the entire verse as it currently is, and how it would be if the change were actually made.  The purpose of this seemly extra step is to give you another chance to see the word in its context.  It is possible that once you see the word in the entire verse, you might see that the word actually is spelled correctly.  So after you see the word in context and still believe it to be spelled incorrectly, then you would click on Yes.  But if after seeing the word how it is being used in the verse and you decide that it is actually spelled correctly, then you would click on No to reject the change for that verse.

After you click on Yes, the change will be made in your text.  And the word "dakopolo" will be removed from the Word List tool because it no longer appears in your text. Note: If you click No for a particular occurence, it will still be marked disapproved in the Word List tool, but ParaTExt will not change the spelling.  So, if the word is spelled correctly in that context you should make sure that when you return to the word List you mark the word as "correct". Clicking Cancel will reject the change for any remaining words.

Next we will see what happens when you find a word in the word list that is incorrect and ParaTExt has not given you blue words to choose from.  A speaker of the language has told us that "edidelaga" is not spelled correctly, so we will click on the red "X" to mark its spelling status as incorrect.

The Spelling Correction window will open like the example below. The word "edidelaga" will be in the Correct Spelling box, and it will be on the list of suggestions that ParaTExt thinks might be the correct spelling.

Look at the list of suggestions and see if one of them is the correct spelling.  First we will look at what happens when the correct spelling is on the list, and then we will look at what happens when the correct spelling is not on the list.

We will look at the first case that the correct spelling is on the list of suggestions being made by ParaTExt.  A speaker of the target language has told us that "edidelaga" is incorrect because it is the pronunciation from a neighboring language.  The correct spelling is "mudidelaga".  So we click on "mudidelaga", and "mudidelaga" now appears in the Correct Spelling box as in the example below.

When the correct word is in the Correct Spelling box , click "OK".  The Replace window will open like before showing the entire verse where the word appears in the text. It shows you the verse both with the old word and with the new word to help you be sure that the change would be good in context. We are sure that we want to change "edidelaga" to "mudidelaga" so click "Yes".

Next, we will look at the second case where the correct spelling is not on the list of suggestions being made by ParaTExt.  A speaker of the target language has told us that "edidelaga" is incorrect because the orthography rules for the target language say that words never start with the letter "e", they must start with"ye".  That means that the correct spelling is "yedidelaga".  So we click in the Correct Spelling box and add the letter "y" to "edidelaga", and "yedidelaga" now appears in the Correct Spelling box as in the example below.

Next, review the change, then click on "Yes" to accept the change.

Continue to check words on the list until you reach the bottom.  When you reach the bottom click on "More items available", and ParaTExt will add more words to the list. You can continue clicking on "More items available" until all of the words in your text are marked as correct.

When you have marked all the words in the book as correct, the phrase "More items available" will not appear at the end of the list, because there are no more words in that book that ParaTExt does not know how to spell.

Finally, when you have either spell checked all the words in the current book, or you need to stop spell checking, click on the red "X" in the upper right hand corner to close the Word List tool.

 

 

Watch the video below to see Spell Check Current Book being used:

 

2) Where is the "Spell Check Current Book" menu option found?

Click on the main menu where you would find Spell Check Current Book menu option.

3) Where do you click to start spell checking the current book of the Bible?

Click on the menu to start spell checking the current book of the Bible.

4) Word List Tool shows the most questionable spelling in the current book

  • What book of the Bible is being spell checked in this image?
    Luke
  • How many times does "biili-biili" appear in Luke?
    Two
  • What word did ParaTExt find that is spelled very similar to yoreelihiwa?
    ooreelihiwa
  • "Dhing'onog'ono" is in what verse?
    17:35
  • What other words did ParaTExt find that are spelled very similar to "mulibe"?
    musibe and muliba
  • How many words did ParaTExt find that were spelled similar to "dhing'onog'ono"?
    One

5) Where do you click to mark a word as being spelled correctly?

Click on the spot to mark "mwaana-pongwe" as correct.

6) Where do you click to accept a spelling suggestion made by ParaTExt?

Click on the spot to change the spelling of "dhing'onog'ono" to the suggestion made by ParaTExt

7) Where do you click to mark a word as being spelled incorrectly?

Click on the spot to mark "emuthwe" as incorrect.

8) Selecting a correct spelling from list of suggestions

Click on the spot to select "emuthu" as the correct spelling of "emuthwe".

9) Where do you click to accept a new spelling?

Click on the button that tells ParaTExt to accept your selection of a new spelling.

10) Where do you click to tell ParaTExt to make a spelling change in a specific verse?

Click on the button to tell ParaTExt to change the spelling of "emuthwe" in Luke 1:59.

11) Practice spell checking Romans in PEh project

Start ParaTExt, then open the practice project PEh.  Navigate ParaTExt to Romans chapter one, verse 1. Now tell ParaTExt to check the spelling of the words in Romans only. When the Word List tool opens look at the list of unknown and incorrect words that ParaTExt finds. The  first five words on list are
 .  (Fill in the blanks with the first five words on the list.  Please put them in the order they appear in ParaTExt.)

12) Practice -- Approve the spelling of "everyday" and "seeking".

In the practice project, mark the spelling of "everyday" and "seeking' as correct.  Click on the image that looks most like your results.

13) Practice --Correcting the spelling of "exapmle"

Change the spelling of "exapmle" to "example".  How many words did ParaTExt change to "example"?

14) Practice --Correcting the spelling of "snake's"

Change the spelling of "snake's" to "snakes".  How many words did ParaTExt change to "snakes"?

Spell checking from the Edit window

1) The tool most often used for ongoing spell checking is the Display Spelling {Status} feature of ParaTExt

Once you have used the Word List tool to approve common words, check words with similar spellings, and checked one or more whole books, then  turn on the Display Spelling feature to have ParaTExt underline words with incorrect or unknown spelling status.  It works similarly to other word processor programs that you may have used, and will look like the example below.

You will notice that some words are underlined in grey and others are underlined in red.  The difference is that the red ones are words that have already been marked as incorrect in another verse, or that don't match the patterns of the approved words making ParaTExt suspect that they are spelled incorrectly.  On the other hand, the words underlined in grey are words that are marked as unknown and that ParaTExt does not have enough information to make a guess whether it is incorrect or suspicious.

Note:  If you use Display Spelling to check spelling before using the Word List tool to approve common words and verify words with similar spellings, then you will not see any words underlined in grey, because you have not taught ParaTExt anything at all about correct spelling in the target language.

Watch the video below to see the Display Spelling {Status} feature of ParaTExt:

Display Spelling Status 1 from Jeff Shrum on Vimeo.

 

2) Where do you click to activate the Display Spelling feature in the Edit window?

Click on the spot that  activates the Display Spelling feature.

3) How well do you know what the spell checker does?

Watch the video again, if you are having trouble answering the questions.

 

[COMMENT PCL] The last statement is kind of strange. Once you mark a word "incorrect" then it is incorrect. You can say no to a particular context, but the wordlist will continue to say that word is incorrect until you mark it as correct. What you are actually saying is that the word is a correct word, but not spelled correctly in this context - this is a very complex process.

  • To spell check an underlined word, you must left click on the word.
  • The Spell checker can learn if a word should be capitalized all the time.
  • When the spell checker thinks that a word is very unlike other correctly spelled words and is therefore more likely to be spelled incorrectly, it is underlined in grey.
  • When you right click on an underlined word, the spell checker suggest similarly spelled words to help you spell better.
  • When the spell checker thinks that a word is very similar to correctly spelled words and is therefore more likely to be spelled correctly, it is underlined in red.
  • The spell checker allows you to approve a spelling change in some contexts, and to deny the change in other contexts.
Answer the questions below about the workings of the spell checker with "true" or "false".

4) Practice--Activate Display Spelling in the project PEh or in your own project and spell check 8 words, approving or correcting as needed. Spell check 2 capitalized words, one of which is a proper name and the other a sentence initial word.

Where you able to spell check eight lower case words? .

Where you able to spell check a proper name? .

Where you able to spell check a capitalized word that was not a proper name?  .