Research Module

Research Module 1

Research Module 1

RESEARCH MODULES No.1

1. --------------- in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge

  • Research
  • Literature review
  • Theory

2. A literature review alone is not -------------------.

  • Research
  • Literature review
  • Theory

3. Research characteristics are controlled and rigorous

  • Controlled
  • rigorous
  • Both

4. The purpose of ----------------- is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures.

  • Research
  • Literature review
  • Theory

5. --------------------- may be defined as a systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among observed phenomena.

  • Scientific research
  • Literature review
  • Theory

6. -------------------- indicates that a theory must be stated in a way that it can be disproven.

  • Falsifiability
  • Analysis
  • Research method

7. Goals of scientific research are to --------------------------------------.

  • Describe
  • predict, and understand or explain
  • All

8. --------------------------- helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects.

  • Exploratory research
  • Descriptive research
  • Explanatory research

9. Advantages of --------------------- are flexibility and adaptability to change

  • Exploratory research
  • Descriptive research
  • Explanatory research

10. ----------------------- is directed at making careful observations and detailed documentation of a phenomenon of interest.

  • Exploratory research
  • Descriptive research
  • Explanatory research

11. --------------------- seeks explanations of observed phenomena, problems, or behaviours.

  • Exploratory research
  • Descriptive research
  • Explanatory research

12. Research ---------------- are plans and the procedures for research that span the steps from broad assumptions to detailed methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation.

  • approaches
  • methods
  • techniques

13. ------------------- research is concerned with qualitative phenomenon, i.e., phenomena relating to or involving quality or kind.

  • Qualitative
  • Quantitative
  • Mixed methods

14. “ Understanding different perspectives, such as those of professionals and patients” is an example of --------------------- research

  • Qualitative
  • Quantitative
  • Mixed methods

15. -------------------------- Research is applied when information is in the form of quantitative

  • Qualitative
  • Quantitative
  • Mixed methods

16. Survey that concludes that the average patient has to wait two hours in the waiting room of a certain doctor before being selected” is an example of example of -------------------- research.

  • Qualitative
  • Quantitative
  • Mixed methods

17. ---------------------- research is an approach to inquiry involving collecting both quantitative and qualitative data, integrating the two forms of data, and using distinct designs that may involve philosophical assumptions and theoretical frameworks.

  • Qualitative
  • Quantitative
  • Mixed methods

18. “ When one methodology does not provide all the information required” is an example of example of ------------------------- research

  • Qualitative
  • Quantitative
  • Mixed methods

19.A research --------------is simply a technique for collecting data, analysis, and interpretation that researchers propose for their studies.

  • approaches
  • method
  • techniques

20. Research ------------- is the strategy, plan of action, process or design lying behind the choice and use of particular methods and linking the choice and use of methods to the desired outcomes.

  • Methodology
  • methods
  • techniques

21. The focus of --------------research is to generate information that can be applied directly to a real-world problem.

  • Applied
  • Descriptive
  • Analytical

22. --------------- research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exists at present.

  • Applied
  • Descriptive
  • Analytical

23.---------------research, Analytic studies may be defined as studies used to test hypotheses concerning the relationship between a suspected risk factor and an outcome and to measure the magnitude of the association and its statistical significance.

  • Applied
  • Descriptive
  • Analytical

24. The -------------------- approach is an evidence-based approach that relies on direct observation and experimentation in the acquisition of new knowledge, in the empirical approach.

  • Empirical
  • Exploratory
  • Confirmatory

25. ----------------- research is the stage of the research process that aims at connecting ideas as to unveil the “why”s of potential cause/effect relationships.

  • Empirical
  • Exploratory
  • Confirmatory

25. ----------------- research is the stage of the research process that aims at connecting ideas as to unveil the “why”s of potential cause/effect relationships.

  • Empirical
  • Exploratory
  • Confirmatory

26. ----------------------- research is particularly useful in new product development.

  • Empirical
  • Exploratory
  • Confirmatory

27. -------------------research is where researchers have a pretty good idea of what's going on.

  • Empirical
  • Exploratory
  • Confirmatory

28. ----------------------- is the process of drawing conclusions about a phenomenon or behaviour based on theoretical or logical reasons and an initial set of premises.

  • Induction
  • Deduction
  • Confirmatory

29. ---------------------- is the process of drawing conclusions based on facts or observed evidence.

  • Induction
  • Exploratory
  • Deduction

30. Feasibility and Relevance are criteria for selecting a research topic

  • topic
  • analysis
  • method

31. Hypothesis should be

  • clear
  • precise
  • both

Research Module 2

Research Process

RESEARCH PROCESS No. 2

1. --------------------- is defined as conformance to the standards of conduct of a given profession or group.

  • Research
  • Ethics
  • Methods

2. ------------------------------- means that scientists should be allowed to pursue new ideas and criticize old ones.

  • Proposal
  • Ethics
  • Intellectual Freedom

3. --------------- implies that the researcher or readers of the final research report or paper cannot identify a given response with a specific respondent.

  • Anonymity
  • Standard
  • Intellectual Freedom

4. Research ----------------- submitted to Institutional Review Boards shall contain accurate information.

  • Anonymity
  • proposal
  • Intellectual Freedom

5. Examples of research fraud are

  • Data fabrication
  • Falsification
  • Both

6. A ------------- design provides a quantitative or numeric description of trends, attitudes, or opinions of a population by studying a sample of that population.

  • Experimental
  • Scientific research
  • Survey

7. In survey research, investigators often choose a sample size based on selecting a fraction of the population (say, ------------ ),

  • 10 %
  • 35%
  • 25%

8. ------------- means that if non respondents had responded, their responses would have substantially changed the overall results.

  • Bias
  • Falsification
  • Standard deviation

9. ---------------------- analysis of data should indicate the means, standard deviations, and range of scores for these variables.

  • Descriptive
  • Analytical
  • Focus groups

10. ------------------ researchers typically gather multiple forms of data, such as interviews, observations, documents, and audiovisual information rather than rely on a single data source.

  • Experimental
  • Qualitative
  • Quantitative

11. The characteristics of a good sample design as under:

  • Sample design must result in a truly representative sample.
  • Sample design must be such which results in a small sampling error.
  • Both

12. A -------------- design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population.

  • Experiment
  • Sample
  • Research

13. Sample design must be such so that systematic ------------ can be controlled in a better way.

  • Bias
  • Mean
  • Standard deviation

14. The -------------------------- are those which are collected afresh and for the first time, and thus happen to be original in character.

  • Secondary
  • Primary
  • Population

15. The ----------------------- data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process.

  • Secondary
  • Primary
  • Sample

16. Under the ------------------- method, the information is sought by way of investigator’s own direct observation without asking from the respondent.

  • Focus groups
  • Observation
  • Survey

17. A ---------------------- is a research instrument consisting of a set of questions (items) intended to capture responses from respondents in a standardized manner.

  • Focus groups
  • Observation
  • Questionnaire

18. ------------ response,where respondents are asked to select one of 2possible choices,such as T/F, yes/no,or agree/disagree.An example of such question is: Do you think that the death penalty is justified under some circumstances (circle one): yes /no

  • Nominal
  • Dichotomous
  • Ordinal

19. ------------------- response, where respondents are presented with more than two unordered options.

  • Nominal
  • Dichotomous
  • Ordinal

20 . “ What is your industry of employment: manufacturing / consumer services / education / healthcare / tourism & hospitality” is an example of --------------- response.

  • Nominal
  • Dichotomous
  • Ordinal

21. ----------------------- response, where respondents have more than two ordered options.

  • Nominal
  • Dichotomous
  • Ordinal

22. Example of ------------ response is “What is your highest level of education: high school / college degree / graduate studies?”

  • Nominal
  • Dichotomous
  • Ordinal

23. The ----------------------- method of collecting data involves presentation of oral-verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral-verbal responses.

  • Focus groups
  • Interview
  • Questionnaire

24. The ------------------------- involve the use of a set of predetermined questions and of highly standardized techniques of recording.

  • Structured interview
  • Unstructured interview
  • Questionnaire

25. -------------------- is the value of the middle item of series when it is arranged in ascending or descending order of magnitude.

  • Median
  • Mode
  • Average

26. The ----------------------- is concerned with broad underlying feelings or motivations or with the course of individual’s life experience.

  • Structured interview
  • Unstructured interview
  • Clinical interview

27. In ---------------------- methods, the researcher starts with data and tries to derive a theory about the phenomenon of interest from the observed data.

  • interpretive
  • Survey
  • Clinical interview

28. ---------------------, also called case study, is a method of intensively studying a phenomenon over time within its natural setting in one or a few sites.

  • Case research
  • Survey
  • interpretive

29. First, the -------------- method is particularly appropriate for exploratory studies.

  • Case research
  • Survey
  • Clinical interview

30. ------------------ of data is a process of examining the collected raw data (especially in surveys) to detect errors and omissions and to correct these when possible.

  • Coding
  • Classification
  • Editing

31. --------------------- is the process of summarizing raw data and displaying the same in compact form (i.e., in the form of statistical tables) for further analysis

  • Tabulation
  • Classification
  • Editing

32. All interpretive research must adhere to a common set of principles:

  • Naturalistic inquiry
  • Dependability
  • Both

32. ---------------------- refers to the process of assigning numerals or other symbols to answers so that responses can be put into a limited number of categories or classes. Such classes should be appropriate to the research problem under consideration.

  • Coding
  • Classification
  • Average

33. --------------------: Most research studies result in a large volume of raw data which must be reduced into homogeneous groups if we are to get meaningful relationships.

  • Coding
  • Classification
  • Average

34. Given the following data: 1 3 5 7 9 The sample average equals

  • 5
  • 6
  • 9

35. Given the following data: 1 3 5 7 9 The sample median is

  • 4
  • 5
  • 9

36. Given the following data: 1 3 5 7 9 The sample variance equals

  • 40
  • 9
  • 10

37. Given the following data: 1 3 5 7 9 The range is

  • 2
  • 9
  • 40

Research Module 3

Research Documentation

MODULE III-RESEARCH DOCUMENTATION

1. A -------------- abstract provides, in addition to describing main findings and information, a judgment or comment about the study’s validity, reliability, or completeness.

  • critical
  • Informative
  • Descriptive

2. ----------------------- abstracts are usually very short, 100 words or less.

  • Critical
  • Informative
  • Descriptive

3. A -------------- abstract is specifically written to attract the reader’s attention to the study.

  • Highlight
  • Informative
  • Descriptive

4.The abstract SHOULD NOT contain:

  • Lengthy background information
  • References to other literature
  • Using elliptical [i.e., ending with "..."] or incomplete sentences.
  • All

5. The ------------- leads the reader from a general subject area to a particular field of research.

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Research problem

6. The -------------------- establishes the means by which you must answer the "So What?" question.

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Research problem

7. “Discuss what the benefit will be of addressing the research problem might be to the population of your study, the academic community” reflects the -----------------------

  • Importance of the Research
  • Objective of the research
  • Research problem

8. ---------------- are designed to provide an overview of sources you have explored while researching a particular topic and to demonstrate to your readers how your research fits within a larger field of study.

  • Importance of the Research
  • Objectives of the research
  • Literature reviews

9. A ------------- review does not always focus on what someone said (findings), but how they came about saying what they say (method of analysis).

  • Integrative
  • Argumentative
  • Methodological

10. The purpose of a literature review is to:

  • Describe the relationship of each work to the others under consideration.
  • Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies.
  • Both

11. -------------------------- examines literature selectively in order to support or refute an argument, deeply imbedded assumption, or philosophical problem already established in the literature.

  • Integrative Review
  • Argumentative Review
  • Methodological Review

12. “What are the author's credentials? Are the author's arguments supported by evidence (e.g. primary historical material, case studies, narratives, statistics, and recent scientific findings)? Is the definition of ----------------

  • Provenance
  • Persuasiveness
  • Value

13. Common Mistakes to Avoid:

  • Does not describe the search procedures that were used in identifying the literature to review.
  • Reports isolated statistical results rather than synthesizing them in chi-squared or meta-analytic methods.
  • Both

14. The -------------------- section of a research paper answers two main questions: How was the data collected or generated? And, how was it analyzed?

  • Introduction
  • Literature review
  • Methodology

15. ------- methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques.

  • Quantitative
  • Qualitative
  • Methodology

16. Mixed methods research is particularly suited:

  • When one wants to validate or corroborate the results obtained from other methods.
  • When one wants to generalize findings from qualitative research.
  • Both

17. The recommended length for a title is no more than ------------- words.

  • 12
  • 15
  • 6

18. Which title is considered appropriate from the following:

  • An Experimental Study of the Effect of Delay of Reinforcement on Discrimination Learning in White Rats
  • The Effect of Reinforcement on Learning
  • Effect of Delay of Reinforcement on Discrimination Learning in Rats

19. In most cases, the length of the abstract will be between --------------- words.

  • 150 and 200
  • 150 and 250
  • 200 to 400

20.The primary function of the introduction is to describe the problem studied and the basic research strategy.

  • Why the issue is studied important? Saying simply that it is interesting because of a long-standing personal interest is not enough?
  • How do the hypotheses relate to the research design?
  • Both

21. The introduction should include the following information:

  • A brief review of the research findings and theories related to the topic
  • A statement of the problem to be addressed by the research (identifying an area in which knowledge is incomplete.
  • A description of any predictions about the outcome and of the hypotheses used to generate those predictions
  • All

22. The literature review can be arranged in ---------------------

  • Chronological
  • Different approaches/theories/models
  • General/Specific
  • All

23. The -------------- section describes in detail the characteristics of the subjects, materials, and apparatus used, research design, as well as the procedures followed.

  • Abstract
  • Method
  • Results

24. Reasons for writing a results section include ----------------

  • Some of the results may be more interesting or significant than others, and it is difficult to communicate this in a table or graph.
  • It is essential to relate the results to the aim(s) of the research.
  • Both

25. What are the main points to consider in the conclusion section?

  • A Conclusion is not the same as a summary.
  • Make clear the implications of the findings for the research questions.
  • Suggest some ways in which the findings have implications for theories relating to an area of interest.
  • All

26.In appendices the researcher might want to include:

  • Questionnaire, coding frame, or observation schedule,
  • Letters sent to sample members, and letters sent to and received from gatekeepers where the cooperation of an
  • organization was required.
  • All