Human Rights Training

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Human Rights

Human Rights are rights you have because you are HUMAN.

Human rights are UNIVERSAL - they apply everywhere.

Human rights are EGALITARIAN - they apply to everyone.

What are human rights?

What are human rights?

You have human rights simply because you are 

Human rights are universal - they apply  

Human rights are egalitarian - they apply

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)

  • The UDHR was drawn up by the United Nations following the Second World War. 
  • It has formed the backbone of the international human rights system. 
  • Every country in the world is bound by the general principles expressed within the 30 articles of the document. 
  • UDHR is not a treaty, therefore not legally binding. 
  • However, human rights have come to be regarded as Customary International Law or are included in binding human rights treaties.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

  • Human rights protect individuals 
  • They create obligations for governments, in that way they can be seen as laws for governments. 
  • Human rights are designed to ensure that every human being, whatever their gender or gender identity, nationality, ethnic identity, or religious orientation; however rich or poor, young or old, abled or disabled; whatever their beliefs; however qualified or skilled they are – that all these human beings should be treated with respect for their humanity and dignity.

Human Rights

  • Human rights are designed to ensure protection of the environment
  • Human rights are designed to ensure that all human beings should be treated with respect for their humanity and dignity

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The learning objective of this section is to get a knowledge of all the articles in Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In the following section you get three options. Choose the option that best describes the article in UDHR.

UDHR Article 1

  • We can all ask for the law to help us when we are not treated fairly
  • We all have the right to go where we want in our own country and to travel as we wish.
  • We are all born free. We all have our own thoughts and ideas. We should all be treated in the same way.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 1:

  • All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

UDHR Article 2

  • These rights belong to everybody, whatever our differences.
  • Everyone has the right to own things or share them. Nobody should take our things from us without a good reason.
  • We all have the right to believe in what we want to believe, to have a religion, or to change it if we want.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 2:

  • Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

UDHR Article 3

  • Nobody has any right to make us a slave. We cannot make anyone our slave.
  • Nobody has the right to put us in prison without a good reason and keep us there, or to send us away from our country.
  • We all have the right to life, and to live in freedom and safety.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 3:

  • Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

UDHR Article 4

  • Nobody has any right to make us a slave. We cannot make anyone our slave.
  • Education is a right. Primary school should be free. We should learn about the United Nations and how to get on with others. Our parents can choose what we learn.
  • Every grown-up has the right to do a job, to a fair wage for their work, and to join a trade union.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 4:

  • No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

UDHR Article 5

  • We are all born free. We all have our own thoughts and ideas. We should all be treated in the same way.
  • Nobody has any right to hurt us or to torture us.
  • Nobody can take away these rights and freedoms from us.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 5:

  • No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

UDHR Article 6

  • We all have the right to belong to a country.
  • Nobody has any right to make us a slave. We cannot make anyone our slave.
  • We all have the same right to use the law.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 6:

  • Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

UDHR Article 7

  • We are all protected by the law. The law is the same for everyone. It must treat us all fairly.
  • Nobody has any right to hurt us or to torture us.
  • We have a duty to other people, and we should protect their rights and freedoms.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 7:

  • All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.

UDHR Article 8

  • If we are frightened of being badly treated in our own country, we all have the right to run away to another country to be safe.
  • Every grown-up has the right to marry and have a family if they want to. Men and women have the same rights when they are married, and when they are separated.
  • Fair treatment by fair courts. We can all ask for the law to help us when we are not treated fairly.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 8:

  • Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

UDHR Article 9

  • We are all born free. We all have our own thoughts and ideas. We should all be treated in the same way.
  • No unfair detainment. Nobody has the right to put us in prison without a good reason and keep us there, or to send us away from our country.
  • Fair treatment by fair courts. We can all ask for the law to help us when we are not treated fairly.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 9:

  • No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

UDHR Article 10

  • If we are put on trial this should be in public. The people who try us should not let anyone tell them what to do.
  • Nobody has any right to make us a slave. We cannot make anyone our slave.
  • Nobody should try to harm our good name. Nobody has the right to come into our home, open our letters or bother us or our family without a good reason.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 10:

  • Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

UDHR Article 11

  • Nobody should be blamed for doing something until it is proven. When people say we did a bad thing we have the right to show it is not true.
  • Nobody should try to harm our good name. Nobody has the right to come into our home, open our letters or bother us or our family without a good reason.
  • There must be proper order so we can all enjoy rights and freedoms in our own country and all over the world.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 11:

  • Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
  • No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

UDHR Article 12

  • Everyone has the right to own things or share them. Nobody should take our things from us without a good reason.
  • Nobody should try to harm our good name. Nobody has the right to come into our home, open our letters or bother us or our family without a good reason.
  • We all have the right to meet our friends and to work together in peace to defend our rights. Nobody can make us join a group if we don’t want to.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 12:

  • No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

UDHR Article 13

  • We all have the right to go where we want in our own country and to travel as we wish.
  • The law is the same for everyone. It must treat us all fairly.
  • We all have the right to affordable housing, medicine, education, and child care, enough money to live on and medical help if we are ill or old.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 13:

  • Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each State.
  • Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.

UDHR Article 14

  • If we are frightened of being badly treated in our own country, we all have the right to run away to another country to be safe.
  • We all have the right to go where we want in our own country and to travel as we wish.
  • There must be proper order so we can all enjoy rights and freedoms in our own country and all over the world.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 14:

  • Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
  • This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

UDHR Article 15

  • We all have the right to believe in what we want to believe, to have a religion, or to change it if we want.
  • We all have the right to belong to a country.
  • We all have the right to take part in the government of our country. Every grown-up should be allowed to choose their own leaders.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 15:

  • Everyone has the right to a nationality. 
  • No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

UDHR Article 16

  • Copyright is a special law that protects one’s own artistic creations and writings; others cannot make copies without permission. We all have the right to our own way of life and to enjoy the good things that “art,” science and learning bring.
  • We are all born free. We all have our own thoughts and ideas. We should all be treated in the same way.
  • Every grown-up has the right to marry and have a family if they want to. Men and women have the same rights when they are married, and when they are separated.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 16:

  • Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
  • Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
  • The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

UDHR Article 17

  • We all have the right to take part in the government of our country. Every grown-up should be allowed to choose their own leaders.
  • We all have the right to a good life. Mothers and children, people who are old, unemployed or disabled, and all people have the right to be cared for.
  • Everyone has the right to own things or share them. Nobody should take our things from us without a good reason.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 17:

  • Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
  • No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

UDHR Article 18

  • We all have the right to believe in what we want to believe, to have a religion, or to change it if we want.
  • We all have the right to make up our own minds, to think what we like, to say what we think, and to share our ideas with other people.
  • We all have the right to rest from work and to relax.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 18:

  • Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

UDHR Article 19

  • We all have the right to believe in what we want to believe, to have a religion, or to change it if we want.
  • We all have the right to make up our own minds, to think what we like, to say what we think, and to share our ideas with other people.
  • Nobody should be blamed for doing something until it is proven. When people say we did a bad thing we have the right to show it is not true.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 19:

  • Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

UDHR Article 20

  • Every grown-up has the right to do a job, to a fair wage for their work, and to join a trade union.
  • We all have the right to meet our friends and to work together in peace to defend our rights. Nobody can make us join a group if we don’t want to.
  • We all have the right to a good life. Mothers and children, people who are old, unemployed or disabled, and all people have the right to be cared for.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 20:

  • Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
  • No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

UDHR Article 21

  • Nobody has any right to make us a slave. We cannot make anyone our slave.
  • We all have the right to take part in the government of our country. Every grown-up should be allowed to choose their own leaders.
  • If we are put on trial this should be in public. The people who try us should not let anyone tell them what to do.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 21:

  • Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
  • Everyone has the right to equal access to public service in his country.
  • The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

UDHR Article 22

  • We all have the right to a good life. Mothers and children, people who are old, unemployed or disabled, and all people have the right to be cared for.
  • Education is a right. Primary school should be free. We should learn about the United Nations and how to get on with others. Our parents can choose what we learn.
  • We all have the right to affordable housing, medicine, education, and child care, enough money to live on and medical help if we are ill or old.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 22:

  • Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

UDHR Article 23

  • Every grown-up has the right to do a job, to a fair wage for their work, and to join a trade union.
  • Every grown-up has the right to marry and have a family if they want to. Men and women have the same rights when they are married, and when they are separated.
  • Nobody should be blamed for doing something until it is proven. When people say we did a bad thing we have the right to show it is not true.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 23:

  • Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
  • Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
  • Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
  • Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

UDHR Article 24

  • We have a duty to other people, and we should protect their rights and freedoms.
  • We all have the right to take part in the government of our country. Every grown-up should be allowed to choose their own leaders.
  • We all have the right to rest from work and to relax.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 24:

  • Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

UDHR Article 25

  • We all have the right to a good life. Mothers and children, people who are old, unemployed or disabled, and all people have the right to be cared for.
  • We all have the right to meet our friends and to work together in peace to defend our rights. Nobody can make us join a group if we don’t want to.
  • We all have the right to take part in the government of our country. Every grown-up should be allowed to choose their own leaders.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 25:

  • Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
  • Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

UDHR Article 26

  • We all have the right to believe in what we want to believe, to have a religion, or to change it if we want.
  • Education is a right. Primary school should be free. We should learn about the United Nations and how to get on with others. Our parents can choose what we learn.
  • We all have the right to make up our own minds, to think what we like, to say what we think, and to share our ideas with other people.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 26:

  • Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
  • Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
  • Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

UDHR Article 27

  • Copyright is a special law that protects one’s own artistic creations and writings; others cannot make copies without permission. We all have the right to our own way of life and to enjoy the good things that “art,” science and learning bring.
  • Everyone has the right to own things or share them. Nobody should take our things from us without a good reason.
  • We are all born free. We all have our own thoughts and ideas. We should all be treated in the same way.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 27:

  • Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
  • Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.

UDHR Article 28

  • There must be proper order so we can all enjoy rights and freedoms in our own country and all over the world.
  • We have a duty to other people, and we should protect their rights and freedoms.
  • We all have the right to take part in the government of our country. Every grown-up should be allowed to choose their own leaders.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 28:

  • Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.

UDHR Article 29

  • Every grown-up has the right to do a job, to a fair wage for their work, and to join a trade union.
  • We have a duty to other people, and we should protect their rights and freedoms.
  • We all have the right to meet our friends and to work together in peace to defend our rights. Nobody can make us join a group if we don’t want to.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 29:

  • Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
  • In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
  • These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

UDHR Article 30

  • Nobody can take away these rights and freedoms from us.
  • We are all born free. We all have our own thoughts and ideas. We should all be treated in the same way.
  • These rights belong to everybody, whatever our differences.

Which one of the three following statements best correspond with UDHR Article 30:

  • Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

 

International Humanitarian Law

International Humanitarian Law

International humanitarian law is a set of rules which seek, for humanitarian reasons, to limit the effects of armed conflict. It protects persons who are not or are no longer participating in the hostilities and restricts the means and methods of warfare. International humanitarian law is also known as the law of war or the law of armed conflict.

The legal status of private security personnel

The status of the personnel of PMSCs in an armed conflict is determined by international humanitarian law, on a case-by-case basis, in particular according to the nature and circumstances of the functions in which they are involved.

Unless they are incorporated in the armed forces of a State or have combat functions for an organized armed group belonging to a party to the conflict, the staff of PMSCs are civilians. Accordingly:

  • they may not be targeted;
  • they are protected against attack unless and for such time as they take a direct part in hostilities.

If, however, the staff of PMSCs carry out acts that amount to taking a direct part in hostilities:

  • they lose protection from attack during such participation;
  • if captured they can be tried for merely participating in hostilities, even if they have not committed any violations of international humanitarian law.

Guarding military bases against attacks from the opposing party, gathering tactical military intelligence and operating weapons systems in a combat operation are examples of direct participation in hostilities in which PMSC personnel may be involved.

This means that Vesper personnel always is to be considered as civilians, as Vesper Group never take active parties in any armed conflict. Therefore, any use of force by Vesper personnel shall be in accordance with laws, national as well as international, for self-defense (see Vesper Rules for the Use of Force) and with respect for Human Rights. 

The legal status of private security personnel

Private security personnel

The legal status of Vesper personnel

Vesper personnel are  

Human Rights Violations

Human Rights Violations

The purpose of this section is to learn to identify violations against human rights and to clarify the manner by which you report known or reasonable suspicion of human rights violations.

Human Rights Violations

•RECOGNIZE what constitutes a human rights violation

•REFRAIN from committing or supporting the commission of human rights violations

•REACT to human rights violations – intervene if it will not endanger you or your unit

•RECORD violations in detail (time, day location, personnel)

•REPORT violation to your chain of command

Recognize


Nation/representative of nation or non-state actors who commit:

  • Genocide 
  • Slavery, force or compulsory labour, or the trafficking of slaves 
  • Murder, summary or arbitrary executions or forced disappearance 
  • Torture or other cruel, inhumane, or degrading treatment or punishment 
  • Prolonged arbitrary detention 
  • Systematic racial discrimination or sexual/gender-based violence 
  • Or a consistent pattern of committing gross violations of internationally recognized human rights


Refrain

  • All personnel must not commit or aid in the commission of human rights violations. 
  • Upon encountering apparent violations in host nations, personnel should generally disengage from the activity and leave the area, provided they disengage without endangering their mission.

React

  • If the conduct of a Vesper Group employee involves a violation of human rights, you must attempt to prevent the violation. 
  • If you receive a clearly illegal order to vomit a human rights violation, your duty is to ask for clarification, ask the superior to rescind or change the order, refuse to obey such an order, and report the illegal order to your chain of command.
  • If the conduct of a government/foreign government official involves a violation of human rights, intervention to protect a victim may be appropriate in certain limited cases. 
  • If a death, dismemberment or rape will almost certainly occur, it is appropriate to intervene as long as you incur no serious threat to your safety or the security of your unit, and intervention will not adversely affect your mission. Attempt to prevent the violation with moral dissuasion. PERSONNEL ARENOT AUTHORIZED TO USSE VIOLENT FORCE when intervening to prevent a human rights violation, except when authorized by specific Rules for the Use of Force.

Record

  • If a violation does occur, you must employ all available means to record the event 
    • Write it down 
    • Use recording media (audio/video), photography, diagrams and grid coordinates 
    • Preserve the evidence 
    • Remember the site will likely be examined later by professional crime investigators 
    • Be cautious about entering the scene without clearance from a higher authority

Report

  • All personnel will immediately report all instances of suspected violations of human rights to their chain of command. If the chain of command itself is implicated, report the incident directly to Vesper Group Head Office ([email protected] ). 
  • Identify the official who appears to have committed the violation, describe the victim(s), specify the violating conduct, and state whether any Vesper Group personnel were involved.

Which statements constitutes violations against human rights?

  • Deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group.
  • Slavery
  • Summary or arbitrary executions
  • Conviction of assault in fair trial in a court of law
  • Denied pay rise by manager
  • Systematic racial discrimination or sexual/gender-based violence
  • Forced labour
  • Arresting suspect of criminal act by police authority