Legal / Regulatory Areas
TW = are defined as the belt of water that extends, at most nautical miles (NM) from the shore. These waters are considered to be territory of the state
EEZ = extend from the outer border of the territorial waters, to a maximum distance of NM. Coastal nations have control of all the resources inside its EEZ
Ports and Port Waiting Areas
- A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land.
- The port waiting area is only used by vessels after finishing cargo operations at port.
- Vessels pay a fee to the port while anchored in the waiting area.
- In shallow water, vessels lower their anchor and become stationary, except for wind and current that allow movement around the anchor.
- Liquefied Natural Gas tankers must keep moving to support the vessel’s mobility systems.
- Service Vessels in the Port Waiting Area display much back and forth movement as their typical behavior in the PWA.
- A vessel can take on fuel by sailing alongside of a moving or anchored bunkering oil tanker. Service vessels, such as tugboats can assist in keeping the vessels side-by-side when they are unanchored.
Typical Vessel Movements in Waterways
Waterways refers here to straits that usually connect the highseas to EEZs or to other parts of the high seas.
The responsible government sets the regulationsfor operations through and around the waterway.
If more than one government has authority over the straits, the vessel will contact all those to get passage approval,and time of passage, if there is a queue.
Ship-to-Ship; True or False?
- Transshipment of cargo between merchant vessels is an alternative for in-port operations.
- It’s usually cheaper and saves time compared to in-port operations.
- Some vessels are too big to enter specific ports, so smaller vessels engage with them in order to eventually transfer the cargo to the port.
- Bunkering is an illegal activity related to fueling ongoing vessels in sea.