SECA Academy Coach Training

SECA Academy is delighted to present this coaching resource to one of our greatest assets — our coaches.  This serves to train, encourage, assist, as well as lay out expectations for professional practice for all coaches that represent SECAA.  Using a pedagogic approach based on a sport science foundation, this course contains tips and information that are useful to both the beginner and experienced youth coach.

SECA Academy 最宝贵的财富之一,我们很高兴向我们的教练们呈现这些教学资源。本手册旨在培训、鼓励、协助所有代表TA的教练,阐述我们对于教练专业素养的期望。本手册介绍的教学法以运动科学知识为基础,对初学者和有经验的年轻教练均适用。

SECAA General Coaching Strategies 综合教练策略

SECAA Coaches

Coaching is a privilege, and with that privilege, comes great responsibility.  As a coach, you are entrusted with ensuring the safety and learning of the children participating in SECAA programs. This is challenging, but it is also extremely rewarding.  Many great players can trace their success to the coaching that they received at an early age. We hope that you, as coaches, will one day look back with pride at the opportunities you created for learning and enjoyment.

教练享有特权,但与特权对应的是重大的责任。作为一名教练,你受委托确保所有参与协和俱乐部课程的孩子们的安全与学习。这极具挑战,却也收获良多。很多伟大运动员的成功都可以追溯到其早期接受的训练。我们期待当教练们有一天回首过往,可以自豪于自己曾为孩子们创造了学习和享受的机会。

 

SECAA Coaches’ Code of Conduct 协和俱乐部教练行为准则

  • Positive, helpful, and supportive attitude  积极的、乐于助人的、支持的态度
  • Cooperate and offer assistance where needed  团结合作且在需要之时提供帮助
  • Respectful of everyone  尊重每一个人
  • Adopting and demonstrating the moral code to treat others as we would like to be treated  己所不欲,勿施于人
  • Emphasize fun, participation, and team work  强调有趣、参与和团队合作
  • Knowledgeable, accepting, and supportive of all rules and policies  博学,接受和支持所有的规则与政策

SECAA Coaches’ Code of Conduct 协和俱乐部教练行为准则

  • Recognizing the individuality of each child and that youth may vary greatly in physical, social, and emotional maturation  承认每个孩子的个性差异,以及青少年在身体、社交和情感成熟方面的巨大差别
  • Helping each participant recognize his/her worth as an individual and a team member  帮助每位参与者认识到自己作为个体和团队成员的价值
  • Conducting practices at reasonable length and intensity appropriate for the age and conditioning of the players  指导符合参与者年龄和状况的练习,练习时长和强度要合理
  • Placing the emotional and physical well being of players ahead of all else  将参与者的情感和身体健康放在首位
  • Protecting students from physical and emotional abuse  保护学生免受身体和情感虐待
  • Maintaining awareness of potentially unsafe conditions - Safety First!  对潜在不安全状况的保持警惕——安全第一!
  • Promoting and expecting good sportsmanship and fair play  促进和期待良好的体育精神和公平竞赛

SECAA Coaches’ Code of Conduct 协和俱乐部教练行为准则

  • Discouraging illegal contact or intentional dangerous play and administering swift and equitable discipline to players involved  劝阻学生的危险行为和接触,严正纪律
  • Being alcohol and drug free at all team activities or in the presence of players  所有教练不得喝酒、吸毒
  • Refraining from use of tobacco at all team activities or in the presence of players and encouraging parents to do the same  所有教练不得吸烟。同时,鼓励家长也不吸烟
  • Properly maintain uniforms, equipment and recreation facilities  妥善维护制服、设备和娱乐设施

Professionalism专业水准

Coaches bear a great responsibility for maintaining quality programs.  That includes being a role model and mentor and requires maintaining a professional standard of dress, communication, and attitude at all times.   教练肩负着维持课程品质的重任。这包括成为一名榜样和导师,需要一直保持着装、交流及态度的专业标准。

  • Be on-time 准时
  • Be respectful to others and never lose your temper 尊重他人,不发脾气
  • Have a positive attitude (don’t complain) 态度积极(不抱怨)
  • Communicate using professional language 运用专业术语交流
  • Dress neatly and in appropriate, approved clothing 穿着整洁得体,经许可的着装
  • Seek out opportunities to improve in your own professional practice (read, train, talk with others, etc.) 寻求提升自身专业实践能力的机会(阅读、培训、与他人交谈等)
  • Ask for assistance when needed 需要时寻求帮助

Communication交流

Coaches are always in communication with those around them. 教练总是与他们周围的人交流。

  • Players: giving instructions, resolving conflicts, motivating students  运动员:给予指导、解决冲突、激励学生
  • Parents: providing feedback  家长:给予反馈
  • Other coaches and teachers: cooperation  其他教练和老师:合作

Only those that strive to constantly make an effort to become better communicators will succeed in coaching and in life. The keys to becoming an effective communicator are being able to communicate openly, positively, and clearly.  It requires you to be honest and sensitive to the needs of others.  It also relies on you listening, in a non-judgmental fashion, to what others have to say.   只有那些不断努力成为更好沟通者的人才会在训练和生活中获得成功。成为有效沟通者的关键是能够公开、积极和清楚地交流。需要诚实和敏感地对待他人的需求。同时也需要依赖于倾听,以客观的方式对待他人的话。

  • Be approachable and use a warm and welcoming tone平易近人,使用热情友善的语气
  • Speak clearly (don’t mumble) 表达清晰明了(不要含糊不清)
  • Make eye contact 使用眼神交流
  • Stand up straight and use appropriate facial expressions (Don’t slouch and forget to smile) 笔直站立并且使用合适的面部表情(不要无精打采,保持微笑)
  • Be an active listener: not only do you hear what the person is saying, but you try to understand the entirety of the message and respond appropriately  做一个积极的聆听者:不仅需要听别人说什么,而且要试着理解整条信息并给予适当反应
  • Don’t use inappropriate, aggressive or hostile language (i.e. profanity and name calling) 不要使用不恰当的、攻击性的和敌意的语言(例如:给学生取绰号)
  • Respond to written communications in a polite and timely manner  以礼貌和及时的方式回应书面交流

Parents: 家长:

Parental involvement in a child’s sport should be appreciated and encouraged. However, while both parents and coaches have the best interest of the players in mind, there is always a possibility of confrontation or misunderstanding. It is important to know how to handle these professionally.  我们应当鼓励家长参与孩子们的运动。虽然家长和教练都很重视学员的最大利益,但是两者总会存在冲突和误解的可能性。因此,了解如何专业地处理这些问题非常重要。

  • Communicate your coaching philosophy and objectives to parents early on to avoid misunderstandings.  在课程初期与家长沟通训练理念和目标以避免误解。
  • Always listen to parent’s ideas and feelings and thank them for their input.  始终倾听家长的想法和感受,并感谢他们的付出。
  • Handle confrontations one-on-one – not in a crowd situation.  一对一地处理问题。
  • Don’t be defensive and never argue with parents. Try to keep things positive!  不要辩护,不跟家长争辩。保持态度正面积极!
  • Never discuss individual players with other parents.  不要与其他家长讨论个别学员。
  • Ask parents not to criticize their children during practice or game time. You’re the coach!要求家长在练习和比赛期间不要批评他们的孩子。你是教练!
  • Ask parents to be respectful towards officials and other coaches.  要求父母尊重工作人员和其他教练。

Players:运动员:

Communicating positively, especially with young students, is extremely important. It involves being approachable and maintaining a fair and unintimidating attitude. We must remember why most kids participate in sports – to have fun and be with their friends. Everything else is secondary. When corrections are made (and there will be many), it should be done in a very non-threatening manner.  积极沟通,尤其是跟年轻学生积极沟通是极其重要的。其包括能够平易近人且保持一个公平、友好的态度。我们必须记住为什么大多数孩子参加体育活动——为了获得乐趣,能够和朋友一起。其他的事情都是次要的。纠正学生的不良行为时(常会出现这种情况),应该以一种非常融洽和谐的方式去完成。

While positivity is important, coaches also need to get their message across. Communicating clearly involves getting to your point in a simple, precise manner. It is a good idea to speak a little louder than normal (outside voice) to get the attention of wandering ears. In order to keep everyone focused when you are talking, be sure to make eye contact with each person.  尽管积极性是重要的,但是教练依旧需要传达他们的信息。清晰的沟通包括用简单准确的方式表达自己的观点。讲话比正常情况下(户外的声音)稍微大声一些来获得关注是个不错的主意。确保与每个人进行眼神交流,使每个人都能得到关注。

What Makes A Good Coach? 是什么成就一名优秀的教练?

Characteristics of a Good Coach 优秀教练的特点

What makes a good coach? 一名优秀的教练是怎样的?

A good coach is… 一名优秀的教练是……

  • A teacher, a friend and a role model for children, parents and other coaches.  是学生、家长和其他教练的老师,朋友和榜样。                                                  
  • Organized, prepared, flexible and resourceful enough to meet goals.

有组织的、有准备的、灵活的、有符合目标的足够资源。                                          

  • Fair and sensitive to the needs of others – a teacher, not a drill sergeant.

对他人需要公平和敏感——一位教师,而非一名教官。

  • Patient and enjoys helping others learn and grow, not just in sport, but also as a whole person.

耐心,并且喜欢帮助别人学习和成长,不但在运动中,也要在培养人全方位发展的过程中。

  • A clear and positive communicator, who actively encourages others, but is not intimidating.

一个清晰和积极的沟通者,积极鼓励他人,而非恐吓。


 

Characteristics of a Good Coach 优秀教练的特点

A good coach is… 一名优秀的教练是……

  • A listener, who encourages questions and provides opportunities for feedback in every lesson.  一位倾听者,在每一节课中都鼓励问题并提供反馈的机会。
  • An effective planner, capable of designing and executing age-appropriate lessons.  一个有效的规划者,能够设计并执行适龄的课程。
  • A confident leader who is able to effectively manage children and create for them a safe environment in which they are engaged and have fun.  一位自信的领导者,能够有效地管理孩子并为他们创造参与和享受快乐的安全环境。
  • A learner, who seeks out opportunities for professional growth.  一名学习者,寻找专业发展机会。

What are your responsibilities as a coach? 作为一名教练, 你的职责是什么?

SELF!

It starts with your – SELF!
从你自己(SELF)开始!

Safety 安全

Engagement 参与

Learning 学习

Fun 乐趣

Safety 安全

 

  • Plan Effectively 有效地制定计划
  • Define class procedures, rules, and consequences 定义课堂流程,规则和结果
    • Set, establish, and follow through with discipline routines from the first lesson(从第一节课起制定、建立并贯彻遵循日常的纪律规定)
    • Actively monitor students (积极地监控学生)
  • Establish your authority and maintain control of your lessons 建立你的威信并保持你对课堂的掌控力

Engagement 参与

 

  • Plan carefully and involve students in each lesson 仔细地计划你的课程,使学生能参与到每一节课中
  • Students should move smoothly from one activity to another and spend little time waiting 个活动的转接应该十分顺利,等待的时间不能过长
    • Equipment is organized to facilitate smooth transitions 合理摆放器材,使活动的转换能够顺利进行
    • Limit lines and unproductive behaviors 限制排队等候的时间和无用的行为
  • Plan age-appropriate activities that kids enjoy 计划符合孩子年龄的活动,使孩子们能享受其中

 

How can you BEST ensure that all students are engaged in the lesson? 如何能最好地确保所有学生参与到课堂中去?

  • Require students to set up and arrange equipment before the lesson 要求学生在课前摆放整理器材
  • Let each student decide what he/she wants to do 让每个学生决定她/他想做什么
  • Maintain strict order and discipline 保持严格的指令和纪律
  • Plan fun, age-appropriate, activities 计划一些有趣的、适合学生年龄的活动
  • All of the above 以上所有

Learning 学习

 

  • Set objectives and learning targets before each lesson 在每节课前制定学习目标
  • Use effective instructional techniques 使用有效的教学技术
  • Give all students your attention and monitor their progress to ensure what is being taught is being learned 关注所有学生并监控他们的进步,确保他们能学到你所教授的东西

Fun 乐趣

 

  • We want lessons to be fun for students 我们希望课程对孩子们来说是充满乐趣的
  • Plan games and activities that students enjoy 设计那些使孩子们能获得乐趣的游戏和活动
  • Ensure all students are engaged (waiting in line is not fun) 确保所有学生都参与其中(站着等一点也不有趣)

 

How can you make lessons fun and engaging? 怎样使你的课堂既有趣又吸引学生参与?

  • Plan and prepare the lesson in advance 提前计划、备课
  • Minimize waiting in line 将排队等候时间减至最少
  • Include age-appropriate games and activities 加入符合学生年龄的游戏和活动
  • Have equipment ready to use 准备好器材,确保可以使用
  • All of the above 以上所有

The Role of the Coach 教练角色

As a coach representing SECA Academy, you will be called on to do the following: 作为协和俱乐部的一名教练,你需要做到如下方面:

Provide a safe physical environment 提供一个安全的环境

It is the responsibility of the coach to ensure the safety of all participants确保所有参与者的安全

Communicate in a positive way  积极地交流

Coaches are required to communicate with students, but also at times with parents and other coaches.  Communicate positively and in a way that demonstrates that you have the best interests of the students at heart.  教练需要与学生、家长和其他教练交流。以积极的方式交流,表明你将学生的最大利益放在心上。

 

What should Tom do? Tom应该怎么做?

Tom is coaching a group of sixteen first and second graders golf.  Tom is struggling during this lesson to maintain order because his coaching partner Steve is standing off to the side and not doing anything.  Every time that Tom attempts to give a student some individual attention, the other students begin to misbehave.  This is a potentially dangerous situation because the students have golf clubs.  Steve doesn’t seem to notice this though.

Tom正在教一个16人的高尔夫班,这个班都是由一、二年级的学生组成的。课堂上为了保持秩序Tom费尽精力,因为他的搭档Steve正在旁边什么都不做。每当Tom想要给一个学生单独的关注指导时,其他的学生就表现不好。这很可能引发危险因为学生都拿着高尔夫杆。但是Steve好像根本没有注意到这些。

 

The Role of the Coach 教练角色

Teach the fundamental skills and rules of your sport 教授基本的运动技能和规则

Create a fun and productive environment where children learn.  Use a games approach to teaching and practicing the skills your students need to know – an approach they will enjoy.  为学生营造一个在玩中学的学习环境。使用游戏教学法(以学生们喜欢的方式)来教授和练习学生需要知道的技能。

Instill a value in fitness for a lifetime  培养终身运动的观念

Teach healthy habits that will last a lifetime.  Make it fun to be fit and to participate in sport so that students will want to continue with it and stay fit for a lifetime. Perhaps even encourage the involvement of parents in the sport.  健康的习惯会持续一生。将运动设计地有趣且吸引学生参与,这样,学生会愿意继续参与运动并终身保持良好的运动习惯。或许甚至能够鼓励家长参与运动当中。

The Role of the Coach 教练角色

Develop character  培养品德

Teach life skills and mental strength that go beyond sport-specific skills, including concentration, trust, being honest and respectful, caring about others, and taking responsibility. Teach, and model, these intangible values at all times.  Stress the importance of encouraging others, competing within the rules, and showing respect. Remember: Success is measured by growth, not wins.

教授超越运动具体技能的能力和精神力量,包括注意力、信任、诚实、尊重、关爱他人和承担责任。教授和示范,这些无形的价值无时不在。强调鼓励他人、比赛规则和尊重的重要性。记住:成功不是赢得比赛获得的,而是经由成长来衡量的。

What should Shannon do? Shannon应该怎么做?

Shannon is coaching a group of 10 third through fifth graders soccer.  The students are of varying ability levels and this has caused four of the students to get angry and discouraged because they are not as good as the other players.   Two of the four students stop participating and instead chose to just sit on the sidelines.  

Shannon正在教一个10人的足球班,这个班是由三到五年级的学生组成的。这个班的学生程度水平差别较大,这导致班上四个踢得没有其他学生好的孩子觉得很生气、很沮丧。其中的两个甚至选择坐在场边,不参加课程。

 

What goes into an effective lesson? 一节有效的课是怎样的?

Preparation & Planning 备课&计划

In order to be successful in coaching, planning and preparation are key.  Meaningful lessons and learning experiences occur when thought goes into them ahead of time.  A few tips:  计划和准备是成就优秀教练的关键。若想要使课程变得有意义,则需要教练在教课之前提前准备。

  • Have learning Targets for every lesson 制定每节课的学习目标
    • Learning targets are statements of intended learning that are crafted to guide the teaching and learning process and to engage, support and hold students accountable for their learning.  学习目标是对期望达到的学习结果的描述,它旨在引导教与学的过程,使学生参与课堂,为学生的学习提供支持,使学生为自己的学习负责。
    • Ex.  At the end of this lesson, students will be able to…  举例:在本节课结束的时候,学生能够……
  • Plan lessons that are age-appropriate, fun, and engaging 将课程设计成符合学生年龄特点的,有趣的,吸引学生参与的
    • When students are engaged, learning and student behavior are improved.  To engage students, plan lessons that are appropriate for their ages and ability levels (see LTAD).  Make these lessons fun for them by including games and activities that get all students involved in the fun.  当学生参与到课堂中时,学生的行为和学习结果会得到改善。所以,在设计教案的时候,要设计适合学生年龄特点和能力水平的活动(参见LTAD),同时,要设计一些游戏和活动使课程更加丰富有趣,吸引所有学生参与。
  • Structure your lessons to allow for appropriate segments of warm-up, skills demonstration/practice, drills/games, games and closure.  合理规划课程安排,将之分为以下几个部分:热身,技巧演示/练习,操练/游戏,游戏,结束。
  • Have all equipment ready before the start of the lesson 在上课前准备好所有器材
    • Be prepared before every lesson begins by having your space set up and all equipment ready.  When you are not prepared, it can have an immediate adverse affect on learning and the quality of the lesson.  在每节课开课前准备好场地和器材。若在开课前未做好准备工作,则会不利于学生的学习,影响课程的质量。

True or False 正误判断题

  • Games are NOT an effective way of teaching my sport to kids. 正确/错误:游戏不是教小孩子运动的有效方法。

Which of these is NOT part of an effective lesson? 以下哪点不属于一堂有效的课?

  • Warm-up 热身
  • Skill lesson 技巧讲解
  • Games 游戏
  • Closure 结束
  • Free time 自由活动

True or False 正误判断题

  • “At the end of the lesson, students will understand and be able to demonstrate the proper form used to throw a baseball.” This is an example of a learning target. 正确/错误:“在本节课结束的时候,学生能理解并示范正确投球的方法。”这是学习目标的一个例子。

What are some examples of specific learning targets that you would have for your lessons? 请举例你所教课程的具体的教学目标。

Effective Instruction 有效的教学

Coaching requires simple, basic instructions followed by demonstrations and practice. Ensure the attention of all participants before speaking and check for understanding of the instruction before proceeding.  教学指令必须简单基础,同时配以示范和练习。在讲话前必须确保所有学生注意力集中,在继续下一步教学前检查学生是否理解教学的内容。

When giving explanations, they should be:当给学生作讲解时,必须符合以下几点:

  • Given enthusiastically 富有激情地讲解
  • Short and action-oriented, ex. “Step toward the target, keep your eye on the target, shift your weight from the rear to the front.” 教学指令简短,以动作为导向,比如“向目标跨前一步,保持眼睛看着目标,身体重心从后往前移”
  • Clear and concise, directing attention to important cues with added emphasis 简明扼要,重点突出,反复强调
  • Integrating elements of a particular movement or technique so learners can focus on the skill as a whole, ex. “Step, Rotate, Release” (throwing) 将动作或技巧的各要素整合使学生能将之作为一个整体来关注,比如“跨步,旋转,放手(投球)”
  • Followed by demonstrations (as opposed to just verbal explanations): 配以演示示范(而不只是口头讲解)
  1. Repeat demonstrations 反复数次
  2. Do them from several angles 从多个角度示范
  3. Make sure they are clearly seen by all 力求所有学生能看清动作
  4. Technically correct (if possible)(尽可能)技术准确
  5. Repeated by a few volunteers to check for understanding                                                                      要求几名学生做示范检验学生是否理解

 

 

Which of these is NOT a good example of a verbal instruction for young kids? 对于年龄较小的孩子的言语教学,以下哪句不是好例子?

  • Keep your eye on the target 眼睛看着目标
  • Shift your weight from the rear to the front 身体重量从后转向前
  • Point your non-throwing elbow at the target 不投球的那个手手肘指向目标
  • Your back foot should be perpendicular to the target and your hips should be closed and also pointing in the direction of the target when you are throwing 你的后脚与目标垂直,夹紧你的臀部并在你投球时指向目标所在的方向
  • Step toward the target 朝目标跨一步

True or False 正误判断题

  • It is better to use demonstrations than only relying on verbal instructions. 正确/错误:示范教学比单纯依靠口头讲述教学更好。

Effective Management 有效的管理

The most important aspects to effective management are structure, communication and consequences. Lessons need to be organized with goals, rules and procedures firmly established. These need to be communicated effectively and enforced consistently. When difficult situations arrive – and they will – stay calm and maintain control. As an assertive communicator you do not yell, but are forceful and direct. Where there’s no discipline, there’s no learning.  有效管理的最重要组成部分是课程结构、交流沟通和行为后果。必须为课程制定明确的目标、规则和流程,并通过有效的沟通和坚定的执行确保这些的实现。当出现问题时,保持冷静,沉着应对。作为一名有效的沟通者,你不能大喊大叫,语气必须直接有力。没有规矩,不成方圆。

When dealing with difficult children: 处理问题学生时

• Have private discussions to avoid embarrassment for the child or reinforcing the negative attention the child may be seeking. In this discussion, lay out corrective feedback: Be clear and specific about what behavior they are to stop and what behavior they are to start.

与学生私下讨论,避免使学生觉得尴尬或者强化他希望得到的消极关注。与学生讨论时,给予他纠正性的反馈:清晰具体地告诉他,他应当停止哪些行为,开始哪些行为。

• Direct behavior by giving a difficult child a task. Have the child demonstrate, lead a group or choose an activity.

给问题学生布置任务。比如要求学生做示范,带领一个小组或者选择一个活动。

• To show you care, ask about the child’s day, family or how they feel. But be aware that overt attention may cause jealousy.

向学生表现你的关心,问学生他今天过得怎样,和他聊聊他的家庭或者他的心情。但是要注意,过于明显的关注会引起其他学生的嫉妒。

• If behavior doesn’t improve, have consequences.

Ex. Make students sit out during an activity (time-out)

如果学生的不良行为得不到改善,就取消他的奖励。比如:在其他学生做游戏或活动的时候让该学生站在一边。

What could David have done differently? What can he do before his next lesson to improve things? David原本可以怎样做使结果不像现在这般糟糕?在下节课之前他可以做些什么来改善他的课程?

David is coaching a class of 15 first and second graders basketball.  While David is giving instructions a number of the students continue to talk amongst themselves and are not paying attention.  Despite this, David pushes through with his lesson and has the students line up one-by-one to do a shooting drill.  Four students in the back of the line push and hit each other during this drill and David yells at them to stop.  The students stop for a little while, but are soon pushing and hitting each other again.  David tries to move on to his next activity but most of the students seem disinterested.  This disinterest leads some students to start an impromptu game of tag and they chase each other around the court.  David yells for them to stop, but the students have already stopped listening.  David looks at his watch; he cannot wait for this lesson to end.  He has lost control and he lets the kids play their own games for the rest of the lesson. 

 

David正在教一个15人的篮球班,这个班全部由一、二年级的学生组成。当David在给学生讲解示范的时候,一些学生仍在与同伴说话,没有认真听讲。尽管如此,David还是继续上课,他要求学生排好队一个一个地做投球练习。练习的时候,四个站在队尾的学生互相推搡打闹,David冲他们大喊让他们停止打闹。但是只停了一会儿,学生又开始推搡打闹。David想要进入下一个活动,但是大部分学生看上去都不感兴趣。这导致一些学生开始自顾自玩起了游戏,绕着场地追打嬉戏。David冲他们大声喊叫让他们停下来,但是学生们已经不听他说的了。David看看了他的手表,他不能等到这节课结束。他已经失去了对这个班的控制,所以他只好让学生在接下来的时间里玩他们自己的游戏。

 

 

Handling Misbehaving Students 处理不正当举止的学生

In-Class 课中

  • Verbal Warning  (STOP the negative behavior)  口头警告(停止负面行为)
  • Time Out  (Removal of privileges for a short time, rejoin when you are ready to behave)  暂停(在短时间内取消特权,当准备好之后重新加入)
  • Extended Time Out (Removal of privileges for an extended period of time, rejoin when the coach decides)  延长暂停时间(延长取消特权的时间,当教练决定好的时候重新加入)

* Designate one part of the area that you are using as the Time Out Space.  Students should understand that when they go to this area that this is a consequence of their misbehavior.  The Time Out Space should be away from distractions and coaches’ should have a clear line of site on the student(s) at all times.  指定某一区域为暂停区。学生应该明白当他们去到这个区域的时候,意味着是他们举止不正当的结果。暂停区应该远离干扰,教练应该始终对学生位置保持明确的界限。

After Class 课后

  • Speak with the student privately about their behavior and what needs to change in the future  与学生私下讨论他们的行为以及将来需要改变的地方。
  • For serious issues, speak with the child’s teacher or TA.  遇到严重问题,告知学生老师或TA人员。

PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT 有效管理行为

1. Develop rules and consequences  设计规则和结果

a. Establish rules, consequences, and enforce these consistently    建立规则、结果,以及一贯地执行

2. Establish efficient routines   建立有效常规

a. Stopping and starting  停止和开始

b. Retrieving/returning equipment  恢复/归还设备

c. Grouping分组

d. Lining up 排队

e. Notes, injuries, etc.  记录,受伤等

3. Shape acceptable behavior   塑造可接受的行为

a. Deliver specific positive feedback  给予具体积极的反馈

b. Use names  使用名字

c. Provide reinforcement  强化

4. Set clear, high expectations   设定明确的高期望

a. Believe that students will meet your expectations  相信学生会达成预期

b. Shape behavior to meet your high expectations  塑造行为来达成高期望

5. Be attentive 留意

a. Scan before starting and stopping activities  在开始和停止活动之前要仔细检查

b. Scan during directions  在讲解中要仔细查看

6. Be active 积极主动

a. Model enthusiasm for activities  塑造活动热情

b. Move randomly, but purposefully, stopping in different areas to observe  随机移动,但故意停在不同区域进行观察

d. Keep eyes on students at all times  始终关注学生

7. Plan effective lessons   计划有效课程

a. Deliver concise directions  提供简明讲解

b. Develop efficient transitions  开发高效转换

c. Get students moving (particularly at the beginning of lessons)  让学生动起来(尤其是在课程开始时)

d.  Engage all students in the lessons  让所有学生参与课程

8. Reflect 反思

a. What did I do? 我做了什么?

b. Did it work?  它起作用吗?

c. Could I have been more effective? 我可以更有效吗?


 

What do you do when students misbehave? 当学生行为不当时你会怎么做?

True or False 正误判断题

  • Only those students who are misbehaving need attention and feedback. 正确/错误:只有那些行为不端的学生需要我的关注和反馈。

Positive Feedback 积极的反馈

During the lesson provide meaningful feedback to students.   在课程中不断给予学生有意义的,而不是泛泛而谈的反馈.

• Be positive and non-threatening  积极、融洽和谐

• Speak with a loud and clear voice  大声清楚地讲话

• Make eye contact at all times  保持眼神交流

• Use non-verbal communication  使用非语言沟通方式

  • High 5’s   击掌
  • Thumbs Up   竖大拇指
  • Clapping   鼓掌

• Provide each player with genuine and deserved praise.  给予每个学员真诚及其应得的赞扬。

• Give praise openly and point out good examples. Refrain from using students as negative examples.  公开赞美,以好的榜样举例,避免将学生作为负面教材。

• Use the child’s name whenever possible.  尽量使用孩子的名字。

• Use humor where appropriate. But never make fun of a student!  适当使用幽默。但是不要取笑任何一个学生!

• Establish a culture of encouragement so players bring out the best in each other.  营造一种鼓励的文化氛围,在此学员能够给予彼此最好的学习体验。

• Emphasize fun and fairness.  强调乐趣和公平。

• Make them all feel a part of the team 让他们所有人感觉他们是队伍的一部分

Which is NOT a good example of meaningful feedback? 以下哪句不是有意义的反馈的好例子?

  • “That was a great effort.” “做的很好。”
  • “Nice footwork, but remember to bend your knees more.” “腿部运动很好,但记住膝盖再弯曲一些。”
  • “Good swing.” “击打地很好。”
  • “That was a terrible throw.” “那个投球实在太糟糕 了。”
  • “Next time, remember to keep your elbow in.” “下次,记得保持你的手肘朝内。”

Closure 结束

Closure结束

Close the lesson by allowing students to demonstrate their understanding of what they have learned at the end of each lesson.  This can be done through demonstrations, Q and A and/or other creative means.  Closure is an important part of the coach’s daily assessment, not just of the progress of his students, but also the effectiveness of his lesson.

在每节课结束时复习检查,确认学生是否掌握本节课的教学内容。复习可以采用提问、示范或者其他独创的形式。结束是教练每日评估的重要组成部分,它不仅反映学生的进步情况,还反映课程的有效性。

True or False 正误判断题

  • Closure is an important part of the lesson in order to check for student learning and understanding. 正确/错误:结束是一节课的重要部分,它是为了检查学生的学习和理解情况。

What are some ways that you can check that what you are teaching is being learned? How will you do this? 你怎样检查学生学习掌握了你所教授的内容?你会怎么做?

Organizational Expectations


When we observe lessons we will be looking
for you to demonstrate:
这样,当我们进行课堂观察时,我们将看到你展示:

  • Effective planning/preparation 有效的计划/准备
  • Effective instructional techniques 有效的教学技巧
  • Effective management techniques 有效的管理技巧
  • Understanding of positive feedback 对积极反馈的理解
  • Understanding of closure 对结束部分的理解

Helpful Points 几点帮助

· Management is a skill: practice, practice, practice.  管理是一项技能:实践,实践,实践。

· Whistle or “Freeze” to stop the class. Make the signal a consistent one.  吹口哨或“冻结”下课。使信号保持一致。

· Voice command to start class. Make sure all students are listening before giving directions.  使用语音命令开始上课。确保所有学生在给予讲解之前都在听讲。

· Have students moving before giving detailed instructions. They will listen better when they are a bit tired.  在给予详细讲解之前让学生动起来。在有点累时听讲效果更好。

· When before what: “When I say go, I want you to….”  明确何时做何事:“当我说‘去’的时候,我想要你做……”

· Move during transitions. Give students something to do other than standing or talking.  在转换中保持移动。让学生做些事情而非一直站着或说话。

· Give only necessary instructions and try to begin the activity as soon as possible.  给予一些讲解,并且尽快开始活动。

· Basic reminders for grouping students:  在学生分组中的基本提醒:

         o Grouping takes practice. 分组练习

         o Don’t’ look for a friend but the closest person. 不能找朋友,找离自己最近的人

· Get toe to toe with person nearest you for partners:  跟离你最近的人近距离合作:

         o Students without a partner move to center of teaching area.  没有伙伴的人到教学区域中央

         o To split class in half, one partner sits and the other remains standing; move the standing student to desired location first.  将班级一分为二,一方坐着,一方站着,站着的学生先移动到预期位置。

Helpful Points 几点帮助

· Use lines, circles etc. for quick formations. Teach automatic equal spacing.  使用直线、圆等来快速形成队形,教会学生自动保持间隔相等。

· Stay on the outside or perimeter when delivering instructions. Don’t have your back to students.  当提供讲解时站在外面或周边,不要背对学生。

· Always pause and scan the class after stopping them.  在让学生停止之后要有停顿并且仔细查看班级学生。

· Keep directions brief, concise, and to the point.  保持讲解简明扼要。

· Point out quality behavior in order to get rid of inappropriate behavior.  为了消除不得体行为,要提出优质行为。

· Move throughout the area so students can’t purposely stay away from you.  在整个区域内移动,这样学生就不能故意远离你。

· Use first names. Ask them their name in order to learn their name.  使用名字。为了认识他们的名字要进行询问。

· Compliment first, correct second.  称赞第一,告诫第二。

· If you need to talk for more than a minute then have the students sit down.  如果你需要和学生交谈超过1分钟,请让学生坐下。

· Consistently enforce your expectations and the rules by using your consequence system.  通过结果系统来贯彻执行你的预期和规则。

· Use these options to correct behavior: 通过这些选项来纠正行为:

         o Compliment someone doing it right. 赞扬某人的做法是正确的

         o Warning/Timeout 使用 警告/暂停

Going forward, what are you going to do (and be specific) in your lessons to be a better coach? 展望未来,你会在你的课堂上怎么做(具体阐述)使自己成为一名更好的教练?