Learning tool instructions
The Starting Screen:
At the learning tool starting screen, use the "start" buttons on the right hand side to select the appropriate section of this course that you wish to study. In this course there are 4 sections to choose from: "Section 0: Tool Instructions, References and Declarations", "Section 1: Anatomy of the Nasal Cavity", "Section 2: Anatomy of the Paranasal Sinuses" and "Section 3: Functional Anatomy of the Paranasal Sinuses".
(1) Progression through each section is monitored, and from the starting screen the overall progress can be seen. Each question section that is correctly answered will contribute to this score and will only reach 100% once all questions in that section have been correctly answered.
(2) Once you have selected a section to study you will be brought to the first slide of that section. Using the home button labelled in the image below will return you to the starting screen if you wish to visit a new section.
(3) On the top right hand conrner (and at the bottom of the page) the current slide you are on is displayed. Using the arrows on either side you can move to other slides and skip the content that you wish to bypass.
(4) The information displayed in the white box is the learning notes for this tool. These can vary between information slides (such as the example in the box), images and questions. Bolded words are key terms or concepts that are worth paying attention to and memorizing - they are likely to appear in test sections.
(5) Once you reach the end of a content slide, click the "next" button to proceed to the following content slide without having to scroll back towards the arrows at the top (3). You can also use the arrows at the bottom right hand corner to move to the next content slide (3).
Below is a question slide, of which there are several utilized in this learning tool.
(6) These are "Option selection" questions which require you to fill the blanks with prearranged answers. Clicking on the arrow to the right will reveal a blue menu from which you can pick an appropriate answer. Clicking an answer will collapse the menu and confirm your selection for that question.
(7) Once all questions in a question slide have been answered, click on the "submit" button in order to have your answers checked.
Remember: The arrows in the bottom right hand corner (3) can be used to ignore question slides if necessary. You can also return to the previous learning notes to revise if the test is proving difficult.
(8) This is a "Fill the blank" question. When you see a blank space with a keyboard icon in the left side then you will be prompted to type an answer into the box in order to answer the question. These questions only require 1-2 words to complete the pre-constructed sentence.
(9) This is a "multiple choice" question. From the answers displayed below, clicking on the box to the left will confirm that selection by displaying a tick. Select all the answers that appear to answer the question correctly. Selected answers can be unselected by clicking a second time.
(10) This is a "true or false" question. Similar to the example above in (9), selecting the appropriate empty circle will change the selection to display a blue ring. Clicking on the other empty circle will change your selection should you need to change an answer. The light blue box around the statement will change to a darker blue once an answer has been selected. You will be unable to submit your answers until all statements have been labelled true or false.
(11) These are "drag and drop" questions. On the right hand side will be a selection of statements within a dark blue puzzle piece. Clicking and dragging these statements will allow you to move them into the "drop here" box - where they will stick to the original statement in the pale boxes on the left. Join together the puzzle pieces which complete the original statements displayed on the left hand side.
The final question type is the open answer question (see the image below). These are extended questions which require you to type a short answer into the provided box (highlighted in red). These questions can be submitted but will not be marked by the learning tool. These questions are present to aid in consolidation of the information provided through discussion of a topic from the learning section. One open answer question concludes each section of this tool.
These are all the questions available in this learning tool.
Submitting Answers and Feedback:
(12) Once a question section has been completed and you have selected the "Submit" button (7), if you have made an error you will be presented with the screen below. Click "try again" if you wish to reset the question (Note: Clicking "try again" will erase all the answers you submitted and cannot be undone). However, if you wish to move onto the next content section click "Next".
(13) If you answer all the questions correctly in a question, you will be presented with this screen. Clicking "next" will take you to the next content section and your progress will be recorded on that starting screen of this learning tool (1).
(14) Finally, once you have reached the end of an entire section you will be presented with the "home" button. Clicking this will return you to the starting screen and you will be able to select the next section you wish to start.
This tool was designed with interaction in mind and as such contains extensive question elements. After each explanatory section, you will be challenged to a short question on that topic.
Towards the end of a learning section, you will be given a summary slide. This summary slide contains all the most relevant points from the content slide and prepares you for the short quiz at the end. These quizzes only contain 3-4 questions and conclude with an open question.
This concludes the instructions for this learning tool. Good luck!
At the end of this learning tool you are expected to be able to:
- Define and describe the anatomy of the nasal cavity.
- Define and describe the anatomy of the paranasal sinuses.
- Understand and describe the functions of the paranasal sinuses.
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Fraederich M, Aboelhasan MF, Knips J, Heiland M, Friedrich RE. Nasal Speech Associated with Hyperaeration of the Sphenoid Sinus. 2015. 29(2): 281-287.
Haight JS, Djupesland PG, Qjan W, Chatkin JM, Furlott H, Irish J, Witterick I, McClean P, Fenton RS, Hoffstein V, Zamel N. Does Nasal Nitric Oxide come from the Sinuses? Journal of Otolaryngology. 1999. 28(4): 197-204.
Jones N. The Nose and Paranasal Sinuses Physiology and Anatomy. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 2001. 51(1-3): 5-19.
Keir J. Why do we have Paranasal Sinuses? Journal of Laryngology and Otology. 2009. 123(1): 4-8.
Kellman RM, Schmidt C. The Paranasal Sinuses as a Protective Crumple Zone for the Orbit. Laryngoscope. 2009. 119(9): 1682-1690.
Levine H, Clemente MP. Sinus Surgery: Endoscopic and Microscopic Approaches. 2005. New York: Thieme.
Lundberg JO. Nitric Oxide and the Paranasal Sinuses. Anatomical Record. 2008. 291(11): 1479-1484.
Manson PN, Hoopes JE, Su CT. Structural Pillars of the Facial Skeleton: An Approach to the Management of Le Fort Fractures. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1980. 66(1): 54-62.
Mitchell AWM, Vogl AW, Drake R. Gray’s Anatomy for Students. 2nd Edition. 2009. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.
Schaeffer JP. The Nose, the Paranasal Sinuses, Nasolachrymal Passageways and Olfactory Organ in Man. 1920. Philadelphia: Blakiston.
Standring S. Gray’s Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. 40th Edition. 2008. Edinburgh: Churchhill Livingstone.
Ungor C, Saridogan C, Yilmaz M, Tosun E, Senel FC, Icten O. An Acoustical Analysis of the Effects of Maxillary Sinus Augmentation on Voice Quality. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology. 2013. 115(2): 175-184.
Zinreich SJ. Functional Anatomy and Computed Tomography Imaging of the Paranasal Sinuses. American Journal of the Medical Sciences. 1998. 316(1): 2-12.
All images in this learning tool were hand drawn and edited by the author.
All content sections and questions were written and created by the author.