Anti-Terrorism Awareness - ATO Fundamentals



Table of Contents
Student Information
Study Guide

Study Unit 1 Terrorism Basics
Lesson 1 Background of Terrorism
Lesson 2 Objectives of Terrorism

Study Unit 2 Terrorist Doctrine
Lesson 1 Operations
Lesson 2 Targets
Lesson 3 Organization of Terrorist Groups
Lesson 4 Training

Study Unit 3 Detecting Terrorist Surveillance
Lesson 1 Surveillance

Lesson 2 Techniques Employed

Study Unit 4 Protective Measures for the Home and Office
Lesson 1 Residential Security
Lesson 2 Protective Measures Used in the Workplace

Study Unit 5 Protective Measures While Traveling
Lesson 1 Traveling on Foot
Lesson 2 Traveling in a Vehicle
Lesson 3 Traveling by Air
Lesson 4 Staying Safe in Hotels

Study Unit 6 Hostage Survival
Lesson 1 Analyzing a Hostage Situation
Lesson 2 Responsibilities of a Hostage
Lesson 3 Adjusting to a Hostage Situation

Lesson 4 Surviving a Hostage Situation
Review Lesson


Anti-Terrorism Awareness - ATO


Number and Title

Study Hours

Course Materials

Review Agency

Educational Institute





~ 80 hrs


IPSA - International Protect & Security Agency

Security Business Institute



Study Guide


Beginning Your Course

Before you actually begin this course of study, read the student information page. If you find any course materials missing, notify your training officer or training NCO. If you have all the required materials, you are ready to begin. To begin your course of study, familiarize yourself with the structure of the course text. One way to do this is to read the table of contents. Notice the table of contents covers specific areas of study and the order in which they are presented. You will find the text divided into several study units. Each study unit is comprised of two or more lessons and lesson exercises.

Leafing Through the
Leaf through the text and look at the course. If the course has additional study aids, such as a handbook or plotting board, familiarize yourself with them.
The First Study Unit Turn to the first page of study unit 1. On this page, you will find an introduction to the study unit and generally the first study unit lesson. Study unit lessons contain learning objectives, lesson text, and exercises.
Reading the Learning
Learning objectives describe in concise terms what the successful learner, you, will be able to do as a result of mastering the content of the lesson text. Read the objectives for each lesson and then read the lesson text. As you read the lesson text, make notes on the points you feel are important.
Continuing to March Continue on to the next lesson, repeating the above process until you have completed all lessons in the study unit. Follow the same procedures for each study unit in the course.
Preparing for the Final Exam

To prepare for your final exam, you must review what you learned in the course.The following suggestions will help make the review interesting and challenging.

· CHALLENGE YOURSELF. Try to recall the entire learning sequence without referring to the text. Can you do it? Now look back at the text to see if you have left anything out. This review should be interesting. Undoubtedly, you’ll find you were not able to recall everything. But with a little effort, you’ll be able to recall a great deal of the information.

· USE UNUSED MINUTES. Use your spare moments to review. Read your notes or a part of a study unit, rework exercise items, review again; you can do many of these things during the unused minutes of every day.


· APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED. It is always best to use the skill or knowledge you’ve learned as soon as possible. If it isn’t possible to actually use the skill or knowledge, at least try to imagine a situation in which you would apply this learning. For example make up and solve your own problems. Or, better still, make up and solve problems that use most of the elements of a study unit.

· USE THE “SHAKEDOWN CRUISE” TECHNIQUE. Ask another person to lend a hand by asking you questions about the course. Choose a particular study unit and let your buddy “fire away.” This technique can be interesting and challenging for both of you!


· MAKE REVIEWS FUN AND BENEFICIAL. Reviews are good habits that enhance learning. They don’t have to be long and tedious. In fact, some learners find short reviews conducted more often prove more beneficial.

Tackling the Final Exam When you have completed your study of the course material and are confident with the results attained on your study unit exercises, take the sealed envelope marked “FINAL EXAM” to your unit training officer. Your training officer will administer the final examination and return the examination and the answer sheet to SBI for grading. Before taking your final examination, read the directions on the answer sheet carefully.
Completing Your Course The sooner you complete your course, the sooner you can better yourself by applying what you’ve learned! HOWEVER - you do have 4 months from the date of enrollment to complete this course.
Graduating! As a graduate of this distance education course, your job performance skills will improve, benefiting you, your unit, and the company you work for. After graduation you'll get a certificate of completion and the confirmation of ECTS points for this elearning course.




Scope   As a CPO, you are more likely to witness or experience terrorist acts. In this lesson, you will learn multiple factors that will establish a foundation needed to help you counteract terrorism.
Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to

· State the definition of terrorism.
· Identify the strategy of terrorists.
· Identify the perspectives of terrorism.
· Identify the different operational categories of terrorists.

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics:


- Introduction
- What is Terrorism?
- Strategy
- Perspectives
- Types


LESSON I - What is Terrorism?

What is Terrorism?


Terrorism is defined as “the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of  unlawful violence to inculcate (instill) fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political,  religious, or ideological.”

Within this definition, there are three key elements:
· Violence
· Fear
· Intimidation

An understanding of this definition will aid in developing an awareness of terrorism.

U.S. Policy

The policy of the United States is summarized as follows:

· All terrorist acts are criminal and intolerable. Whatever their motivation is, they should be condemned.
· The United States will support all lawful measures to prevent terrorism and bring those responsible to justice.
· No concessions will be made to terrorist extortion; to do so only invites more terrorist action.
· When Americans are abducted overseas, the United States will look to the host government to exercise its responsibility to protect all persons within its territories, to include achieving the safe release of hostages.
· The United States will maintain close and continuous contact with the host government during the incident and will continue to develop international cooperation to combat terrorism.


In this global campaign, the United States welcomes the help of any country or party that is genuinely prepared to work with us, but we will not relax our standards and we will continue to advance our fundamental interests in establishing a world of democracy, opportunity, and stability. This is a world in which terrorism cannot thrive.


LESSON I - Strategy



A terrorist is one who advocates, creates, or practices the use of terror for a means of coercion. The characteristics and traits of each terrorist may vary and it is difficult to generalize about a terrorist’s profile; however, terrorists typically are intelligent, obsessed with initiating changes, reared in middle class or wealthy families, and are in their early to mid-twenties.

Planning For

Terrorism is a criminal act that influences an audience beyond the immediate victim. The strategy of terrorists is to commit acts of violence that draw the attention of the local populace, the government, and the world to their cause.


A successful attack for a terrorist is one that gains the greatest publicity. A terrorist becomes more effective with a larger reaction from the public or government.


A prime example of publicity occurred in 1983 when Middle Eastern terrorists bombed the Marine Battalion Landing Team Headquarters at the Beirut International Airport. Their immediate victims were the 241 U.S. Military personnel who were killed and over 100 others who were wounded.


Their true targets were the American people and the U.S. Congress. This one act of violence influenced the decision to withdraw the Marines from Beirut and was considered a terrorist success.


LESSON I - Perspectives


View of Incident

It is important to realize that there are different views when it comes to a terrorist incident. Those involved may all share a different view of what took place. There are three perspectives of a terrorist incident:

· Terrorist’s perspective
· Victim’s perspective
· General public’s perspective

Terrorists will view their actions as heroic, and worthy of praise. The victim of course will see otherwise. The general public’s perspective is possible of being swayed in both directions.


A common phrase “one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter” is often the view a terrorist takes on and accepts. Terrorists do not see themselves as evil; they believe they are legitimate combatants, fighting for what they believe in, by whatever means possible.


A victim of a terrorist act sees the terrorist as a criminal with no regard for human life.

General Public

The general public’s view of a terrorist incident is the most unstable view of the three. Terrorists take great pains to portray a “Robin Hood” image in hopes of swaying the general public’s point of view toward their cause. If a terrorist group were to win the views of the people then their cause would be aided immensely.

Other Outlooks

George Washington served in the British Army before serving in the Continental Army. British subjects viewed him as a traitor and colonists viewed him as a patriot. The same can be said concerning many areas of the world today. Elements that are perceived as menaces to our way of life can be viewed as saviors by others. It is important to take this into account when dealing with foreign cultures, and realize that not everyone thinks the same way.


LESSON I - Types


Operational Categories

Terrorist groups fall under three operational categories:

· National Terrorists – A group that operates in and aims to attain political power within a single nation.
· Transnational Terrorists – A group that operates across national borders.
· International Terrorists – A group that is controlled by a sovereign state and that represents the state’s interests.


terrorist group’s selection of targets and tactics is also a function of the group’s governmental affiliation. Terrorist groups are categorized by their operational category and governmental affiliation. This enables security personnel and planners to anticipate terrorist targets and determine the sophistication of a terrorist group’s intelligence and weaponry.

Three categories of governmental affiliation are shown in the table below:

None-State Supported

- operates independently and receives no significant support

State Supported

- operates independently and receives some support from one or more governments

State Directed

- operates as and Agent of a government and government provides substantial intelligence, logistics and operational support


Today’s Threat

Many areas of the world are experiencing great political, economic, and social unrest. The reasons for this unrest can be seen in conflicts with neighboring states, internal strife, dissatisfaction with governments in power, unconstrained population growth, declining resources, and ethnic and religious hatreds.

This unrest has spawned numerous groups that lack the means to have their grievances solved by their own governments through the normal political processes. Sometimes these groups resort to terrorism to achieve their aims.





Different terrorist groups are motivated by different reasons. Depending on the situation the objectives may also vary. In this lesson, you will learn the different motives for terrorist attacks as well as the objectives terrorists hope to accomplish.

Learnin Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to
· Identify the motives for terrorism.
· Identify immediate objectives of terrorism.
· Identify long-term objectives of terrorism.


In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics:
- Introduction
- Motives
- Immediate
- Long-Term


LESSON 2 - Motives


Different Motivation

Terrorists are constantly coming up with new ideas and methods to accomplish their goals. The motivation for these goals will fall within one of the following four categories:
· Political Ideologies
· Nationalism
· Religion
· Special Interests

Political Ideologies

Political ideologies range from the far left to the far right.

Left-wing terrorists are out to destroy capitalism and replace it with a communist or socialist regime. Because they see most civilians as suffering from capitalist exploitation, left-wing terrorists sometimes have limited their use of violence to avoid hurting the victims they say they want to save. Leftwing terrorists sometimes focus instead on such tactics as kidnapping tycoons or bombing monuments.

Right-wing terrorists are among the least organized terrorists, often associated with neo-Nazi street rioting in Western Europe, especially in the early 1980s. These groups, often dominated by skinheads, seek to do away with liberal democratic governments and create fascist states in their place. Neo-fascist terrorists frequently attack immigrants and refugees from the developing world and are both racist and anti-Semitic.


Nationalism is the devotion to the interests or culture of a group of people or a nation. Typically, nationalists share a common ethnic background and wish to establish or regain a homeland.

Examples of nationalism were seen with the war in Iraq. Former regime officials, or former Ba’ath party members (mostly all Sunni Muslims), were behind the majority of insurgent attacks. They felt they stood the most to lose if a democratic government were established in Iraq. If Iraq evolves into a democratic Shiite ruled government, Sunnis felt they would have zero power in the decision-making process.


LESSON 2 - Motives, continued

MOTIVES, continued


Religion has driven many of the violent acts in recorded history. Religious extremists often reject the authority of secular governments and view legal systems that are not based on their beliefs as illegitimate. They often view modernization efforts as corrupting influences on traditional culture. Two of the most influential religious terrorist groups in the past decades have been the Al Qaeda network in Afghanistan and the Hezbollah in Lebanon.

Al Qae da

Al Qaeda has been responsible for some of the most notable terrorist attacks within the past 15 years. Their attacks have targeted Americans and other Western interests, as well as Jewish and Muslim governments it deems corrupt. These attacks include


· 2003 Car bombings in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
· 2001 Hijacking attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon
· 2000 Bombing of USS Cole
· 1998 Bombing of U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania
· 1993 Links to bombing of World Trade Center


The Hezbollah (meaning “party of God”) has been linked to a number of terrorist attacks against America, Israel, and other Western targets. These attacks include

· 1994 Bombing of Jewish community center
· 1992 Bombing of Israeli embassy
· 1985 Hijacking of TWA flight 847
· 1983 Bombing of Marine Barracks Beirut, Lebanon

Special Interest

Special interest groups include people on the radical fringe of many legitimate causes such as antiabortion views, animal rights, and radical environmentalism. Although many of the groups may have some valid arguments, their approaches to expressing their concerns may not be. These groups believe that violence is morally justifiable to achieve their goals. As a result, such groups are labeled as terrorist groups.


LESSON 2 - Immediate



Rarely does one act of terrorism achieve a group’s long-term objectives. Each act usually achieves a specific objective. This objective may satisfy an immediate concern or may be a step in achieving a long-term objective. The following are all immediate objectives of terrorism:

· Recognition
· Overreaction by the government
· Harassment, weakening, or embarrassment of government security forces
· Theft or extortion of money or equipment
· Destruction
· Discouraging foreign investment or assistance programs
· Influencing government decisions
· Freeing prisoners
· Satisfying vengeance
· Turning the tide in guerilla warfare



Terrorists seek to obtain worldwide, national, or local recognition for their cause. This vital publicity advertises the movement, bringing national and international attention to their grievances. It attracts money, international sponsorship, and recruits to their cause.

Overreaction by the

An overreaction to terrorist activities will usually lead the government to restrict the liberties of the local populace by instituting special anti-terrorist laws that allow searches without warrants, detention of citizens without charges, curfews, and travel restrictions. People view these acts as violations of their rights, creating an atmosphere more sympathetic to the terrorist.

Security Forces

Calling in false alarms, killing security personnel, and conducting sophisticated raids and ambushes reduces and diminishes public confidence in the government’s ability to adequately protect them.


LESSON 2 - Immediate, continued

IMMEDIATE, continued

Extortion of Money

Successful terrorist operations bring the organization needed funds, equipment, and international support, especially weapons and ammunition essential to the cause.

The largest ransom ever paid for a single individual is $14.2 million. It was paid by the Exxon Corporation for the release of Victor Samuelson, a company executive who was working in Argentina in 1974. In 1975, a German industrialist for the release of his two sons paid $60 million to the Montonero Peronist Movement.



Often the public views the destruction of a building or disruption of lines of communication as the final goal of terrorism; this is not the case. By destroying facilities or disrupting lines of communication, terrorists can isolate entire segments of the population, thereby hindering the government’s ability to control the violence. Once isolated, the terrorists can move into the area, spread propaganda, and serve as the sole support element to the isolated population.


Terrorist attacks against foreign businesses often end with the business pulling out and departing the host country for a safer area. When this occurs, thousands of local nationals instantly become unemployed causing tremendous strain upon the government to provide assistance; which in many cases it cannot. The local populace, with no means of feeding themselves or their families, become hostile towards the existing government, and become susceptible to recruitment by the terrorist organization.

Influencing Government

The sole purpose of this objective is to find a way to persuade a government or legislation to support the cause of the terrorist. There is little doubt that the bombing of the Marine Barracks in Beirut influenced our government to eventually withdraw the Marines.


In Italy, repeated assassinations of public officials by the “Red Brigades” have influenced law enforcement and judicial processes concerning terrorism.

Former President of El Salvador, Jose Duarte, softened his hard-line “no negotiation” stance when terrorists kidnapped his daughter in 1985.


LESSON 2 - Immediate, continued

IMMEDIATE, continued

Freeing Prisoners

Freeing prisoners is a frequent demand of terrorists, especially airline hijackers. Usually, the demand is for the release of fellow terrorists who have been imprisoned or are awaiting trial.

The three members of the “Black September” organization, who were convicted and jailed for their role in the murder of 11 Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics, were released when their comrades skyjacked an aircraft. They spent only 30 days in jail for their crime.

Satisfying Vengeance

The most brutal acts of terrorism are reserved for informants or other traitors. Some terrorist groups can be extremely brutal when it comes to punishing its members. Mutilation, beheadings, and torture tactics are commonplace when achieving this immediate objective.

The Irish Republican Army uses a punishment known as “kneecapping” to serve as a lasting reminder to those who have been considered traitors.

Guerilla Warfare

Terrorism is an integral part of insurgency. In rural areas, it is usually used to punish government supporters. In urban areas, it can also divert government troops from the countryside where they are needed to fight.


LESSON 2 - Long-Term


Staying the Course

As a CPO you should be well-versed in observing what terrorists are hoping to accomplish. It is imperative that you are able to distinguish between immediate objectives and long-term objectives. Identifying immediate objectives will assist you in preventing long-term objectives.


Long-term objectives fit into at least one of the following categories:

· Revolutionary
· Sub-revolutionary
· Establishment


A terrorist’s objective is revolutionary when their intent is to help bring about the complete overthrow of an incumbent government. The threat may come from within a country, or from outside. Some terrorists are anarchists. Their purpose is to use violence to achieve world revolution and to eliminate all governments.


A terrorist’s objective is sub-revolutionary when it is intended only to influence a government or other groups of people to change against their will. The sought after changes are usually of a political, social, or economic nature. Special interest groups want to change the government policy on specific issues. Their long-term goals also fit into this category.


A terrorist’s objective is categorized as establishment when the use of terrorism is directly controlled or at least tolerated by a particular state to attack enemies of the government. This use of terrorism can be directed at either foreign or domestic enemies.






Terrorism is an indiscriminate crime that comes in varying forms of threats and violence.

Study unit 1 provided you with a basic knowledge of terrorism, identifying the background, and the objectives of terrorism. In this study unit, you will learn

· What is considered a terrorist operation
· The different types of terrorist targets
· The organizational structure of a terrorist group
· How terrorists train

After completing this study unit, you should be able to determine how a terrorist operates, and you will be able to identify ways to establish yourself as a hard target.

In This Study

This study unit contains the following lessons:

- Operations
- Targets
- Organization of Terrorist Groups
- Training





Terrorist operations are usually well thought out and executed by specially trained and organized clandestine elements. Strict security techniques are followed once a target is selected, and team members are not brought together until the final rehearsal phase. In this lesson, you will learn the definition and details of each phase of a terrorist operation, and the types of operations commonly associated with terrorism.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to

· Recall in writing the definition of a terrorist operation.
· Recall the phases of a terrorist operation.
· Recall common terrorist operations.

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics:

- Introduction
- What is a Terrorist Operation?
- Phases
- Types


LESSON I - What is a Terrorist Operation?

What is a Terrorist Operation?


A terrorist operation is defined as any criminal act carried out by a person or group to gain attention for a cause, by using terror-causing tactics to raise capital or obtain equipment for future operations.


It is always important to determine the types of operations terrorist groups normally use. When a terrorist group successfully employs a certain method of operation, the group will likely reuse it in the future.

When other terrorist groups identify an effective operation, they may copy the techniques employed and use them for their own operations.

A prime example of “copycat” techniques is the recent string of anthrax scares throughout the United States. Aside from a small number of genuine anthrax contaminations, there have been thousands of hoaxes in the form of talcum powder or sugar being mailed in suspicious looking packages to national and local leaders. Once other terrorists realized they did not need the real thing to achieve the desired outcome, they jumped on the bandwagon in attempt to disrupt the lives of others.


LESSON I - Phases


Five Phases

Terrorist operations are broken down into five phases:

· Pre-incident
· Initiation
· Negotiation
· Climax
· Post-incident

Understanding each of these phases will assist you in detecting and ultimately preventing terrorist operations.


During this phase, activities by terrorist groups are meticulously conceived and prepared by command elements. You will learn more about command elements later in the course. Activities include reconnaissance missions, lengthy periods of training, and rehearsals. Small, special units conduct target and area reconnaissance missions. Different elements of the group will work independent of the other without knowing members of either team until just before the operation takes place.


This is the movement to target phase, and when the actual action takes place. Movement to the target is covert. Individual terrorists leave for the target singly or in pairs along separate routes. When necessary, they use false passports and names. Weapons and other items are sent separately to prearranged locations where they are given to terrorists involved in the operation. Countries sympathetic to terrorist causes have allowed items to be carried in diplomatic pouches with agents taking them from the embassy to a prearranged site.


When terrorists decide that a hostage/barricade or another similar event is worthwhile, they may use the negotiation phase to gain publicity. Negotiations may include certain specific dema nds that often require intergovernmental negotiations at the highest level. There may be trade-offs, especially if the demands are more than the government is able to meet.

Note: If the terrorists do not take hostages or enter a barricade-scenario, this phase does not occur.


LESSON I - Phases, continued

Phases, continued


Terrorist operations are broken down into five phases:

· Pre-incident
· Initiation
· Negotiation
· Climax
· Post-incident

Understanding each of these phases will assist you in detecting and ultimately
preventing terrorist operations.


During this phase, activities by terrorist groups are meticulously conceived and prepared by command elements. You will learn more about command elements later in the course. Activities include reconnaissance missions, lengthy periods of training, and rehearsals. Small, special units conduct target and area reconnaissance missions. Different elements of the group will work independent of the other without knowing members of either team until just before the operation takes place.


LESSON I - Types


Commonly Associated

Terrorist operations consist of the same types of criminal activities you see daily on the news. Not every incident is the result of terrorism, but the possibility should never be discounted. As you know, terrorist attacks are well planned and rehearsed. All terrorists groups, no matter how they are categorized or what their goal may be, carry out similar operations. The following are operations conducted by terrorists:


· Bombings

· Arson and fire bombings

· Vehicle theft
· Skyjacking and aircraft theft

· Marjacking
· Ambush
· Kidnapping

· Hostage-taking
· International narcotics support

· Robbery and extortion
· Psychological terror

· Nuclear, biological, and chemical attack
· Assassination
· Raids and/or attacks on facilities

· Commercial and/or industrial sabotage

· Hoaxes
· Ecological terrorism

· Cyberterrorism


Bombings are the most common type of terrorist operation. Typically, improvised explosive devices (IED) are inexpensive and easy to make. Modern devices are getting smaller and harder to detect, yet they continue to increase in destructive capabilities. Terrorists can also use materials readily available to the average consumer to construct a bomb.

During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom, IED attacks were the most effective against coalition forces.

Arson and Fire

Incendiary devices are cheap and easy to hide. Arson and fire bombings are easily conducted by terrorist groups that may not be as well organized, equipped, or trained as a major terrorist organization. Arsons or fire bombings against utilities, hotels, government buildings or industrial centers are common tactics used by terrorists to portray an image that the ruling government is incapable of maintaining order.


LESSON I - Types, continued

TYPES, continued

Vehicle Theft

Stolen vehicles provide terrorists with a means of delivering explosives that can and most likely will be traced back to the original car owner and not to the terrorist organization.

Skyjacking and
Aircraft Theft

Skyjacking provides terrorists with hostages and draws media attention. An aircraft theft provides terrorists with a tool for conducting kamikaze attacks. Aircraft mobility and distance make retaliation difficult. Skyjacking also provides an opportunity for terrorists to relocate the aircraft to a country that supports their cause.

Note: On 11 September 2001, commercial airplanes were skyjacked to gain control of the aircraft. The terrorists’ intent was not to create a hostage situation, but to ensure the passengers did not interfere with their desire to crash the aircraft into their intended targets.


Marjacking (also known as maritime theft) provides terrorists with a unique method of intimidating international travelers. Due to a ship’s size and ability to endure long periods of isolation, marjacking presents a variety of benefits to terrorists and risks to legal authorities. While occurrences of marjackings are infrequent, the possibility should not be underestimated.


A well-planned ambush provides terrorists with the opportunity to kidnap or assassinate intended victims. An ambush allows terrorists to choose the time and place of the attack. An ambush is easily planned if the victim uses the same routes daily.


LESSON I - Types, continued

TYPES, continued


Kidnapping has become a preferred terrorist tactic. Although kidnapping is one of the most difficult acts for a terrorist group to accomplish, if successful, it can gain terrorists money, help release jailed comrades, and provide publicity for an extended period of time.


Hostage-taking involves the seizure of a facility or location and the taking of hostages. Unlike a kidnapping, hostage-taking provokes a confrontation with authorities. It forces authorities to either make dramatic decisions or to comply with the terrorists’ demands. Hostage-taking is overt and designed to attract and hold media attention. The terrorists’ intended target is the audience emotional impact by the hostage’s confinement, not the hostage himself.




Drug activities are a major financial source for some terrorist groups. Providing security for narcotics networks in exchange for financial support is a common occurrence.


Robbery and

Robbery and extortion is another source of fund raising for terrorist operations. These methods are unnecessary when terrorists receive funding and support from nations sympathetic to their cause.


LESSON I - Types, continued

TYPES, continued



Psychological terror alters behavioral characteristics of an individual, group, or organization through the application of sophisticated techniques.

Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Attack

Nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) attacks have been almost nonexistent in the past. Due to the extremely high number of casualties that NBC weapons produce, they are also referred to as weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The increase in development of WMD also increases the potential for terrorist groups to gain access to WMD. It is believed that in the future, terrorists will have greater access to WMD due to unstable nations failing to safeguard their stockpiles from accidental losses, illicit sales, or outright theft or seizure.

Determined terrorist groups can also gain access to WMD through covert independent research efforts or by hiring technically skilled professionals to construct them. Although an explosive nuclear device is believed to be beyond the scope or capabilities of most terrorist groups, chemical, biological or radiological dispersion weapons that use nuclear contaminants are not.


One example of a terrorist group gaining access to NBC occurred on 20 March 1995, when a Japanese religious cult, known as “Supreme Truth,” chemically attacked citizens in the Tokyo subway system. Use of the nerve agent Sarin resulted in 12 deaths and 5,500 hospitalizations.


Another example occurred in October of 2001 when several letters were mailed to selected U.S. Government and media individuals. The letters contained the biological agent anthrax.


Fear of these biological agents can create as much terrorist value as their actual employment.


Assassination is the killing of a selected victim, usually by bombings or small arms. Historically, terrorists have killed specific individuals for a psychological effect.


LESSON I - Types, continued

TYPES, continued

Raids or

Attacks on


Raids or attacks on facilities are usually undertaken for one of three purposes:


· To gain access to radio or television broadcast capabilities to make a statement

· To demonstrate the government’s inability to secure critical facilities or national symbols

· For logistical purposes, such as robbery of a bank or armory

Commercial or



The objective of most sabotage operations is to demonstrate how vulnerable society is to terrorists’ actions. Industrialized nations are more vulnerable than less developed societies. Utilities, communications, and transportation systems are so interdependent that disruption of any one affects all of them and gains immediate public attention.


Any terrorist group that has established credibility can employ a hoax with considerable success. A threat against a person’s life causes that person and those associated with that individual to devote time and effort to security measures. A bomb threat can close a commercial building, reduce operations, or delay an aircraft flight at no cost to the terrorist. These types of threats also can increase threat conditions on military installations causing delays and confusion at entry and exit points.


False alarms dull the analytical and operational efficiency of key security personnel, thus degrading readiness.

Ecological Terrorism

The increasing accessibility of sophisticated weapons and explosives to terrorists has the potential to threaten or damage the environment. Use of large scale IEDs against a variety of targets such as hazardous waste storage sites, nuclear power plants, and electrical controls for petroleum or water pumping facilities could have far reaching effects well beyond those caused directly by an IED.


This tactic proved extremely effective during Operation Iraqi Freedom when insurgents continually attacked oil fields and power plants in hopes of disrupting the rebuilding efforts of the coalition forces. The insurgents attempted to destroy not only the economy in Iraq, but also the image of coalition forces with the Iraqi citizens.


Cyberterrorism is a new, increasing form of terrorism that targets computer networks. Cyberterrorism allows terrorists to conduct their operations with little or no risk to themselves. It also provides terrorists an opportunity to disrupt or destroy networks and computers. The result is interruption of key government or business-related activities. Although this type of terrorism lacks a high profile compared to other attacks, its impact is just as destructive.




Terrorists prefer a soft target, or one that involves little risk and a high probability of success. In this lesson, you will learn the different categories of terrorist targets, and you will learn ways to establish yourself as a hard target.



After completing this lesson, you should be able to


· Identify different categories of terrorist targets.

· Identify key characteristics of soft targets.

· Identify key characteristics of hard targets.

· Identify ways to establish yourself as a hard target.

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics:


- Introduction

- Categories

- Soft Targets

- Hard Targets

LESSON 2 - Categories


Different Targets

Terrorist targets are broken down into four basic categories. Within each category there are a number of different installations or facility types. Knowing what is contained in each category will make you more efficient in deciding if your installation, base, or place of employment may be considered for a terrorist attack. The different categories are

· Engineering and energy systems
· Communication and supplies
· Transportation
· Human

Engineering and Energy Systems

Engineering and energy systems are vital to the survival of economies. If these structures are attacked, the host government takes on the added pressure of providing relief for those affected. These systems include the following:


· Hydroelectric plants
· Offshore oil rigs
· Nuclear facility sites
· Gas pipelines
· Electric power lines

Communication and Supplies

Communication and supply lines can be extremely effective targets for terrorists. Interrupting these can damage progression throughout societies. This category includes the following:

· Communication lines and facilities
· Chemical storage sites
· Dock facilities
· Equipment warehouses
· Computer facilities
· Weapon storage sites, both conventional and special weapons

LESSON 2 - Categories, continued

Categories, continued


In recent years, transportation has been the category of choice for terrorist attacks. Terrorists use vehicles and aircraft as methods for delivering bombs and inflicting mass casualties. Public transportation is also a prime source for mass casualties. This category includes the following:

· Vehicles
· Rail lines
· Bus depots
· Airports and aircraft
· Trucking facilities
· Shipyards


Under this category are the individuals that are historically targeted more often than any other. Although you may not fall under one of the groups listed in this category, there is always the possibility that you could be an innocent bystander at the time of an attack. This category includes the following:

· Embassy and government employees
· Corporate executives
· Police
· Dependents of the above

Becoming A Victim

You can become a victim of terrorism in any of the following ways:


· Victim by location – Being at a certain location when an attack occurs, or a victim of circumstance.

· Victim by association – Associating with a person who has been previously selected as a target.

· Target of opportunity – Presenting yourself as a target, thereby allowing the terrorists to capitalize on that opportunity.

Increasingly, U.S. citizens are becoming popular terrorist targets as they travel and conduct business throughout the world.

LESSON 2 - Soft Targets

Soft Targets


As stated before, terrorists prefer a target that involves little risk and a high probability of success. Terrorists evaluate a target’s security profile, predictability, and value. The target’s value is determined by its importance and possible benefits gained. Once a target has been evaluated, the target is labeled in the terrorist’s mind as either a soft or hard target.


The following characteristics establish individuals as a soft target:


· Unarmed – The victim is not armed or simply displays a lack of willingness to use his/her weapon.


· Minimal chance of confrontation with police – The victim’s travel patterns or routines do not take him near police or fire stations, hospitals, friendly embassies, or other safe haven locations.


· Accessible – The victim is easy to get to because he/she works in an area with minimum security, travels to high-risk areas alone, or does not consider security measures a major concern. They make it easy for strangers to access their private information (phone numb ers, addresses, schedules).


· Predictable – The victim is predictable because he/she follows set routines or patterns.


· Unaware – The victim is complacent, not security conscious, and uses no individual protective measures.

LESSON 2 - Hard Targets

Hard Targets


The following characteristics establish individuals as a hard target:


· Armed – The target is armed with a weapon that is in good working condition and that is readily accessible. The target is proficient in the use of the weapon and will not hesitate to use it.

· Hardened/Escort vehicles – The target’s vehicle is equipped with armor, bullet-resistant glass, alarms, and a two-way radio. The person driving the vehicle will not hesitate to use it as a weapon. When possible, the target makes sure an escort vehicle accompanies him/her with a trained driver and crew.

· Hardened residence – The residence has a layered defense. The target’s residential security includes armed guards, roving patrols in the neighborhood, high walls or fences, anti- intrusion devices, lights, watchdogs, etc.

· Heightened awareness – The target continually uses and adjusts the level of individual protective measures and does not become complacent. Always show a constant state of alertness.

· Unpredictable – The target avoids routines and varies daily events. Determines different routes to be taken, times of departure and return, and dining establishments. Being unpredictable causes the terrorist to perceive the target as a hard target.

A terrorist will not attack a hard target unless there are specific orders to do so. In most cases an easier target will be selected.

Avoid Routine

One of the best ways to establish yourself as a hard target is to avoid forming routines in your daily life.

· Routines at home – Picking up the newspaper or mail, walking and feeding the dog, warming up the car, turning lights on or off as you leave or enter your residence. These are all routines commonly practiced at your residence. Attempt to vary these habits on a daily basis. For example, pick your mail up at a different time; when you leave, leave different lights on in different rooms to confuse would-be attackers as to your whereabouts.

LESSON 2 - Hard Targets, continued

Hard Targets, continued


The following characteristics establish individuals as a hard target:


· Armed – The target is armed with a weapon that is in good working condition and that is readily accessible. The target is proficient in the use of the weapon and will not hesitate to use it.

· Hardened/Escort vehicles – The target’s vehicle is equipped with armor, bullet-resistant glass, alarms, and a two-way radio. The person driving the vehicle will not hesitate to use it as a weapon. When possible, the target makes sure an escort vehicle accompanies him/her with a trained driver and crew.

· Hardened residence – The residence has a layered defense. The target’s residential security includes armed guards, roving patrols in the neighborhood, high walls or fences, anti- intrusion devices, lights, watchdogs, etc.

· Heightened awareness – The target continually uses and adjusts the level of individual protective measures and does not become complacent. Always show a constant state of alertness.

· Unpredictable – The target avoids routines and varies daily events. Determines different routes to be taken, times of departure and return, and dining establishments. Being unpredictable causes the terrorist to perceive the target as a hard target.

A terrorist will not attack a hard target unless there are specific orders to do so. In most cases an easier target will be selected.

Avoid Routine

One of the best ways to establish yourself as a hard target is to avoid forming routines in your daily life.

· Routines at home – Picking up the newspaper or mail, walking and feeding the dog, warming up the car, turning lights on or off as you leave or enter your residence. These are all routines commonly practiced at your residence. Attempt to vary these habits on a daily basis. For example, pick your mail up at a different time; when you leave, leave different lights on in different rooms to confuse would-be attackers as to your whereabouts.


· Routines at work – Constantly traveling the same route to and from work, arriving and departing at a set time, parking in the same spots, going to the same place for lunch, these are all examples of routines we set at work. By being in the military some of these rout ines may be hard to avoid, however you must do your best to add variations throughout the work week.


LESSON 2 - Hard Targets, continued

Hard Targets, continued

Avoid Routine, continued

· Other routines

· When overseas, people like to visit restaurants, bars, and clubs that serve international food or that has inexpensive prices. They may also patronize an establishment because other western people go there. Always be extremely cautious in foreign countries and research the threat in the vicinities you frequent.

· Military or diplomatic personnel tend to form routines in physical fitness training, such as having set times and places to work out, or follow the same routes when running. Do what you can to vary your workout regimen. Run different routes, utilize the morning, afternoon, and evenings for workout sessions.

· Many people affected by human nature, will stop to render aid at a roadside emergency. Some countries even require by law that you stop and render assistance. If you happen to come across a roadside emergency, assess the situation. If time permits, contact the proper authorities and wait for help to arrive. If the situation appears to be a matter of life or death, make a rational decision, and then if you decide to provide help or assistance, use as much caution as possible.

Avoid Routine

Becoming a hard target also takes into account another consideration; what and how much value can the terrorists expect to gain from attacking you?

· Importance – How important are you? What publicity will the terrorists gain for their cause?

· Terror generated – How much terror will be generated as a result of the attack?

· Ransom – Can the terrorists receive a ransom for you?

· Free comrades – If the terrorists take you hostage, will the demands for the release of their comrades be met?

· Safe escort – Can the terrorists obtain safe passage? If all else fails, or in addition to their other demands, the terrorists will demand safe passage to an area of their choice.

Whether you become a hard target or a soft target is entirely up to you. Try to create an amount of risk and work so high, with the probability of success so low, that the terrorists will leave you alone and select another target.





Regardless of the final objective, terrorist organizations act on the same principles. In this lesson, you will learn how terrorist groups are organized as well as the common characteristics associated with terrorist groups.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to

· Recall the structure of a terrorist group.
· Recall the role(s) or function(s) of each cell within a terrorist group.
· Recall common characteristics terrorist groups share.


In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics:

- Introduction
- Analysis
- Common Characteristics

LESSON 3 - Analysis



Due to the clandestine nature of terrorist groups, a great deal is unknown about their internal organization. Many groups today have adopted the cellular structure brought about by the Tupamoro Organization that was active in Uruguay in the early 1970s. In this organization, the basic operational unit of the terrorist group was known as a cell. The number and size of the cells will depend on the following factors:

· Function of the cell
· Security measures employed by the government
· Sophistication of the group


Function of the Cell

Terrorist cells are task organized for specific missions. A cell whose purpose is solely to construct explosive devices may only consist of one or two specifically trained individuals. They do not plant the devices they construct nor do they determine targets or participate in any other function of the organization. Conversely, a group that is planning a kidnapping will require a large number of cells with different missions, all supporting the final objective. Sometimes cells have no knowledge of the operation of any other element in the group. The size of the cell will vary depending on the operation; however, a working figure of 3 to 5 people per cell is normally used.


Security Measures
Employed by the

When governments employ strict security measures, this becomes a factor when determining the size of the terrorist cell. Strict measures usually require the terrorist organization to operate with smaller, easier to control cells. It is much more difficult to track down and break a small cell with a decentralized command and control than a group with a large and often cumbersome centralized command and control.


Sophistication of the Group The level of experience that a group has perpetrating terrorist acts will increase its level of sophistication. A more sophisticated terrorist group will have an intricate clandestine communication system in place. This minimizes the need for face-to- face communication, and enhances the covert nature of their intended operation. A less sophisticated or experienced group will not have such a communication system in place; however, over time these systems are sure to develop.

LESSON 3 - Analysis, continued

Analysis, continued

Category of Cells Within a Terrorist

Whether large or small, terrorist groups are all composed of the following cells:

· Command cell
· Operational and Clandestine cell
· Intelligence cell
· Support cell
· Reconnaissance cell
· Assault cell

Each of these cells performs its own specific role or function based on the mission of the terrorist group.


Command Cell

The command cell provides the command and control element and oversees all decisions of the terrorist group. The command cell is responsible for the structure and security of the terrorist group. All plans are carried out according to the plans and orders laid out by this cell.


Operational and
Clandestine Cell

The Operational and Clandestine (O&C) cell is the building block for which all groups are formed. This cell is the action arm of the terrorist group. In sophisticated groups, this cell may be highly specialized. In new or less sophisticated groups, the O&C cell may have to conduct a wider range of activities. Under the control of the O&C cell are the intelligence cell, the support cell, the reconnaissance cell, and the assault cell.


Intelligence Cell The intelligence cell collects and processes information on potential targets and develops specific intelligence relevant to targeted facilities, installations, and personnel including their security. This information is given to the group leaders for operational planning. The intelligence cell is highly compartmentalized and follows very strict security procedures. Because of the important role these persons play in the organization, they are often protected from exposure during an actual operation. Members of the intelligence cell often possess a greater knowledge of the inner workings and structure of the organization.

LESSON 3 - Analysis, continued

Analysis, continued

Support Cell

The support cell is also known as the auxiliary cell. The support cell is responsible for fundraising, gathering sympathizers, screening recruits, and distributing propaganda. This cell usually performs logistical functions for the group. It is often made up of professionals, such as doctors, lawyers, bankers, and others who may be dedicated to the ideals of the movement, but not to the extent that they are willing to sacrifice their professional status.


Reconnaissance Cell

The reconnaissance cell provides pre-strike, eyes-on information about the intended target. Information such as the target’s home layout, types of vehicles, route studies, and any other personal or professional information necessary to access the target. This cell works hand in hand with the intelligence cell in building operational plans.


Assault Cell

The assault cell is the cell that actually carries out the mission. The assault cell is further broken down into three teams:

· Command team – Provides leadership and ensures discipline is maintained throughout training and the actual assault. This team provides on-site command and control.

· Assault team – The assault team carries out the operation.

· Security team – The security team provides security for the assault team’s training site. A security team may be in the background when an operation is taking place to ensure nothing prevents the assault team from successfully completing the mission.


Hierarchy of a Terrorist Group

LESSON 3 - Common Characteristics

Common Characteristics

General Terrorist

Regardless of the final objective, terrorist groups all have certain common characteristics. Terrorist groups all:

· Promote fear – Terrorist groups seek to intimidate populations by promoting and spreading fear.

· Are militarily weaker – Even though some groups have achieved a high level of sophistication and are heavily armed, they remain weaker than the governments they fight. This means that they must resort to hit-and-run, guerilla tactics and will be reluctant to take up a static defensive posture against a stronger enemy unless they possess a “bargaining chip” such as hostages. When a group loses militarily, it also loses the image of invincibility and power it strives to foster. They are offensive by nature, not defensive.

· Do not equate tactical success with mission success – Although the terrorist group may suffer personnel losses or fail to achieve it’s desired result in the execution of an operation, it may still be considered a success if it achieves favorable publicity for the cause.

· Are usually urban based and highly mobile – Being urban based affords the terrorists all the benefits of modern society; communication, mass transportation, money laundering, and international contacts who may have access to documents needed to travel frequently to other cities and countries in search of safe havens and support.


· Usually operate covertly – Although some large organizations have overt politically oriented members, most are of a clandestine nature, which enhances their flexibility and effectiveness. This can also become a problem. Terrorist operatives are required to remain underground for extended periods, while at the same time operating an intricate support and operation system. Sometimes this will lead to mistakes on the part of terrorists allowing evasive action to be taken by the intended target, and sometimes leads to the capture of the group.




Terrorist operations are paramilitary in nature so it is not surprising that there are many similarities in the training of terrorists and in the training of Special Operations Forces of the United States. In this lesson, you will learn the different types of terrorist training as well as the aspects of a terrorist training program.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to


· Identify the difference between internal training and external training.
· Identify the aspects of a terrorist training program.

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics:

- Introduction
- Types
- Program


LESSON 4 - Types



Terrorist training missions, being paramilitary in nature, are oriented to the mission, area of operation, and the security environment in which the operation will take place. Most of the training is standardized. Historically, works such as the “Mini-manual for the Urban Guerilla,” by Brazilian terrorist Carlos Marighella, and the writings of revolutionary leaders Mao Tse-tung, Che Guevara, and Fidel Castro are used as instructional texts and indoctrination material. Discipline is strictly enforced and trainees are closely monitored for signs of weakness in their ability or ideological commitment.

There are two types of training available to terrorists:


· Internal training
· External training



Internal training is conducted at the cellular level by members of the group within the target country usually in a clandestine fashion. Internal training is similar to squad or fire team level training in the U.S. military in that one person possesses a particular expertise and trains the remainder of the unit locally. If secure areas are available, permanent facilities will be constructed. If no secure environment can be found within the operational area, training will be conducted in safe-houses, in a clandestine manner.


Non-group members outside of the operational area conduct external training. External training can take on two different forms.


· First - The operatives may travel abroad, individually or in small groups, to training camps or other permanent installations for their training. Once the training has been completed, the terrorists will return to their home territory to put their training into practice.

· Second - An operational element from a terrorist group travels intact, as a unit to the external training area in another country. This training is designed for a specific operation, an airport attack for example, and is conducted in mock-ups of the actual attack site. From the training location, the terrorists deploy directly to the operational area to conduct the act.


LESSON 4 - Program


Typical Training

As stated earlier, terrorist training is similar to the types of training most Special Operations Forces receive. Terrorists are known to capitalize on the open nature of our society and our willingness to publish potentially damaging material. Material such as the “Anarchists Cook Book,” “Poor Man’s James Bond,” and versions of special forces operation manuals are examples of damaging material. This material instruct individuals on how to build bombs, how to counterfeit money, perform different types of fraud, and so on. If anyone can order these books through open sources, we must assume that terrorists have also bought and used them. A typical training regimen consists of the following items:

· Physical & Mental Conditioning
· Weapons & Explosives Training
· Political Indoctrination
· General/Specific Tactics & Combat Training
· Tradecraft
· Psychological Warfare
· Survival
· Communications


Physical and Mental

Physical conditioning is used to ensure that the terrorist is able to withstand the rigors of anticipated activity to complete the mission. Mental conditioning is used to put the terrorist in the proper mindset when placed in stressful situations or even to resist interrogations if captured.

Weapons and Explosives

Weapons’ training is a basic factor for all terrorists. Terrorists need to know how to employ a variety of weapons in a split second. Employment of conventional and improvised explosives has become a method of choice for terrorist attacks.


Political Indoctrination This is intended to plant or reinforce the ideals of the group within the individual member. Basic seminars on ideology and advanced theoretical classes for the leadership can be expected.
General/Specific Tactics and Combat General tactics and combat techniques learned from military manuals enhance the effectiveness of the group. A group planning on conducting a hostage barricade will certainly want to know how to employ their weapons effectively, what techniques the authorities may use against them, and how they can best counteract those techniques.

LESSON 4 - Program, continued

Program, continued


Tradecraft training teaches the terrorist to do things such as emplacing or recovering caches or perhaps opening someone’s mail, photographing the contents and reseating the envelope without the recipient knowing it has been tampered with. Covert entry into a victim’s home or office, as well as wiretapping may also be learned.

Psychological Warfare

Psychological warfare enables the terrorist to select his exact audience. Learning how to deal with different types of people will aid in the effectiveness of the operation. Terrorists develop ways to instill fear in groups of people and elicit sympathy from others.


Survival is not always associated with hardships that must be endured in deep jungles or searing desert heat. It also pertains to operations within towns or villages within the targeted country. Terrorists may have points of contact and safe-havens in the local populace and not stand out and risk compromise.

Communication Communication is the cornerstone of any good operation. Terrorists need to know how to utilize various methods of communications, from the basic telephone, to the internet, even satellites, and other means of communication.





Terrorist attacks are normally meticulously planned, allowing for the greatest chance of success and safe escape for the terrorists. Study unit 2 taught how terrorists operate, the importance of establishing yourself as a hard target, and determining ways to avoid becoming a victim of a terrorist attack. Equally important is being able to detect terrorist surveillance. The faster you can detect possible surveillance, the easier it is to prevent an attack. In this study unit, you will learn the following:

· What surveillance is
· The different methods of surveillance
· The phases of surveillance
· Techniques employed to detect surveillance

After completing this study unit, you will be able to identify methods used to detect surveillance.

In This Study Unit

This study unit contains the following lessons:

- Surveillance
- Techniques Employed




Reducing your vulnerability and enhancing personal security is vital to your efforts to deter terrorist attacks. In most cases, the target that terrorists select to attack is based on lengthy surveillance. In this lesson, you will learn what surveillance is, the different methods of surveillance and how those methods are employed.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to

· Recall the definition of surveillance.
· Recall different methods of surveillance.
· Recall the most difficult type of surveillance method to employ.
· Recall the phases of surveillance.

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics:

- Introduction
- What is Surveillance?
- Methods
- Phases

LESSON 1 - What is Surveillance?

What is Surveillance?


Surveillance is the continuous or periodic act of observing, usually by surreptitious means, a person, a place, or an object for the purpose of obtaining information, otherwise unavailable or impractical to obtain.

Surveillance is more than just the simple act of following or trailing someone. Through surveillance, terrorists hope to learn about your habits and assess where and when you are most vulnerable.


Simply put, the objective of surveillance is to gather all information possible on a particular subject so that the data can be utilized in a plan of action. This greatly enhances the likelihood of a successful operation.

General Items

Overall there are general items of information that terrorists hope to gather during surveillance, preferably information on the subject’s

· Residence or worksite
· Mode of transportation
· Routes to and from work
· Routine behavior
· General security awareness
· Places frequented
· Types of protective measures used
· Security forces in the area


Residence or Worksite

Statistics show that most terrorist attacks occur near the residence or worksite. Therefore, it is very difficult for the subject to remain unpredictable near these locations. Terrorists need to gather as much information as possible in order for them to be intimately familiar with the areas surrounding these locations. Planning will be quite different if the subject resides in a rural area rather than an urban area. Terrorist must take into account all the variables that are likely to affect their tactical planning.


Mode of Transportation The majority of terrorist attacks directed against Americans involve automobiles. This makes it essential for terrorist surveillants to obtain as much information as possible about a subject’s mode of transportation. Use of a privately-owned vehicle, car pools, chauffeured vehicles, or public transportation will all have different effects on the terrorist’s tactical planning.

LESSON 1 - What is Surveillance?, continued

What is Surveillance?, continued

Routes To and From Work

An in-depth knowledge of routes the subject uses to travel to and from work or to other static locations that the subject frequents on a recurring basis is very helpful to a terrorist. The planning will be quite different if the subject uses rural or isolated routes rather than on major highways and urban areas.

Routine Behavior

The aspect of the subject’s everyday routine will have the strongest impact on whether or not the sub ject will become a target. Without a doubt, the more predictable the subject is, the easier it will be for the terrorists to accomplish their operation.

General Security Awareness

The subject’s general security awareness is of prime importance to the terrorists. If the subject continues to be unaware of a threat or even denies it exists, the terrorist’s planning will be that much simpler.

Places Frequented

Information about places the subject frequently visits will come into play when determining the method of surveillance that will be used. This information is also necessary to figure out possible disguises or the type of ruse that may be needed to accomplish the mission.


Types of Protective
Measures Used
The type of protective measures used is absolutely critical information for the terrorists’ planning. This includes information on security systems employed at the subject’s residence and at the workplace (guards, roving patrols, closedcircuit TV, dogs, etc.).
Security Forces in the Area The location, reaction time, and type of police or security forces that could respond to an attack on the subject are of vital importance to the terrorist. This will affect the entire planning process to include weapons used, defense tactics, escape routes, and time hacks. If security is extremely high, the terrorists will not take the risk.

LESSON 1 - Methods



There are multiple methods of surveillance used by terrorists. Whether it is stationary or moving, eavesdropping, monitoring, and even searching through garbage and personal effects, a terrorist is constantly trying to collect as much information as possible. Becoming more familiar with the techniques used for surveillance, you can become more efficient in detecting surveillance at an early stage.


Stationary or fixed surveillance is the most common method employed by the terrorist organization. Many terrorist attacks take place near the residence of the intended target because that is the part of the daily routine that is the least varied. People are more vulnerable in the mornings when departing for work, and departure times are more predictable than evening arrivals.


Hotel rooms, apartments, houses, offices, and businesses – Although these are seldom easy to acquire, fixed locations provide the surveillants the best defense against detection. However, acquisition of a fixed location usually leaves a paper trail to the terrorist.


Vans, utility vehicles, and automobiles – Terrorist organizations will use stationary ve hicles to conduct their surveillance. Vans with windows that allow outside observation make good surveillance platforms. When vans are used, more than likely there will be some sort of business logo attached to provide a reason for being in the area.


Utilizing Ruses

When conducting surveillance, terrorists must have a plausible reason for being in the area. This ruse or cover for action is only limited to the imagination of the terrorist. Commonly used ruses include:

· Person having automobile problems
· Salesperson
· Priest
· Individuals walking a dog/pushing a baby carriage
· Utility/Construction worker
· Police officer

Women/or children are often used to give the greater appearance of innocence.

LESSON 1 - Methods, continued

Methods, continued


En route or moving surveillance is the most difficult type of surveillance to conduct. To accomplish this type of surveillance, the terrorist must place individuals or vehicles close to the subject while the subject is moving. Moving surveillance can be accomplished

· On foot
· In a vehicle


One or more individuals may undertake foot surveillance. Surveillants must remain relatively close to the subject. This makes one-person surveillance fairly easy to detect. Surveillance by two or more people is more complicated to accomplish, and although it provides greater flexibility, it also requires more training. The organization of a foot team usually requires at least three but no more than eight operators, with five or six being ideal.


Vehicle surveillance is more commonly used against Americans than foot surveillance primarily because as Americans we are more likely to travel by vehicle than on foot. Like foot surveillance, one or more vehicles may undertake vehicle surveillance. Vehicle surveillance requires a high degree of sophistication and training.

· At a minimum in one-person surveillance, the person in the vehicle must have a tape recorder.


· If no recorder is available, then two people are required in each vehicle; one to drive, the other to act as an observer/recorder.

· Five or six vehicles are ideal with two or more operators in each vehicle.

· The vehicles used are generally common to the area and have no distinguishing marks.

· Additionally, if more than one vehicle is employed, radio communications among the vehicles are mandatory.


LESSON 1 - Methods, continued

Methods, continued

Leading In leading surveillance, the surveillants travel in front of the subject while the observer watches for turns. When the subject turns, the observer makes a note of the turn. The next time the subject is surveyed, the surveillants make a turn where the subject previously made the turn. Over a period of time the surveillants will discover the entire route.

There are two methods that can be used to cond uct progressive surveillance. In the first method, individuals are placed at key intersections along the probable route of the subject. When the subject turns, it is noted, and the positions of the surveillants are adjusted on subsequent occasions. This method, while more secure from the surveillants’ point of view, is time consuming and very manpower intensive.

The other progressive surveillance method is more commonly used. In this method, the surveillants follow the subject in a vehicle. When the subject turns, it is noted. On the next occasion the surveillants pick up the subject where the turn previously occurred.

Both methods will eventually uncover the entire route, but they also maintain a minimal chance of compromise. That is why it is important to vary yourroutes on a regular basis.


With the advances in technology, terrorists have readily available to them numerous devices to assist their surveillance efforts. These include, but are not limited to

· Cameras (still and video)
· Vehicle tracking devices (lojack)
· Listening/recording devices
· Computers
· GPS systems

These devices can be used to assist in identifying a prospective target and recording his/her movements. They may also be used to record the security procedures employed by the subject.


In a terrorist environment, you can expect to have a combination of all the surveillance techniques employed against you. Stationary surveillance at your residence, vehicular surveillance while you are moving, and electronic surveillance recording all of your activity.


LESSON 1 - Phases


Target Assessment/

The first phase in terrorist surveillance is known as the Target Assessment/ Selection phase. During this phase the terrorist group will compile a list of potential targets based on the group’s objectives and capabilities. The group will then determine who is the most vulnerable to attack, and when. If the list of potential targets is large, the group may have to resort to outside assistance in order to obtain the information the group needs to make the final target selection. This phase of surveillance is the weakest link in the operational planning primarily because of two factors:

· The amount of information needed to make a proper assessment of the potential targets requires the surveillance to continue for a substantial period of time.

· The necessity for the terrorist group to go outside the cadre for assistancein obtaining the necessary information usually results in newer, less experienced surveillance personnel. They may or may not know the reason for the surveillance and are usually selected for their ability to pass a police inspection.


The second phase in terrorist surveillance is known as the Attack/Operational phase. This phase begins after the target is selected. The routines and patterns are already known so surveillance is now reduced. At this point the most experienced members of the terrorist organization normally conducts the surveillance. Detection now becomes extremely difficult and may have no influence on the outcome of the operation.



Scope Detecting terrorist surveillance in the early stages of planning is crucial to negating terrorist attacks. In this lesson, you will learn the different techniques employed to detect terrorist surveillance.
Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to

· Identify methods used to detect stationary surveillance.
· Identify methods used to detect moving surveillance.
· Identify the rules to help you remember to maintain a high sense of
awareness and assist you in detecting surveillance.
· Identify the ways to train yourself in making accurate observations.
· Identify the important characteristics to make accurate descriptions.


In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics:

- Introduction
- Detecting
- Observation
- Description

LESSON 2 - Detecting


Stationary When attempting to detect surveillance from a stationary location, you must keep in mind that terrorist surveillance personnel will do everything in their power to blend in with their surroundings in order to protect their anonymity. The first thing you must do to detect stationary surveillance is to become intimately familiar with your surroundings. Figure out what normal behavior is in your area so that you can recognize anything that may be out of the ordinary. An excellent aid to assist you in becoming familiar with your surrounding is a neighborhood pattern analysis.
Pattern Analysis

A neighborhood pattern analysis is simply a sketch map of your neighborhood detailing such things as


· Types of vehicles used by your neighbors.
· Times and places they park.
· Knowledge about vehicle license plates.
· Service vehicles and personnel normally in the neighborhood, and what
times they are usually present.
· Locations of manhole covers, telephone, and power mains.
· Presence, times, and locations of venders.
· Any other information you feel is pertinent in becoming familiar with
your surroundings.

If you maintain an accurate pattern analysis, it will be easier for you to recognize anything suspicious.


In order to detect moving surveillance, it is necessary to increase your awareness to the point where attention to detail becomes an integral part of your daily activities. Several rules to remember can help you maintain a heightened sense of awareness and assist you in detecting surveillance.

LESSON 2 - Detecting, continued

Detecting, continued

Rules to Remember

The following are rules to remember to assist you in detecting surveillance:

· Never assume that your surveillants are men. Terrorism is not a phenomenon of only the male gender, nor are terrorists recognizable by any features that only they would display. They could very easily be women or children


· Do not assume that the surveillance will be behind you. The surveillants could be deployed in front or across from you. They may also be posted above you using windows and rooftops.


· Force anyone attempting to keep you under surveillance to make a statement. Cause them to react in such a way that you can observe their response to actions you take, thereby identifying themselves as surveillants. Untrained or, for that matter, experienced surveillance personnel have an acute fear of being detected. This is a natural fear that you may be able to exploit.

· Employ passive maneuvers. Passive maneuvers are techniques that do not draw attention to you. These simple maneuvers allow you to confirm, or at least get an indication, that someone may be watching you without confronting them. Remember that an overtly compromised surveillant may commit a hostile act towards you.

Common Passive

The following are common passive maneuvers used on foot or while driving:

When on foot:
- Retrace your course (often called a reverse 180). This is an effective way to get glimpses of people around you. Stairs and escalators are excellent for this purpose, as is shopping from the rear to the front of a store. If you retrace your course a few times, you should begin to spot the same faces, indicating that you are probably under surveillance.

- Use window and mirror reflections to observe the actions of the people around you.

- Change your pace. Normally people walk at a steady pace. If you alternate in walking slowly and rapidly, you force anyone conducting surveillance to adjust his or her pace accordingly. As you alter your pace, observe who else around you is altering their pace.

If you maintain an accurate pattern analysis, it will be easier for you to recognize anything suspicious.


Remember, you are trying to force the surveillants to make a statement. While taking these actions, watch for people who are taken by surprise, react inappropriately, suddenly change direction, or give a signal to someone else. Because of the surveillants’ fear of discovery, normally they will not look directly at you, but they may do so if they are surprised or unaware that you are observing them.

While driving:
- Alternately slow down and speed up
- Signal for turns and then continue straight ahead
- Make a U-turn where it is safe to do so
- Stop on the shoulder of the road just beyond a curve or hilltop
- Circle the block using a series of right-hand turns
- Go through a traffic light just as it is turning red

LESSON 2 - Detecting, continued

Detecting, continued

Route Survey

Become intimately familiar with the routes that you will travel. Conducting a thorough route survey for each route taken. At a minimum these surveys should include:


· Route description – Note the starting point, the finishing point, the general direction, and the total distance.
· Road surface/condition – Note whether the road is concrete, gravel, dirt, excessive potholes, etc.
· Effects of weather – Note any changes that will affect or alter driving time.
· Construction – Note the starting and ending points of the construction. Any alterations to the route must be noted.
· Traffic patterns – Note the driving times at different times of the day.
· Chokepoints – Such as:
- Traffic control points
- Toll booths
- One way streets
- Traffic circles
- Narrow bridges
- Entrance and exit ramps
· Potential danger areas – Such as:
- Public gathering areas
- Universities/schools
- Political headquarters
- Poverty areas

· Safe areas – Note locations where you can go in the event of danger:
- diplomatic facilities
- Police/fire stations
- Hospitals
- Military facilities
- Church/mosque/sites of worship


Some indicators of possible sur veillance to be aware of are vehicles that


· Remain parked in the same spot for an extended period of time.
· Start and stop at the same time you do.
· Pass and park.
· Drive too fast or too slow for traffic conditions.
· Pause in a traffic circle until you pass or exit.
· Appear broken down
· Have altered or obstructed license plates

If possible, maintain a daily log of activities. Record anything that seems out of the ordinary or suspicious throughout your day. If you determine that there are any reoccurring suspic ious people, vehicles, or situations along different routes, then ensure that the proper authorities are notified and an investigation is started.

If you feel you are under surveillance, never confront the surveillance personnel. If you feel threatened, immediately go to a safe area. As soon as possible make a complete and detailed report.


LESSON 2 - Observation



Observation can be defined as “the complete awareness by an individual of his surrounding, achieved through maximum employment of the senses.” To become an expert observer, one must be able to recognize and recall any object or situation accurately, fully, and clearly.


Our ability to perceive depends upon our ability, experience, and training in relation to our environment, for you to perceive a means to see and understand. As an example, before you bought your car you probably did not see many of that kind of car on the road, but after purchasing it, you saw quite a few. Why? Because you were consciously looking for them.


Accurate observation requires the mental effort necessary to recognize, analyze, and relate the essential parts of our surroundings and to interpret the patterns present. The problem is that we usually perceive or comprehend only that which interests us or is capable of being understood with minimum effort. A person untrained in observation usually perceives another person as a whole and not as a grouping of particular physical characteristics. We meet people everyday, but these meetings do nothing to enhance our ability to describe features of a person. You must purposely practice and train your mind to develop this skill.


To train yourself to make accurate observations, you must
· Practice continual and complete awareness and alertness.
· Replace casual observation of general items with study and observation of details.
· Train yourself to estimate accurately the passage of time, speed of moving objects, and distances.
· Be familiar with descriptive terms pertaining to colors and shades of colors, makes and models of vehicles, and terms that describe clothing and physical characteristics of people indigenous to the area.
· Be able to visualize what takes place in our presence.

Remember the crucial part to observation is not to remember every face and
every scene, just concentrate on retention of details that will most likely affect
the operation.

LESSON 2 - Description



Description can be defined as the technique of factually reporting one’s own observations of an experience. The purpose of a description is to present an accurate picture, in words, of an experience. An accurate but incomplete description is much better than a complete but inaccurate one. While descriptions should be as complete as possible so they can be used by others who have never seen the subject of the description, time and circumstances do not always permit completing the long form description.


At a minimum, the following items should be included in an accurate description:

· Distinguishing characteristics – Almost everyone possesses some distinguishing or outstanding physical characteristic. This becomes the most important part of a person’s description. Some examples are

- Body scars and marks
- Walk
- Voice
- Dress

- Shoes

· General characteristics – Six general characteristics are used in the description of individuals:
- Sex
- Race
- Age
- Height
- Weight
- Build

· Changeable characteristics – Changeable characteristics are those aspects of a person’s appearance that can be readily changed to affect a disguise:
- Hair style/color
- Glasses

LESSON 2 - Description, continued

Description, continued


When describing a vehicle, use the same basic format used to describe people.
· Distinguishing characteristics – Dents or scratches
· General characteristics – Make and type of vehicle
· Changeable characteristics – License plate number
· Permanent details – Four-door, two-door or hatchback

Honing Your Skills

It is important for each individual to increase his/her powers of observation and then be able to describe or “paint” that word picture based on those observations. With these skills, detecting surveillance and preventing terrorist attacks will become much easier. The following are a couple of exercises that can assist you in sharpening your skills:

· Conduct your route survey. After conducting the survey, have another individual drive your route while you are blindfolded. While en route, describe where you are based on your perceptions.

· Have someone place articles in a small box, arranging them in a particular pattern. Look at the contents for a short period of time, then close the box and describe what you saw and in what relationship to each other the items were in the box. As your proficiency improves, add or subtract items and decrease the amount of time used to observe the open box.





To maintain a posture of a hard target, it is important to increase the security and awareness measures in the places where most of your time is spent – your personal residence and place of work.

Study unit 3 taught you what surveillance is and how to detect it. The majority of surveillance is going to be conducted at places easy to access the intended target. Throughout this study unit, you will learn ways to increase the security of your residence and your place of work.

In This Study Unit

This study unit contains the following lessons:

- Residential Security
- Protective Measures Used in the Workplace




For most people, over half of their time during the day is spent in or around their residence. Based on this, you should make your residence as secure as possible. In this lesson, you will learn measures that should be taken to ensure residential security.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to

· Identify the precautions to take when selecting a residential site.
· Identify methods used to enhance physical security of the residence.
· Identify personal security and safety measures.
· Identify how to create the appearance of occupancy when you are away from the residence.


In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics:

- Introduction
- Selecting a Residence
- Securing the Exterior
- Securing the Interior
- Safety Considerations
- Servants

LESSON 1 - Selecting a Residence

Selecting a Residence

Choosing A Site

When selecting a site for your residence there are many things to consider. Safety, different routes, neighborhood patterns, even your landlord and neighbors must be considered. Your best bet is to look at things from a terrorist’s viewpoint. If you were to attack someone, who or what would be your easiest target? When possible, compare all available options before deciding on a place.

Options for Housing

The following are options to consider when determining where to live:

· A single family home might be the least desirable. This will require a high degree of security, and thereby give you a high profile. Living in an area where there are other nationals or friendly foreign nationals might provide a higher degree of safety without causing a great deal of attention to be focused on you.

· Apartments can offer the benefit of close neighbors and limited entries and exits, but they also offer easy access to the lobby and building.

· If possible, avoid homes that have limited routes of ingress and egress. Avoid homes on dead-end streets or cul-de-sacs. Selecting a residence that has several roads nearby will offer you more escape routes in the event of an attack.

· Investigate your prospective landlord and neighbors. Avoid renting from anyone that has ties to terrorists or who are sympathetic to their cause.

Examine the Neighborhood

When determining if a neighborhood is a safe environment to live in, you want to consider the following aspects:

· How reliable are the police and rescue systems? Not only do you have to think about the reliability, but the proximity of these facilities. Are these facilities close to your home? The distance can work both ways for you. If you are in close proximity to a police station this could deter a terrorist from attacking due to fear of a quick response. On the other hand, these facilities may be targets themselves and your home may be dangerously close to the actual targets.


· Are there any late-night establishments in the area? If an attack were to take place, could you gather your family and proceed to a safe public place? Terrorists may be deterred by the possibility of innocent civilians or indigenous persons getting injured.


· What is the attitude of the neighborhood toward the terrorist movement and towards your nation? This is especially important in foreign nations.

· Is there anything else that might affect the safety of your home and family? Possibly a neighborhood watch program, security patrols, etc.

LESSON 1 - Securing the Exterior

Securing the Exterior


There are many options available to you when it comes to increasing security on the exterior of your residence. You must understand that there are very few security systems that will keep you completely safe. They will provide you with more time and warning in the event of an attack, and more importantly, they may motivate the terrorists to attack a less security conscious target. Let us look at some of your options.

High Walls and

Walls and fences will limit the view of your residence, preventing terrorists from having easy access to surveillance. These barriers may also protect you from drive-by attacks. If the laws allow, consider placing barbed wire or broken glass on the tops of the wall. All items such as tree branches, poles, and trash cans, should be removed so they can not be used as a tool to gain access to your residence. All gates should be sturdy, in good working condition, and locked when not in use.

Trees and Shrubs

Tall trees and shrubs serve as a screen to anyone trying to observe the grounds of the residence. Shrubbery inside the perimeter should be trimmed so intruders cannot be concealed.

Dogs The size of the dog is of little importance. Trained guard dogs may cause fear in many intruders; however, an animal will pose little problem to a determined professional. Use a dog primarily as an alarm. A loud and alert dog is much more effective than an intimidating dog.
Warning Signs Signs on your fence and house advertising the presence of an alarm system or a dog, may cause terrorists to choose another target.
Lighting Exterior lighting is one of the most effective deterrents to entry. Security lighting should be designed to expose low-contrast targets that may be visible for only a few seconds. Lighting should be installed so that the loss of one lamp will not leave an area totally dark.
Night Watchmen If you happen to hire a security guard or elect a neighborhood watch representative, make sure to check their backgrounds extensively before hiring them. If guards are employed, try to avoid twelve-hour shifts. Studies have shown that tours in excess of eight hours degrade effectiveness. Training of these individuals is paramount. Ensure they have successfully completed any required protection training, are trained to handle emergencies, and are in strict compliance with local laws concerning weapons handling. Guards should always be warned against flashing weapons in an unprofessional manner.

LESSON 1 - Securing the Interior

Securing the Interior


Never restrict security measures to just the exterior of your residence. There are a multitude of options to increase the interior of your residence as well. The following are all considerations for extra protection.


Consider the strength of each door when it is opened and when it is closed. If possible, a steel door without windows would be the best choice. It is recommended that you change the existing locks in your new residence unless you can positively determine that you have the only available keys. At a minimum, each door should

· Be equipped with heavy duty hinges
· Have one dead bolt lock
· Have a push button lock on the doorknob, allowing you to activate the lock quickly if an emergency occurs.


When secured, evaluate the effort required to force entry.


Windows should always be properly secured. They are likely to be the weakest link in your home security. Mylar film coating should be considered for all surfaces. This will prevent the shattering of glass and reinforce the strength of the windows. For the most part, intruders will avoid breaking glass unless absolutely necessary. This leaves the intruder no choice but to defeat the windows locking device. The following methods can be used to upgrade window security:

· Sash and frame pin – This method involves the drilling of a hole through the sash and frame and inserting a pin or nail to prevent the window from opening.


· Key locks – A key lock can either be installed as a part of the window by replacing the standard window lock, or it can be used to secure the frame, blocking the raising or sliding of the window.

· Steel bars, mesh, or grillwork – This method is more of a permanent measure. The installation of bars, mesh, or grillwork are the most secure, however, they can be very expensive to install.


Note: Keep in mind that these measures may enhance security, but can also
become a hazard should the window be needed for escape in an

LESSON 1 - Securing the Interior, continued

Securing the Interior, continued


An alarm system should be considered for doors, windows, and other possible entry points into the house. An effective alarm system should
· Allow ingress and egress to all primary entrances through the use of timing devices.
· Be equipped with an emergency panic button.
· Have external horns, sirens, and bells loud enough to alert the neighbors.
· Have a bright flashing light mounted so that emergency personnel can easily observe it.
· Have audio and visual indicators inside the residence to awaken or notify the residents. (Exceptions include duress systems (silent alarms) which should be connected to a police station or private security station.)
· Be checked periodically to ensure against tampering or loss of power.

Cameras, Optical
Viewers, and

If cameras and closed circuit TV (CCTV) are available, use them. If not, consider using dummy CCTV cameras as a deterrent.

Using optical viewers (peepholes) and intercoms will allow you to identify who is outside your door without exposing you directly to the person. Always exercise care when using an optical viewer. When your eye is placed close to the viewer, the light behind you is blocked, and the attacker may suspect that you are in front of the door. At this point, the attacker can shoot through the door, or possibly detonate an explosive device. Instead of standing in front of the door, approach it from the side. Raise a book in front of the viewer and ask who is at the door. Exercise the same precautions with an intercom system. Run the intercom wires so that the speaker boxes are placed on opposite sides of the door. If the terrorist shoots through the intercom box on his side of the doorway, you will not get hit.


If guns are kept inside the residence, they should be loaded and kept in a safe place. They must be accessible to those who need them, without endangering children or those untrained in their use. If it is inadvisable to keep a gun in the house because of laws or personal reasons, consider using a stun gun, mace, or clubs. Ensure you are proficient in the use of whatever weapons you use. What is more important is making sure you have the proper mindset. If you are not willing to use the weapon to save the lives of yourself or those you love, then the weapon will become a danger to you. If you are unwilling to use the weapon, do not pick it up.

LESSON 1 - Safety Considerations

Safety Considerations


In addition to having the proper equipment necessary to increase the security of your residence, it is also very important to educate yourself and your family members about personal security and safety measures to be aware of. You should cultivate interest and participation from all family members. There are certain behavioral aspects concerning family members that you should take into account:

· Know where your family members are at all times. In the event of an attack, you will be in a better frame of mind to deal with the situation.


· Have your dependents vary their routines or patterns. Just as you would do yourself in efforts to maintain status as a hard target, ensure your family members are varying their everyday activities.

· Brief all family members on their roles and responsibilities when it comes to protective measures. Terrorists often use family members as a means to get to their intended target. A better understanding of how to react will increase the chances of survival for yo ur family members.


Escape Routes

Always establish a primary and an alternate escape route out of your residence leading to a rally point. Rehearse these routes at various times of the day, tracking the different amounts of time and hazards along the way. If you live on the second floor or higher levels, plan secure ways to exit. Portable ladders and ropes are useful in these cases.

Safe Havens

In the event of any attack, establish a safe haven you can go to until reinforcements arrive. Safe havens should have more than one entrance and exit, with the openings being strong and locking systems sturdy. Stock the room with emergency items such as water, food, flashlights, candles, blankets, first aid supplies, required medicines, weapons, and ammunition. There should also be a communication system and the ability to contact security forces and activate any exterior alarms from inside the room. Ensure the room has a fire extinguisher and proper ventilation in case a fire was to break out.

LESSON 1 - Safety Considerations, continued

Safety Considerations, continued


Each phone should post emergency telephone numbers, such as the police, fire department, and rescue services. Always be cautious of phone conversations and be aware that the phone could be tapped. Be sure to locate a public phone or a neighbor’s phone near the house, and advise your family members of its location for emergency use. If you happen to get suspicious calls, try to record the conversations and ensure the proper authorities are notified.


Two Way

If your home is equipped with a two-way radio, each member of the family must know how to use it. Children should be taught how to use the radio, as it is often ignored in serious incidents and could possibly signal a warning.

Emergency Contact System

An emergency contact system should be established so that help can be rushed to your location should an attack occur. Select a system that will allow direct contact with the response force, your office, and your neighbors. The system should consist of a primary duress system (radio/phone), an alternate system (horn/siren), and a covert system (silent alarms). In the event of an attack, activate as many systems as possible to ensure your call for help gets out. Always test your communication systems frequently, ensuring everything
works properly.

Create the Appearance of Occupancy

If you are away from your residence for extended periods of time, there are multiple things you can do to create the appearance of someone occupying your home:

· Ask neighbors to place garbage in your garbage can.
· Arrange for someone to pick up your mail/newspaper daily.
· Set timers on lights and other appliances to turn on and off at different times.
· Arrange for lawn services to continue on a regular basis.
· Turn down the telephone ringer, and the answering machine.
· Park your vehicle in a safe and secure place. If no place is available, consider loaning the vehicle to a friend. This measure may prevent terrorists from planting a device on your vehicle while you are away.
· Inform the local police/guards and neighbors (if trustworthy), that you will be away from your residence.

LESSON 1 - Servants


Hiring Considerations

There are many precautions that must be taken if you are considering to hire servants, especially in a foreign nation. Often times, servants will be provided for you at the discretion of the host nation. These are the individuals you should be most cautious about. Servants should not be hired unless they have undergone an extensive background check performed by the appropriate investigating agency, the American Embassy, or military police.


Valuable Sources

Servants can either be a vulnerability or a contributor to the security effort. If they are trustworthy, you can incorporate them as a positive asset in security. If your servants are indigenous to the area, they may be able to provide indepth knowledge as to what is unusual or suspicious that you might not notice. Another set of ears and eyes to keep track of what is going on. However, if the wrong servants are hired, they can be releasing valuable information and have access to critical areas of your home.


Servants should be thoroughly briefed on the matters of visitors. When answering the door, instruct servants not to admit strangers, such as repairmen, police officers, or others without specific approval. Doors should not be opened or unlocked until visitors have been properly identified. If necessary, contact the visitor’s office using a number obtained from a telephone directory. If the visit is legitimate, the visitor will not mind the inconvenience. Always brief servants on visitors expected time of arrival and purpose of visit so that only the proper parties are admitted.

Telephone Security

Many servants are trained to answer the telephone with the family name. Brief your servants against this procedure and inform them not to give any information over the phone until the caller has been identified.

Mail Security Instruct servants not to accept any suspicious mail at home. If possible have your mail, especially packages, routed through the embassy. The mail staff is specially trained to recognize suspicious packages. If an unexpected package arrives, have the deliverer open the package at a safe distance away from your residence, but at a point where you can still observe.




As stated earlier, a majority of your time is spent in your residence. Another
large chunk of time is spent at the workplace. It is vital that you do not
discount the office as a terrorist target.


Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to

· Recall the five countermeasures that make intelligence collection and targeting difficult.
· Recall measures used to handle suspicious packages.


In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics:

- Introduction
- Office Security
- Suspicious Packages

LESSON 2 - Office Security

Office Security


Recently there has been an increase in the number of public facilities and embassies being targeted for terrorist attacks. The overall security of the building may be someone else’s responsibility, but you are a vital link in that security. Always identify and report suspicious activity, vehicles, and personnel. You are not only protecting yourself but others as well.


Day to day activities within an office can help establish an environment in which it is more or less difficult for terrorists to gain the knowledge they need to successfully attack personnel. The following countermeasures should be taken to make intelligence collection and targeting by terrorists more difficult, forcing them to spend more time collecting information. This in turn causes them to spend more time exposed and visible for detection:

· Visitor control procedures
· General working procedures
· Arrangement of the office space
· Contingency plans for emergencies
· Mail handling procedures


Visitor Control Procedures

Access to the office should be strictly limited. During periods of increased threat, access to additional offices, shops, laboratories, and other areas within the installation should be controlled.

· There should only be one visitor entrance and exit to restricted areas.

· A receptionist should clear all visitors before they enter inner offices.

· Only permit workmen or visitors access into restricted areas with an escort and proper identification. Always confirm the work to be done before admitting them into the facility.

· Do not post unit rosters or manning/photo boards where they can be viewed by visitors or local contractors who provide cleaning services, food and beverage services, and delivery of office supplies, etc.

· Restrict the use of message and sign in-out boards to general statements of availability. Do not list publicly local travel itineraries or phone numbers where visitors have easy access to such information.

LESSON 2 - Office Security, continued

Office Security, continued

General Working

· Avoid carrying attaché cases, brief cases, or other courier bags unless absolutely necessary. These cases have become symbols of power and prominence in many cultures. Individuals carrying such items are often assumed to be important. Use satchels or book bags instead.

· Do not carry items that bear markings that identify the owner by rank or title, even within the office environment. A visitor sent to gather intelligence on potential targets may see coffee mugs labeled “Top,” “Intel,” or “The LT” in use, thus aiding his effort.

· Avoid working alone late at night or on days when the remainder of the office is absent. If late night work is necessary, work in conference rooms or internal offices where observation from the outside of the building is not possible.

· Offices should be locked when vacant for any lengthy period of time. Also lock all unoccupied utility areas and rest rooms. This will prevent anyone from hiding or placing a bomb in these areas.

· Maintain a clean desk policy throughout the office. This facilitates easier observation of objects out of place or removed.


· Have contingency plans for emergencies. Update the plans regularly and brief all personnel on their roles and responsibilities. Do not display evacuation routes in public areas. When conducting drills, do your best to avoid setting a pattern. Use different rally points. If the terrorists recognize that you use the same rally point every time, they can easily call in a threat to the office, wait until a crowd of employees gathers at the rally point, and detonate an explosive at that point.

· Unknown callers should not be privy to any unnecessary information. If you happen to receive a threatening call, such as a bomb or extortion threat, remain calm and listen carefully. A copy of a bomb threat checklist on the following page is a good reference tool to have available by all phones in the event someone receives a threatening phone call.

LESSON 2 - Suspicious Packages

Suspicious Packages


Designate an area and a specially trained person to handle incoming mail and packages. Set aside an area to store unusual deliveries until the Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) can be notified. The holding area should not be a closet or a safe, as this increases the effectiveness of the explosive by increasing its pressure. If possible, use a large drum filled with sawdust or similar material. Mail representatives should be trained in bomb-detection techniques.

What to Look For

Always observe caution whe n handling mail. In particular, be on the lookout for letters or packages that exhibit the following features:

· Unknown or strange postmark – The mail may be postmarked from a strange or unknown place, usually outside your normal channels of correspondence.

· No return address – Leaving the return address off of the mail may be an attempt by the terrorists to reduce the amount of evidence on an envelope. Also, rather than using a return address that may be determined erroneous by postal authorities, the terrorists may leave the information off, hoping to avoid suspicion.

· Excessive amount of postage – It is risky to ask a mail clerk to weigh a letter bomb to determine the amount of postage. It is safer for the terrorist to add additional postage rather tha n risk being caught with a bomb.

· Abnormal size or shape – The mail may have an abnormal, excessive, or unusual size because of the construction of the firing device and other bomb parts inside.

· Protruding strings or wires – String or wires may protrude from or be attached to the item. The bomb maker may have constructed the device in a sloppy manner causing unsecured wires to work loose. Another reason for an exposed wire is that it may be an arming wire that the courier did not remove, fearing the device would detonate.


· Misspelled words – Misspellings on a letter or package could occur because the writer is simply not familiar with military ranks or unit designations.

LESSON 2 - Suspicious Packages, continued

Suspicious Packages, continued

What to Look For  continued

· Inconsistency between the return address and postmark – For example, the return address may indicate a place in California, whereas the postmark may prove the package was actually mailed from France.


· Foreign/bad handwriting – Handwriting that is foreign or illegible may indicate that the bomber is from another country.

· Odd smell – The item may have an odd smell, such as shoe polish, or substances such as marzipan (a sweet almond paste used to mask the smell). Heavily perfumed packages or letters may also indicate the presence of a device.

· Unusual/unbalanced weight – The package may be unusually heavy or light for its size. A normal letter weighs about 1-2 ounces; a letter bomb is more likely to weigh around 4-6 ounces. The package may be unusually light if it contains a firing device, a power source, and an explosive rather than the contents listed on the exterior of the package, such as books or other materials.

· Springiness – Springiness may result if the bomb has a pressure releasetype switch. The wires used in the device may also cause the springiness.


· Inflexibility – If the contents have been mounted on material to prevent their shifting while traveling through the mail system, the letter may be inflexible.
· Grease marks or stains – Marks or stains, such as those caused by potato chips or french fries, may show on the outside because many explosives sweat or exude the oil used in their manufacture, such as motor oil (used with Semtex –H explosives) or vegetable oil (used with C-4 explosives).


Devices The characteristics listed above are very helpful in identifying dangerous packages. There are a number of manufactured devices designed to detect abnormalities within envelopes, as well as x-ray and other machines used for scanning suspicious packages. These devices provide accurate detection, and increased search efficiency.

LESSON 2 - Suspicious Packages, continued

Suspicious Packages, continued






Throughout study unit 4 you were taught methods to increase security at your residence as well as your office. These are the places where most of your time is spent. However, often times individuals let their guard down while traveling and become an easy target for terrorists.


Study unit 5 will teach you protective measures to be used while you travel, whether you are on foot, in the air, driving your vehicle, or staying in hotels. There are many precautions to be taken while away from home in order to remain a hard target.

In This Study Unit This study unit contains the following lessons:

- Traveling on Foot
- Traveling in a Vehicle
- Traveling by Air
- Staying Safe in Hotels




Pedestrians are extremely vulnerable to assaults at all times. In this lesson,
you will learn protective measures that will minimize your vulnerability to an

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to

· Identify aspects of a crisis response plan.
· Recall the purpose of a phrase card.
· Identify individual protective measures for pedestrians.

In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics:

- Introduction
- Developing a Crisis Response Plan
- Protective Measures

LESSON 1 - Developing a Crisis Response Plan

Developing a Crisis Response Plan

Get Briefed

Before you deve lop a plan for responding to a crisis, ensure you receive a detailed briefing from the Force Protection Officer or your Intelligence section on the cities and areas you plan to visit. The briefing should include the known threat in the area, the safest routes to use, safe havens, areas to avoid, points of contact, and anything else pertaining to the mission and your safety.


A good response plan establishes alternate routes from each starting point to each destination. Make sure at least one person you work with or someone in your family is aware of these routes and the approximate time it takes you to travel these routes.

Language If you are not familiar with the language, ensure you have a phrase card with common greetings and methods of asking for assistance in the local language. Being able to communicate in a time of crisis may determine whether you survive or not.

Know how to use the public phone system and carry the proper currency with you to make a phone call. Calling cards can be used in many countries also. Learn the names and phone numbers of persons to contact at your destination.
Learn emergency numbers.

Safe Havens Know where safe havens are such as police and fire stations, military posts, embassies, and checkpoints that you can get to if need be.
Emergencies Know how to contact emergency personnel and where the nearest medical facilities are located.

LESSON 1 - Protective Measures

Protective Measures

Train Yourself

As with other types of protective measures, while traveling you want to avoid routines and use more than one route if possible. When traveling as a pedestrian, there are multiple protective measures you can train yourself to  use to reduce the vulnerability of being attacked. These measures include the following:

· Remain on the main roads.
· Walk facing traffic.
· Maintain a cautious attitude.
· Apply surveillance detection methods.
· Walk in well- lighted areas.
· Walk with others.

Remaining on the Main Roads

Always travel on the main thoroughfares and stay alert to the events occurring around you. If you are not familiar with the city, do not wander off until you become more comfortable with the area. In some areas, it is never a good idea to wander off regardless of your comfort level.

Walk Facing Traffic Train yourself to walk facing traffic. If terrorists try to attack you, they will either have to approach you as you are looking at them or attack you with traffic passing between you and them. When walking along a sidewalk, stay toward the center so that it will be more difficult for someone to push you into traffic. This will also give you a better chance of spotting someone hiding between cars or waiting in an alley.
Maintaining a Cautious Attitude

If you have to stop, make sure you stop with your back facing a wall. When crossing an intersection, try to cross with groups and be very alert to approaching vehicles. A keen sense of awareness will always be your best defense.

Applying Surveillance
Detection Methods
If you feel you are being targeted, apply the surveillance detection methods  you were taught in study unit 3. Use reflective surfaces such as windows or mirrors to see persons who may be following you. A route that goes from high-density to low-density will aid you in identifying surveillance. You can easily spot a person who moves with you.
Walking In Well-Lighted Areas Attempt to walk in areas that are well lit. This not only allows you to see better, it also allows others to see you in the case of an attack.
Walking with Others Walk in areas where there are other pedestrians present, but avoid large crowds of people. Demonstrations, whether hostile or not, provide for easy targeting by terrorists. Mass casualties with little effort equates to success for a terrorist. Avoid areas where noise will drown out your calls for assistance. You may have to alter your route if dangerous conditions are present.




Terrorists frequently attack individuals in their vehicles by means of an
ambush or by planting explosive devices on the vehicle. In this lesson, you
will learn individual protective measures to be used when traveling by
automobile. You will also learn how to conduct an effective search of a

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to

· Identify ways to upgrade the security of your vehicle.
· Identify acceptable tire ratings.
· Identify basic rules for employing drivers/chauffeurs.
· Identify the reason for driving in the left lane.
· Identify the length of time that it should take to conduct an effective vehicle bomb search.
· Identify the signs that indicate a vehicle has been tampered with.

In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics:

- Securing Your Vehicle
- Chauffeurs and Drivers
- Driving Precautions
- Searching a Vehicle

LESSON 2 - Securing Your Vehicle

Securing Your Vehicle

Vehicle Specifications

There are many elements to consider when you are trying to keep your vehicle as secure as possible. Some elements include:

· Look at the car itself. Make sure you are driving an innocuous vehicle. This will make it difficult for terrorists to identify you and will also make it more difficult for a surveillance team to locate and follow your vehicle.

· Equip the vehicle to handle a crisis situation. Ensure you check the entire vehicle over for weaknesses. The following are ways to upgrading security of your vehicle.


Armor - You can purchase a fully armored vehicle from a manufacturer for a cost ranging from €80,000 - €200,000. These vehicles are capable of sustaining an attack from large caliber rifles and heavy weapons. If that price tag is a little too steep, you can also equip your own vehicle with 200 pounds of armor for around €800 - €1000. This will provide considerable protection from handguns and small explosives.

Tires - Tires are an important yet often neglected item. When selecting tires, choose a radial tire instead of a bias ply. Choose a tire that can sustain high temperatures and that will maintain excellent traction in the area and climate in which you will be traveling. Tires that are not rated for high temperatures may blow out at high speeds. The system of rating tire quality uses the letters A, B, and C to indicate temperature and traction of the tire. The ONLY acceptable rating is A. The system for rating the speed of a tire is the letter S, H, or V, which are all acceptable. You also want to consider the tread life, selfsealing capabilities, and the terrain they will be required to function on.

Horsepower - Ensure that the vehicle has an engine with sufficient power to quickly accelerate out of a crisis situation.


Mirrors - Install oversized outside mirrors on both sides of the vehicle. This will allow for better vision on the sides of the vehicle.

Radios - Install a two-way communication system in the vehicle.


Tinted windows - Tinted windows make it difficult for someone on the outside to look into the interior of the vehicle. However, be aware that tinted windows make it more difficult for you to perform a car bomb search.

Alarms - There are many types of alarms on the market that are affordable to everyone. These devices can be circumvented; however, as a deterrent, they will help.

Miscellaneous - Other items you can use include installing an interior trunk latch, first aid and survival kits, and fire extinguishers.

Notes: Always keep the gas tank at least one-half full.

Control your keys at all times. When leaving your car with an attendant or mechanic, leave only the ignition/valet key. Be conscious of house keys, office keys, etc.

Always keep your car in good mechanical repair.

LESSON 2 - Chauffeurs and Drivers

Chauffeurs and Drivers

Evaluate Your Driver

If you are planning on hiring a driver, ensure the driver has the training needed to meet your demands. Advanced driving schools will teach drivers techniques vital to surviving a crisis situation.


· The driver should remain alert at all times and focus his full attention on operating the vehicle. When a crisis develops, the decisions of the driver will directly affect the lives of the passengers.


· The driver should be trained to respond to any situation. His primary responsibility is to drive the vehicle. Until the vehicle is brought to a halt the driver should not be concerned with using a weapon, a radio, or any other device.

· While driving, the driver should visualize two or three blocks ahead. He should constantly be thinking of scenarios during the entire drive.

Basic Rules for Employing Chauffeurs If chauffeurs are to be used, check out the prospects with the embassy or association they are affiliated with. There are four basic rules to follow when employing chauffeurs:
(1) Have the chauffeur remain with the vehicle at all times. If the chauffeur is not at the vehicle when you approach, do not enter it.
(2) Prearrange a signal with the chauffeur showing that it is safe to enter.
(Such as the chauffeur taking off his hat or placing a pack of cigarettes on the dash). Be aware of the great potential for this method to fail if the terrorists have managed to blackmail the chauffeur or coerce him to their side.
(3) Never give your itinerary or exact travel information to the chauffeur. Be extremely caut ious about giving out schedules. Give the chauffeur a general idea of when to show up; e.g., 0600, even though you do not plan on leaving until 0630 or 0700. Inform the chauffeur of your destinations after the car has been started and you are on your way.
(4) Never enter the vehicle with a substitute driver until you have checked his credentials with the appropriate authority. During a crisis, will the chauffeur be more concerned with saving his own life or yours? Determine whether your driving capabilities are as good or better than your chauffeur’s. If they are, dismiss him, and take responsibility of your life into your hands.

LESSON 2 - Driving Precautions

Driving Precautions


While driving throughout the European Union there are general precautions you should always take.
· Stay mentally alert at all times, especially as a passenger. This is not the time to review reports or to eat breakfast. The driver will be occupied with operating the vehicle. Use the extra set of eyes to spot unusual activity.
· Constantly vary your routes and routines. Try to have at least three different routes to and from work to home.
· Drive in the far left lane when feasible. This will not allow your vehicle to be forced to the curb. At traffic lights and stop signs, stay in a lane that will allow maneuverability out of a crisis situation. Allow at least 2,5 - 3m between your vehicle and the one in front of you.

· Drive with the doors locked. Do not allow someone to pull you from a vehicle and attack you because the doors were unlocked. Always fasten your seatbelt.
· Consider swapping cars with a friend or co-worker to confuse terrorists. Do not borrow an easy target’s car or a vehicle that will draw excess attention to you.
· Consider carpooling. Carpools offer safety in numbers and confuse the terrorists as to which car you are using. However, should the terrorists attack, carpools offer a larger and possibly more valuable target. It is also more difficult to vary the routines of persons who are dependent on one vehicle for transportation.

LESSON 2 - Driving Precautions, continued

Driving Precautions, continued

CONUS continued

In addition to the precautions above, if you are driving in a foreign country you must take extra precautions:

· Be aware of ruses. Terrorists will use schemes such as fake roadblocks or staged traffic accidents in order to get you to stop your vehicle. If a roadblock is set up, quickly determine if the roadblock is official. Take notice of the uniforms and vehicles being used. If they are not official, the chances are the roadblock is a ploy. If you suspect a ploy, leave the scene and drive directly to the safe area. At no time should you allow yourself to be boxed in without the possibility of escape. Report the incident and any involvement you had to the police as soon as possible.
· If police halt you, do not get out of the car. Keep your engine running and roll down the window just enough to allow voice communication and the passing of documents. Stay alert for unusual actions. Should the situation warrant a sudden exit, proceed to the next safe area and immediately report it.
· Watch for persons carrying packages or bottles that may be thrown at your vehicle. In foreign countries, Molotov cocktails are often used to disable a vehicle. To lessen the damage, keep your windows closed at all times. Bottles will often bounce off a vehicle without breaking. If your vehicle is hit by a firebomb that does not disable it or penetrates the interior, keep the vehicle moving and allow the flames to burn out. If the vehicle is disabled, wait 8-10 seconds for the flames to subside and exit the vehicle.

Employ any other techniques that might prevent a terrorist from choosing you as a target.

LESSON 2 - Searching a Vehicle

Searching a Vehicle

Bomb Search

A large number of terrorist attacks take place in or around a vehicle, typically by some sort of explosive device. Bombs are easy to make and plant on unattended vehicles. It is imperative for you to learn how to search a vehicle for tampering and to recognize danger signs. By routinely inspecting your vehicle, you give the impression of being a hard target. If terrorists try to place a bomb in or on your vehicle, they will have to conceal it very well, thus adding unwanted time to their operation.

Recommended Time An efficient bomb search should take 5 to 15 minutes. If it takes longer, most people will find excuses not to conduct a search. If possible, a two-man buddy team is preferred for the search. The team will decrease the amount of time needed for the search and will also increase the effectiveness of the search. Familiarity with every part of your vehicle is paramount to an efficient search.
What to Look For While searching, look for telltale signs of tampering: pieces of tape, discarded wires, grease marks, or foreign materials on or around the vehicle. To quickly recognize the signs of tampering, allow a layer of dust to settle on the outside of the vehicle. This will aid you in seeing handprints, or signs of disturbance around the vehicle.
Conducting a Search To conduct the search, you will need some basic tools: a small mirror mounted on a telescoping handle and a flashlight.

LESSON 2 - Searching a Vehicle, continued

Searching a Vehicle, continued


Observe the vehicle and the area immediately surrounding it (about 10 to 15 meters) for signs of tampering, bomb litter, etc.


Improvised explosive devices may either be victim actuated or command detonated. If you sense that something is wrong or that the vehicle is not the way you left it, leave the vehicle and call the authorities. If authorities find a device, explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) personnel will be called in. An EOD team can conduct a thorough search that takes about two to three hours to complete. It will probably take you a few days to put your vehicle back together after the team is through. This alone should motivate you to present yourself as a hard target. Your life or the lives of your loved ones are a high price to pay for complacency or laziness.


· Once you have completed your perimeter search, move to the front of the vehicle and visually divide it in half, lengthwise.

· Continue the search in either direction.
· Inspect the grill for wires or any material placed behind it. Also look closely into the hood area, and check for signs of forced entry.

· Using a mirror, look underneath and behind the front bumper.

· Move to the side of the vehicle and observe the bottom of the tires where they make contact with the ground. Look for any pressure devices placed behind or in front of the tires.

· Inspect the underside of the wheel well for a bomb. Many times, magnets are used to attach devices to the underside of the wheel well. Inspect behind the top of the tire and the coil springs.
· Continue moving around the side of the vehicle while inspecting the side, the underside, rear tires, and rear wheel well.

· Examine the windows and the weather stripping for any signs of forced entry. Check to see if the paint or molding shows any signs of a coat hanger or a slim-jim being used to unlock the vehicle. Look inside the vehicle for hidden intruders or obvious signs of intrusion.

· Inspect the gas cap for tampering. This should be the first time you touch the vehicle during the search. Be extremely cautious opening up the cap cover.

· Next, inspect the rear of the vehicle. Check the trunk for signs of forced entry.

· Check the opening of the exhaust pipe for signs of a device. Make an extra effort to check the bottom and sides of the gas tank as well. Continue to the unsearched side of the vehicle, and follow the same procedures listed above.
As you inspect the side and rear of the vehicle, also examine the entire exhaust pipe, the muffler, and the drive shaft for devices. When you return to the front of the vehicle, inspect the other side of the front grill and the bumper.


You are now ready to actually enter the vehicle.

LESSON 2 - Searching a Vehicle, continued

Searching a Vehicle, continued


The following are guidelines for entering the vehicle and inspecting the interior.

· First, check the door locks. If the vehicle was locked when you left it and unlocked when you returned, do not get inside. Look inside and visually inspect the vehicle, do not lean on or touch the vehicle until you see nothing is wrong. Closely inspect the door, look for wires or objects attached to the door from the inside.
· Next, open the door slightly. Using your mirror and flashlight, continue to inspect the seam until the door is open completely.

· Inspect the rearview mirror and headrests to ensure they have not been interfered with. Also inspect the sun visors. Whenever you leave the vehicle, make sure the visors are in the down position so that no device can be emplaced and hidden from your view during inspection.

· To aid in your searching efforts, leave the glove compartment open and empty, as well as ashtrays. Limit the availability of hiding spots for a terrorist to place a bomb.
· Next, look underneath the steering column and dashboard. You more than likely will not be able to identify every wire, but you should know the general features and what appears to be out of place. If possible, tape or flex band as many wires together as you can.


Use the same procedures for opening the other doors, and inspect the rear seat. Keep your vehicle interior clean and free of debris to limit the ease of hiding a device in your vehicle.


· Your next step will be to inspect under the hood of the vehicle. Most late model vehicles have a hood release in the interior. Before you actually release the hood, have a second person hold down or apply some sort of weight to the hood to prevent it from snapping upward before the second latch engages.


This jolt is often enough to trigger a tremor switch or allow a pressure-release trigger to fire. Once the hood is released, slowly raise it and check the seam just as you did with the doors. Look for anything unusual in the engine compartment. Concentrate on the battery, clutch, accelerator, air filter, spark plugs, distributor, and the firewall.

LESSON 2 - Searching a Vehicle, continued

Searching a Vehicle, continued

Trunk Before opening the trunk, inspect the seam. Hold the trunk down as you turn the key to prevent an initial spring. Crouch down so that you can look into the trunk and see any wires or IEDs. Following the same procedures you did for the hood, open the trunk. Many vehicles have deep wells by the rear quarter panels that make excellent spaces for IEDs. You must also carefully inspect the spare tire area. Check the partition separating the trunk from the rear passenger seat.
Completion After the trunk is cleared, your inspection is complete. Once you feel the vehicle is safe, you can start the vehicle. Let it run for two minutes before you proceed. The vehicle search has been tried and tested in training and in real-world scenarios. While the search may not turn up a device, it may be an effective deterrent to the potential bomber or terrorist surveilling you.
Special Training Vehicle Bomb Search Techniques is provided as specialized training - Please check with your training officer for this training.




The attacks on September 11, 2001 completely changed the spectrum of terrorist incidents involving aircraft. Terrorists skyjacked commercial planes with a plan to use them as massive flying bombs. After this attack, airport security regulations have stiffened immensely making the airways a safer option to travel; however, the threat still remains as terrorists devise more ways to interrupt the lives of the innocent.


In this lesson, you will learn protective measures to be taken when traveling by air.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to

· Identify the preferred seats to sit in on an aircraft.
· Identify individual protective measures to be used when traveling by air.
· Identify actions to take when being rescued during a skyjacking.

In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics:

- Introduction
- Ticketing Procedures
- Individual Protective Measures
- Skyjacking

LESSON 3 - Ticketing Procedures

Ticketing Procedures

Purchasing Your Ticket

Purchase your airline ticket through a travel agency or online rather than at a ticket counter. If possible, select your seat and get your boarding pass from the agency. Airline ticket counters offer a wide selection of targets to a terrorist group that is unable to breach the security of an airline itself. Plan your arrival at the airport to allow quick movement through the processing lines. Once at the airport, spend as little time as possible in unsecured areas. Check your luggage in at the curb, if possible, and move through the security checkpoint right away.

Choosing Your Itinerary

We as executive/close protective members often times have little control over our travel itinerary, but we should avoid flying on an airline or flight route that has been targeted by terrorists. Studying the history of the local terrorist groups along your route will aid in your efforts. Select an airline that has a sound security record. The stricter the security the less likely a terrorist will be able to pull off a successful airline attack. Do not select an airline that has scheduled stops in high-risk areas.

Seat Selection

When choosing your seat, select one in an area not readily accessible to a terrorist, preferably a window seat positioned in the middle rear of the aircraft. The seat should also be close to an emergency exit. Terrorists will position themselves where they have the best advantage to control the situation; historically this has been in the front or rear of the aircraft. The figure below indicates the areas where and where not to sit.


LESSON 3 - Individual Protective Measures

Individual Protective Measures

Stay Alert

Always watch for any suspicious or unusual activities. Look for nervous travelers that maintain eye contact with others from a distance. Observe what people are carrying. Note behavior not consistent with that of others in the area. If you become suspicious or if you see anything unusual, evacuate the area, then report the incident. If you are already on board, attempt to notify the flight attendant discretely so he/she can notify the pilot. Such precautionary action may save your life and the lives of those around you.

Watch What You Say

Remember that anything you say or do may be used against you. Do not associate with other passengers or conduct yourself in a manner that will identify you as a security professional. If terrorists are surveilling the area, you could be picked as a target. If another passenger recalls your identity and essential facts about you, he might use that knowledge to lessen his own pain and discomfort during an interrogation.

Avoid Symbols

When traveling, avoid carrying luggage or briefcases with identifying symbols on it (e.g. military or police insignias, nametapes).

Keep Track of Luggage Be extremely observant of personal carry-on luggage. Thefts of briefcases and laptop cases are increasing throughout airports worldwide. Never leave your luggage unattended. This provides an opportunity for a terrorist to place an unwanted object or device in your bag. As much as possible, do not pack anything you cannot afford to lose. Make copies of all-important documents and carry the copy.

LESSON 3 - Skyjacking



Historically, the takeover of a plane occurs 15 to 60 minutes into the flight. If a skyjacking takes place, remain in your seat with your seatbelt fastened. At the first opportunity, place your important documents and any military identification in a secure hiding place, one of the best being inside the airsickness bag. Placing articles inside a magazine or under the seat is not the most effective method of concealing them, but these should be considered if caught unprepared.

Be aware that all skyjackers may not reveal themselves at the same time. A lone skyjacker may be used to draw out security personnel for neutralization by other skyjackers. Discretely observe your captors and memorize their physical descriptions. Include voice patterns and language distinctions, as well as clothing and unique physical characteristics.


When asked to produce identification, show civilian identification (tourist passport/driver’s license). Never volunteer information about your involvement with any detail, but do not lie if directly asked about it. If questioned about your job or travel plans, give a civilian equivalency and innocent circumstances that led to your being on the plane. At this point, no false statements should have been made. If confronted with evidence of any official authority employment, provide minimal information.


If you are authorized to carry a firearm, place it in your checked baggage. Chances are highly unlikely that you would be successful in an attempt to overtake the terrorists. Drastic actions on your part could cause the terrorists to kill you, passengers, and the crew. In the event of a firefight, a window or critical juncture of the aircraft may be hit, creating an emergency situation from which escape would be extremely difficult.


If you have a weapon when the takeover begins, hide it, as well as the holster.

LESSON 3 - Skyjacking, continued

Skyjacking, continued


During a skyjacking the plane will most likely land somewhere. At this time, authorities may initiate a rescue attempt. Statistically, rescue attempts are the most dangerous time for passengers. Take these actions into account when you are being rescued:

· Find cover- At the first indication of a rescue attempt, use all available cover around you. If you are in your seat, assume the classic crash position (arms into your sides/head on your knees). Pick your feet up so that no rounds or fragments will strike your legs, and keep your eyes on the closest terrorist watching to make sure he does not try to kill you.
· Avoid any movement – Movement attracts attention from the terrorists as well as the rescue forces.
· Do not attempt to help – Under no circumstances should you attempt to help unless specifically asked to do so by the rescue force. The noise and confusion will make it difficult for the rescuers to distinguish between friend and foe. Generally, anyone making a violent gesture or carrying a gun will probably be shot or forcefully dealt with.
· Listen closely to commands – The rescuers may be speaking in languages that you do not understand. Listen closely and pay strict attention to any gestures they give you.
· Expect to be handled roughly – In order for the rescuers to remain safe they must treat everyone as a threat. Remain calm and understand the reason for the harsh treatment. Be prepared to be separated from your family while you and they are searched.
· Preplan an escape route – If the plane happens to catch fire or if the rescue attempt is unusually slow you must depart the plane or else risk being killed. Use the nearest exit, and move carefully to the ground. Once on the ground, move away from the aircraft from either the tail or nose of the aircraft in a manner that the terrorists do not have a clear shot of you. Raise your hands in the air and shout, “Don’t shoot! I am a passenger!” You do not want to be mistaken for an escaping terrorist.




While traveling for extended periods of time, staying in a hotel is more than likely unavoidable. Hotels create a difficult security problem, but there are precautions you can always take to maintain a safe posture. In this lesson, you will learn what these measures are.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to

· Identify examples of security measures that hotels can employ.
· Identify guidelines when asking for a room at a hotel.
· Identify actions for responding to a hotel page.

In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics:

- Introduction
- Choosing the Right Hotel
- Securing Your Room

LESSON 4 - Choosing the Right Hotel

Choosing the Right Hotel


Depending on where you are traveling, there are multiple options to consider when deciding which hotel you should stay.

· Choose a hotel that employs security measures. Find out if the hotel has security guards, and if employed, what is their level of expertise. Familiarize yourself with their uniforms and equipment. Also know the proper procedures for obtaining their services. The use of cameras to monitor hallways and elevators, and visitor control procedures are also signs of a security-conscious establishment.


· If you are traveling overseas, be sure to check with the embassy staff and find out if they have a certain hotel that they have a good rapport with.


· Avoid hotels that are in a bad area of town. Saving a few dollars a night is not worth putting yourself in jeopardy.

Choose the Right Room

After you find a hotel, ensure you get the right room.

· Avoid street level rooms. Ask for a room between the second and eighth floors. This puts you high enough to avoid easy access from the outside, bomb attacks, and drive by shootings, yet still low enough fo r local fire equipment to reach you in case of an emergency.

· Do not reserve specific rooms. If a hotel room has been reserved for you prior to checking in, request another room. Do not give your room number to strangers.

· Change rooms occasionally. If staying in the same hotel for an extended period of time, change your room and floor occasionally so that any effort to conduct operations or surveillance against you will require more time and resources.

LESSON 4 - Securing Your Room

Securing Your Room

Staying Inside

While in your room, keep the door locked and use the security chain. If you feel the threat is extremely high, you can enhance the existing locking system. There are a number of portable locks on the market that will provide substantial protection.

Place the DO NOT DISTURB sign on the door and do not admit any strangers to your room, and refuse all unexpected deliveries.

Leaving the Room

· Before leaving the room, make sure to keep everything in a neat and orderly fashion. Leave shower curtains and closets open whenever you leave the room. This will help you recognize evidence of tampering or strange, out of place objects.

· Leave the lights, television or radio on when you are out of the room to give the impression that someone is still there.

· Lock your doors and windows when you exit the room. Also consider securing any valuables in the hotel safe.

· Keep your room key with you at all times.

· When entering or exiting rooms, halls, lobbies, or public areas, be alert for anyone loitering or carrying objects that could conceal weapons. Avoid loitering in lobbies or public areas such as rest rooms. Terrorists favor these locations for placing bombs.

· Change your routine when leaving the room. Use different hotel entrances, elevators, and stairwells.

· Know the location of emergency exits and equipment. Become familiar with the emergency plans.


Hotel Paging Hotel paging is an easy way for a terrorist to gain a positive identification of his target. It can be used as a baiting tool for an attack. If you are ever paged over the hotel’s public address system, do not respond. If you are expecting a visitor, enter the lobby, without identifying yourself to the desk clerk. Look around for your party and check to see if the caller was whom you are waiting for. If you do not see anyone you recognize, call the front desk first and inquire about the paging.





Throughout this course, you have learned how to avoid becoming a victim of a terrorist attack. Sometimes, events unfold in ways that are beyond your control. Regardless of your actions, you suddenly become a hostage. In this study unit, you will learn the different types of detention, the different types of hostage takers, and your responsibilities as a hostage in relation to the Code of Conduct, how to adjust to being in captivity, and how to survive during a hostage situation.

In This Study Unit This study unit contains the following lessons:

- Analyzing a Hostage Situation
- Responsibilities of a Hostage
- Adjusting to a Hostage Situation
- Surviving a Hostage Situation





The chances of you being taken hostage are extremely remote. Should it happen, your knowledge and personal conduct could influence your treatment and chance of survival in captivity. In this lesson, you will learn about the different types of detention and the different categories of hostage takers.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to

· Identify the three types of hostile peacetime detention.
· Identify the difference between a hostage and a detainee.
· Identify categories of hostage takers
· Identify sub-categories of religious extremists.


In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics:

- Introduction
- Detention
- Identifying the Threat

LESSON 1 - Detention



Peacetime detention refers to being held against your will during a time when armed conflict does not exist or the United States is not directly involved. Peacetime detention brings with it requirements associated with the Code of Conduct, which differ slightly from the requirements of being a prisoner of war. There are three general types of hostile peacetime detention:


· Hostile government
· Hostile government-sponsored terrorist
· Independent terrorist group


Hostile Government

Hostile government detention involves a hostile government (one whose relationship with western countries is tense) legally detaining a allied citizen or servicemember for violation(s) of its laws. For example, a UN soldier may be detained in a given country for an unintentional act, such as crossing the country’s borders not knowing it may be a civil or criminal offense under the country’s laws. Persons in this status are properly called detainees.


Hostile Government-
Sponsored Terrorist
Hostile government-sponsored terrorist detention refers to the detention of western personnel by terrorists who are sponsored by the government of the country in which the personnel are being held. Persons held under such circumstances are referred to as hostages, not detainees. Their capture and continued detention are violations of international law. These individuals are normally held for the purpose of propaganda or to coerce the hostages country to take some action desired by the terrorists.
Independent Terrorist
Independent terrorist group detention is the detention of western personnel by terrorists who are not sponsored by a hostile government. Captives of independent terrorist groups are also known as hostages. Their capture and detention is also a violation of international law. The intent again is to use these captured personnel for propaganda purposes or to coerce the hostages country to take some action desired by the terrorists.

LESSON 1 - Identifying the Threat

Identifying the Threat


Classifying hostage takers by certain categories is merely to provide a guideline. The real identity of the terrorist can only be examined in the context of his relationships to the people, the organization, places, and ideas with which he is associated. Almost all terrorist organizations are made up from a cross section of the population from which they emerge. Young and impressionable, mentally ill, monetarily or ideologically motivated are all examples of individuals you are likely to encounter. The group performing the hostage taking will in turn be a representative slice of the organization. This slice performs its operations in support of the larger organization’s longrange goals.

The two categories that pose the most likely threat to western people are

· Political extremists
· Religious extremists


Political Extremists

Political extremists represent the most danger to military personnel because of their political ideology and our value as symbolic targets. These hostage takers often operate within a military like structure. This control factor may hold violence within planned limits, however, within the group there may be one or more terrorists whose propensity for cruelty makes them more dangerous. They may be held in check by their group leadership, but it is important to identify these individuals early in the event and spend extra effort to avoid a confrontation.

· The average age of most political terrorists ranges between 19 and 35. This youth factor heightens their fanaticism; blinds them to reasonable thinking; and insulates them to appeals based on morals, decency, or fear of their own safety.

· While political extremists are often prepared to die for their cause, they are not necessarily suicidal. When the chances for success in the operation dwindle, their primary concern often changes towards escape.


· Political extremists generally only take hostages when they have some control over the ge neral terrain where the event takes place.


LESSON 1 - Identifying the Threat, continued

Identifying the Threat, continued

Religious Extremists

These hostage takers generally fit one of three subcategories:

· Member of a radical offshoot of a recognized religion
· Member of a cult
· Religious loner

Recognized Religion

Religious extremists share a common, unshakeable belief in the righteousness of their cause and their actions. They feel that whatever actions they take, in the eyes of God, these actions are good. These radicals usually have a charismatic leader who preaches a form of exclusivity by which only the select can enter heaven. If you are not a member of the sect, you are an enemy. If they perceive hostility toward their religion by the hostage, they may react with violence. Feeling superior because of their beliefs, they may be inflexible and express a preference for death. Their conduct is often irrational and extremely defensive.


Cults Cults are religions without political power. Cults do not present as significant a threat as more conventional and widely known religious extremist groups, but they do contain the potential for violent confrontations and hostage takings.
Religious Loner While these individuals are not often encountered, they could present the gravest threat. These individuals are more detached from reality and less rational than the ones belonging to a group. A religious loner believes himself to be operating on direct divine orders, making him the most dangerous and least susceptible to reason.

There are specific strategies, as well as some general rules of behavior, a hostage should consider if he/she can identify the category of his/her hostage  taker.

· Determine the area of particular sensitivity, such as politics or religion, and avoid conversation in these subjects. If confronted, become an active listener, and adapt to, rather than adopt, the hostage taker’s value system.

· Religious hostage takers are very touchy and defensive about their religion; do not make assumptions about it that will upset the terrorist.




Whether detained during a peacetime situation or taken hostage by a terrorist
group, as an individual in the military you are expected to conduct yourself
according to the guidance set forth by the Department of Defense. The
guidance provided in this lesson will help military personnel survive
detention or captivity situations. This does not constitute a means for
judgment or replace the UCMJ as a vehicle for enforcement of proper
conduct. Although DoD guidance is exactly the same as the Code of Conduct
in some areas, the guidance applies only during operations other than war.
For wartime incidents, always rely on the Code of Conduct and the Geneva
Convention for guidance.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to

· Identify the Department of Defense instruction that provides guidance on authorized conduct for a hostage.
· Identify the only information that detainees should provide to their captors.


In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics:

- Introduction
- Directives and Guidelines
- Required Information




As a hostage, you must adapt to captivity. You must forget about any mistakes you may have made up to this point and concentrate on and accent the positive. In this lesson, you will learn ways to adapt to your surroundings as well as methods used to combat stress in order to maintain a positive mental attitude.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to

· Identify activities to overcome boredom.
· Recall the types of isolation.
· Identify ways to exert control to influence reactions and limit harmful stress.
· Identify the most common defense mechanisms hostages use in order to survive.


In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics:

- Introduction
- Physical Adjustments
- Psychological Adjustments

LESSON 3 - Physical Adjustments

Physical Adjustments

Living Conditions

One of the best ways to measure what living conditions may be like in a captive situation in a foreign country is to look at the living conditions of the local people on the lowest level of subsistence. A hostage may be maintained on an even lower level. The types of living conditions vary from incident to incident. Hostages may be held for days on a bus, airliner, or train where heat and lack of adequate water, food, and toilet facilities can be almost unbearable. In some situations the hostages are locked in separate rooms, or may be in the same room with other hostages blindfolded, gagged, and tied up.

During the seizure of an office or residence, hostages may find themselves in familiar, comfortable surroundings in which they work or live.

Kidnap victims are frequently forced to live in makeshift prisons in attics or basements or in remote hideouts. The cells of these prisons are usually quite small and in some cases prevent the hostage from standing up or moving around. Sleeping and toilet facilities may be scarce, consisting of a cot or mattress and a bucket or can for body waste. Toilet facilities may not beprovided at all, forcing the hostage to foul his living space and himself.


It is essential to maintain a good appearance as much as possible under the existing conditions. If the hostage is unable to wash his/her clothing over extended periods of time, such measures as brushing off dust, straightening clothes, tucking in shirttails, and smoothing out wrinkles are necessary to help improve overall appearance.



Hostages should bathe whenever possible. If this is not possible, try to keep your hands and face clean. Keep your hair and any facial hair well groomed.

Always keep your fingernails clean. One of the most prevalent health-care problems that occur during extended periods of captivity is that of oral hygiene. If a toothbrush is not available, attempt to fabricate one by materials available to you. Emphasis should be placed on massaging the gums.

Fitness Program Develop and maintain a daily physical fitness program. Exercise may be difficult due to cramped space or physical restraints on the arms and legs. If possible, run in place, do push- ups and crunches. Ensure your caloric expenditure does not exceed your caloric intake. Staying physically fit might be the deciding factor should an escape opportunity present itself.
Illness A side effect of captivity for some hostages is weight loss. Although this loss may be considerable, it generally does not cause health problems. Weight loss may occur even with adequate food supply, since captives often lose their appetite. In some cases hostages may suffer gastrointestinal upset, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. Although these symptoms may be debilitating, they usually are not life threatening. Since the terrorists are primarily concerned with keeping their hostages alive and well, do not hesitate to complain and ask for medication. Terrorists want their hostages alive and are not likely to take chances by provid ing the wrong medicine. In a number of cases, terrorists have provided medical care for hostages who were suffering from illness or injury.

LESSON 3 - Psychological Adjustments

Psychological Adjustments

Positive Attitude

One of the most important aspects of sustaining dignity is to maintain a positive attitude. You should mingle and converse with other captives if allowed. Try to assist others who need help and assume the role of a leader if senior. Maintain an optimistic attitude that will allow you to confront the problems and stress of captivity and deal with them accordingly. Smile often, it will tend to rub off on other hostages.

In contrast to this, a hostage who has given up and has no interaction with others and is only concerned with his own well-being, will certainly stand out in a negative way. The pessimist or introvert will find these times much more difficult. His ability to maintain dignity and self-respect will be weakened, even though self-respect and dignity may be the keys to retaining status as a human being in the eyes of the terrorists.



Terrorists use fear to control, intimidate, and wear down the hostages and the negotiators. They may induce fear by loading and unloading weapons in the presence of the hostages, displaying excessive fits of anger, resorting to physical abuse, and staging mock executions. The fear of death is the greatest during the first few hours of captivity. As the initial fear subsides, the victim may begin to feel he owes his life to his captor. As additional time passes, feelings of fear may be transferred from the terrorist to the authorities.



The passage of time without rescue or release can be depressing, but it does work to the hostage’s advantage. The longer a hostage is held in captivity, the greater the chance of survival. Time is a factor in the development of the Stockholm syndrome (discussed further in Lesson 4) and in rapport-building efforts. You should avoid setting anticipated release dates or allowing your captor to establish these milestones for you. You are setting yourself up for an emotional fall if you think you will be home by the holidays or on a specified date and those expectations are not met.



Boredom is the one companion a hostage will have in captivity. You must aggressively face the challenge of captivity by engaging in creative mental and physical activities. As stated earlier in Lesson 3, you should develop a daily physical fitness program. You should also engage in creative mental activities, such as reading, writing, or daydreaming. Ask for reading and writing materials and request permission to listen to a radio or watch television. Such requests may be granted.


Other ways to keep active are to use deliberate and slow methods for simple tasks such as, taking your time while brushing your teeth, taking an hour to make the bed, or studying the activities of ants coming in and out of the cell. Imagine different members of your family and friends coming to visit with you for a day, or walk through a church service in your head. There are countless activities you can take part in or imagine to keep you busy.

LESSON 3 - Psychological Adjustments, continued

Psychological Adjustments, continued


Social isolation or solitary confinement is when the captive is completely denied interpersonal contact. Perceptual isolation, or the denial or overuse of one of the senses to deny the hostage outside stimuli, also creates social isolation. Headphones, blindfolds, and small enclosures may be used to accomplish this goal. During isolation, the hostage must rely completely on mental activities to adjust to and overcome adversity. The hostage will have less opportunity to communicate with other hostages and will have to concentrate his efforts and take advantage of every opportunity. Communication with others helps a person experience a sense of worth, which defeats the feeling of being alone.


Combating Stress

Stress is a condition that occurs when a person faces a threatening or unfamiliar situation. Not all stress is bad. A certain level of stress is necessary for optimal performance. Stress causes bodily changes that may help an individual overcome challenges and danger. Too much stress is extremely detrimental to your mind and body. A person’s physical condition affects his/her ability to handle stress. An individual’s response to stress also depends on whether he/she feels in control of the situation. Difficult situations may cause little stress if a person can predict, overcome, and understand what is going on.

Limiting Stress

There are several ways of exerting control to influence our physiological reaction and limit harmful stress. They are

· Maintain your confidence – Maintain confidence in your ability to survive with honor with your fellow hostages, maintain confidence in your country’s ability and desire to end your captivity, and maintain faith in your family and religion.
· Maintain your physical condition – Develop a program of exercise on the first day of your captivity. Eat what you are given, no matter how strange or unusual it may seem.

· Take care of any family matters – Fix what would cause you to worry prior to be captured, accept what you cannot change because of captivity.

· Maintain sleep discipline – Avoid sleeping too much.
· Practice recreation – Be inventive; reading, writing, radio or television usage, and interaction with other hostages in a positive sense can provide opportunities for periods of recreation.
· Maintain a daily schedule – Keep yourself occupied and have a purpose each day. Plan a schedule for each day and attempt to stick to it.
· Keep your sense of humor – Give nicknames to your captors; make jokes about your situation.
· Maintain a positive mental attitude – The most deadly aspect of longterm captivity is the mental exhaustion and depression that set in. You must constantly, vigorously oppose these feelings.
· Talk yourself through a situation – Verbally talk aloud to yourself. Calm yourself down during a stressful situation.
· Maintain your religious values – Religious values will always provide you with a source of strength.
· Learn or devise methods to communicate – Devise a code to use with fellow captives. A knocking system or letter/number codes are simple but effective methods to use and at the same time do not allow your captors to know what you are discussing.
· Practice some form of meditation – If possible, find a quiet environment and shift your mind’s focus from the situation at hand.


LESSON 3 - Psychological Adjustments, continued

Psychological Adjustments, continued

Defense Mechanisms

When a hostage experiences a great deal of stress, his mind seeks a means of survival. One avenue it may take is the use of defense mechanisms. These are essential unconscious psychological adjustments made in the presence of danger. Three of the most common defense mechanisms are
(1) Denial – Denial occurs when the mind is overloaded by a traumatic experience. The mind responds as if the incident were not happening. It may be verbally expressed by phrases like “Oh no! Not me!” “This must be a dream!” or “This is not happening!” An example of denial can be compared with the unexpected death of a loved one. Frequently, hostages gradually accept their situation, but find a safety valve in the thought that their fate is not fixed. They view the situation as temporary, convinced that someone will come to their rescue.
(2) Regression – Regression results in a behavior adjustment in which the mind unconsciously selects a behavior that has been used successfully inthe past when confronted with total dependency. For example, as children we were totally dependent on a primary care giver for psychological and physiological needs. In a hostage situation, the hostage taker assumes the role of primary care giver.
(3) Identification – Identification with the hostage taker occurs on the unconscious level. The mind seeks to avoid wrath or punishment by emulating behaviors and adapting to the hostage taker’s values. For example, a young recruit identifies with his drill instructor. Identification initially is to avoid punishment, but eventually changes to the adoption of the instruc tor’s standards and values.


Coping is an ongoing, active process used to meet the task requirements of adapting to a relatively difficult situation. Coping involves innovative rather than routine behaviors. It differs from defense mechanisms in that it is not restricted to unconscious psychological mechanisms, but also involves conscious, deliberate behavior as well. Coping, if used properly, is a good device for employing rapport-building techniques. It does have a drawback in that many people, including terrorist, do not like to be patronized.




If you do end up in a hostage situation, there are many things you can do to help aid your survival effort. Actions you take during captivity, relationships you may build with your captors and other hostages, and even timing all play vital roles in your survival. In this lesson, you will learn when and how to resist, the effects of the Stockholm Syndrome, and the best options concerning escapes.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to

· Identify the methods used to resist interrogation.
· Identify the Stockholm Syndrome.
· Identify experiences commonly associated with victims of the Stockholm Syndrome.
· Identify methods used to establish rapport with your captors.
· Identify the elements of information necessary for an effective escape plan.
· Identify the safest response during a rescue attempt.

In This Lesson This lesson contains the following topics:

- Introduction
- Resisting
- Stockholm Syndrome
- Establishing Rapport
- Planning an Escape
- Rescue and Release

LESSON 4 - Resisting


Moment of Capture

At the moment of capture, you have to make an instantaneous decision whether to resist or surrender. It is dangerous to resist, but there are circumstances in which it is more risky to be captured. The initial moment in a capture is the most dangerous time because the captors are tense and their adrenaline is flowing. The assailants may commit unintentional violence with the slightest provocation. Innocent acts such as reaching for identification or raising a hand to scratch, may be wrongly interpreted and precipitate a deadly response. If the terrorists are well armed and determined, an escape at this moment is an unrealistic goal. You should keep in mind that the terrorist has meticulously planned and executed the hostage operation. The initiative, time, location, and the circumstance of the incident all favor the terrorists. The manpower and firepower brought to bear on the incident leave little opportunity for escape. Now that you have surrendered, you must begin to resist, but do so the right way.


Even though terrorists may use blindfolds, gags, drugs, and weapons at the time of abduction, you should keep in mind the fact that the terrorists want you alive. Do not be alarmed or resist excessively. Struggling with the captors will likely result in even more severe measures by the captors. Terrorists may use drugs on you to physically control you, put you to sleep, or keep you pacified. “Truth serum” drugs have an effect similar to that of alcohol. Since you have no choice in drug application, do not physically resist. Terrorists may use blindfolds or hoods to prevent you from knowing where you are being taken or to prevent you from identifying them. Do not remove the blindfold, even if an opportunity to do so should arise, as this could leave the terrorists no alternative but to kill you.

Stay Alert Always stay alert even if you are blindfolded and gagged during a transport. If you are deprived of certain senses, use your othe r senses to obtain information and help control your fear and panic. Occupy your mind by noting sounds, direction of movement, passage of time, and terrorist conversation. Any information you can acquire could be useful for later reference. Another consideration is to find surfaces where you can leave full fingerprints on to assist law enforcement authorities in your recovery.

LESSON 4 - Resisting, continued

Resisting, continued

Being Interrogated

The most important time to resist your captors is during interrogations. If you consistently make it harder for your captors to pull information out of you, the more likely they are to move on to someone else. The following are simple methods to use while being interrogated:

· Protect sensitive information – This is your number one priority when being interrogated. Never give up sensitive information unless threatened to the point of death. If you need to make up a story to protect sensitive information, take a simple, plausible position you can remember and talk intelligently about, and stick to it.

· Maintain your bearing – Be polite and keep your temper at all times. Do not lose control of your emotions and escalate the situation to the point of extreme danger.

· Give short answers – Talk freely about nonessential matters, but be guarded when conversations turn to matters of substance.

· Do not be fooled by a friendly approach – Remember that a common interrogation technique is the “good guy” and “bad guy” approach. Do not let the “good guy” coax you into giving up information.

· Resist every time – Remember to resist questioning at all times. Hold out information to the point where you feel unsafe to continue, and then divulge the minimum amount possible. After you satisfy the terrorists momentarily, begin resisting again. Continue this cycle as often as possible.

Remember, your goal is to survive with honor through the incident. If there comes a time when you feel your life is in danger, but the information you hold could endanger the lives of others if given up, you must decide which path you want to take.

LESSON 4 - Stockholm Syndrome

Stockholm Syndrome


The stress induced when taken hostage has a significant psychological impact and may lead the hostage to alter his behavior. An unexpected behavior displayed by a hostage is that of aligning himself with the hostage taker. This unusual phenomenon has been termed the “Stockholm Syndrome.”


The Stockholm Syndrome first came about as a result of a bank robbery that turned into a hostage-barricade situation in Sweden in 1973. The takeover of the bank in Stockholm lasted for 131 hours, and permanently affected the lives of four young hostages. A 32-year-old prison escapee and his 26-year-old former cellmate held three females and one male, ranging in ages from 21 to 31, in an 3,3m x 14,3m foot carpeted bank vault. During their captivity, a startling discovery was made. Contrary to what had been expected, the victims feared the police more than they feared their captors. Media attention was attracted when hostage statements such as “The robbers are protecting us from the police” were released. A scientific investigation after the event as to why the hostages felt emotionally indebted to the bank robbers led to the discovery of the phenomenon.

Effects The Stockholm Syndrome seems to be an automatic, probably unconscious, emotional response to the trauma of becoming a victim. The physical and psychological stress induced by the hostage situation causes the hostage to react in a manner totally against his normal beliefs, values, and ethics. This phenomenon, can affect both the hostage and the hostage taker. In the high stress environment, an emotional bond forms and leads to the development of an “it is us against them” philosophy.
Reactions The Stockholm Syndrome produces a variety of responses. At the minimal level of response, the victim sees the event through the perspective of his captor. At a higher level, the victim respects and recognizes the terrorist for his gallant efforts. Responses have ranged from hostage apathy to actual participation by the hostage in terrorist activity. Other responses include losing touch with reality, impeding efforts of the rescue forces and negotiation teams, and suffering long-term emotional instability. Anyone who provides assistance to the hostage taker may be seen as a collaborator. Such action could be punishable under the Justice.

LESSON 4 - Stockholm Syndrome, continued

Stockholm Syndrome, continued

Positive Aspect

While the negative aspects of the Stockholm Syndrome have been pointed out, there is also a positive aspect. The hostage is not the only one susceptible to the Stockholm Syndrome. The hostage holder can also be affected, which could contribute to the enhanced survivability of the hostage.

Common Experiences

Victims of the syndrome share common experiences. These experiences include:

(1) Positive contact – Positive contact with the captors is generated by a lack of negative experiences. It appears that positive contact is reinforced to a greater degree if there were negative experiences (beatings, rapes, and murder) early in the event, followed by positive contact.


(2) Sensing and identifying with the human qualities of the captors – The hostages may relate to their captors. The terrorists may talk about their own mental and physical suffering, their perceptions of being victims of circumstance rather than aggressors. The hostages may then transfer anger from the hostage takers to the society or the situation that created the dilemma in which they are now victims. The hostages may feel the terrorists are entitled to their protection and care, possibly even their help and support.

(3) Willingness to tolerate situations beyond the logical limits – The third common experience of victims deals with preconceived levels of tolerance and expectations of actions. Before a situation develops, most individuals anticipate a limit to the extent they will allow themselves to be pushed or abused. That extent is the logical limit. Because the need to survive is strong, hostages rationalize an extension of their preconceived limits far beyond what they expected.

LESSON 4 - Establishing Rapport

Establishing Rapport

Make the Effort

The hostages should make every attempt to establish rapport with the terrorists. This might be the deciding factor that saves his or her life when it comes time for the terrorists to carry out their threat of execution if their demands are not met.


In a hostage situation, small talk is better than no talk, but you must be careful with what you talk about and focus your efforts to establishing yourself as a human and not a faceless symbol. Hostages may discuss no substantive topics to convey their human qualities and build rapport. Hostages should also:

· Introduce commonalities – Discuss family, clothes, sports, hygiene, and food. Anything that you may have in common with your captors.


· Use your name – Use your name as often as possible in order to give yourself a sense of identity.

· Introduce benign topics at critical times – Talking about positive topics could reduce tension.

· Avoid being singled out – Do not become argumentative or combative with your captors. This will make it easier for them to punish you.

· Avoid escalating tensions – Do not discuss religion, weapons, killing, or punishment, etc.

· Show photographs – If you have pictures of your family or friends, show them to your captors.

· Show an interest – If the terrorists want to talk about their cause, show an interest even if you are not sincere. Explain that you may not agree with the captors, but you are interested in their point of view.

LESSON 4 - Establishing Rapport, continued

Establishing Rapport, continued


You must accept the hostage takers for who they are according to their beliefs. This is a common courtesy. You should accept your captor’s culture in a gracious manner, yet not degrade your own. Disregard the political or religious differences between you and your captors and search for the common ground between yourself and them.

One of the strongest indicators of accepting an individual’s culture is to learn his language. As a start, you should learn short phrases in the captor’s language. While increasing your knowledge of the language, work on other cultural behaviors that may please your captor and reinforce the feeling that you accept and understand their culture.

Always eat the food. Many Americans are afraid to eat the common dishes of other countries simply because they do not look or smell appetizing. Nothing could be more disrespectful than refusing to eat the same food that theterrorist himself may be eating.

LESSON 4 - Planning an Escape

Planning an Escape

Last Resort

Although escape is considered a last resort, it may be necessary if conditions deteriorate to the point that the risks associated with escape are less than the risk of remaining captive. These risks include:

· Torture
· Death of hostages due to treatment by the detainers
· Credible threat of death or torture of the hostages by the detainers


Hostages and kidnap victims should begin planning for an escape as soon as possible after coming under the control of terrorists to improve the chances of escape, should an attempt be required. Planning should include the passive collection of information on the following elements:

· The captors – Find out as much information as possible about your captors. Schedule rotations, rank structure, weapons, total numbers, etc.

· Strengths and weaknesses of the facility – Locate the weak points in the facility that would be best for escape. Note areas to stay clear of due to heavy traffic or difficult barriers.

· Surrounding areas – Keep track of the conditions that could have an impact on an escape attempt. Once you escape from the compound what are your options? Are there means of cover? Will you have to deal with the local populace?

· Items and materials used for support – Locate any tools, maps, food, etc. that may be useful in an escape attempt.


Making the Decision The decision to escape should be based on the careful consideration of the unique circumstances of the terrorist situation. Make an assessment of the current hostage conditions, potential for success, risk of violence during the escape attempt, and the potential reprisals if recaptured. Once you have determined the best course of action, it is time to make a decision and stick to it.

LESSON 4 - Rescue and Release

Rescue and Release

Rescue Attempts

During a rescue attempt, both the hostage and the rescue force are in extreme danger. Most hostages who die are killed during rescue attempts. You must be especially alert, cautious, and obedient to instructions if an attempt is imminent or occurring. Often times the first hostage execution will serve as a green light for rescue forces.

Your safest response is to drop to the floor immediately, lie as flat as possible, do not move, do not say anything, and do not attempt to pick up a weapon or help the rescuers. Rescue forces have no idea whether you are friend or foe.
Any movement you make could result in injury or death to you or your fellow hostages.

After the rescue forces have restored order, the hostages may be handled roughly. Be prepared to be handcuffed, searched, and possibly gagged and/or blindfolded until everyone is positively identified. This is a common procedure for the rescue forces that must separate the hostages from the terrorists. Some of the terrorists may have thrown away their weapons and masks in an attempt to disguise themselves as hostages.


Statistically the odds favor the hostages being released. The moment of release, like the moment of capture, is dangerous. The terrorists are losing their bargaining chip. The rules are simple:


· Pay close attention to the instructions the terrorists are giving when the
release is taking place.

· Do not panic or attempt to run.



Mentally you must now begin to prepare yourself for the aftermath of a hostage ordeal. You will be debriefed by government and military personnel, remember to cooperate fully with them, especially if others are still being held. Once you are released from captivity, write down everything you can remember about the incident: the location of guards, the description and placement of weapons, explosives, and any other information that might be valuable to the authorities. Keep in mind that although the information you provide the authorities with might seem insignificant, it could aid in the release or rescue of other hostages who remain in captivity or assist in bringing the captors to trial.


Media may be the first challenge encountered after the release or rescue. They will want an interview immediately, and you will be in no condition to provide intelligent, accurate responses. Ask for an official media spokesperson, such as a public affairs officer (PAO). This individual will provide guidance and act as a media buffer. If you are confronted by the media and choose to respond without a PAO, say nothing that might be harmful to your fellow hostages who are still in captivity. Keep your comments as short as possible and limit them to statements such as “I am thankful to be home” or “…alive” or “…out of captivity.” You must say nothing that is sympathetic to the terrorist cause or that might gain support for them.

Emotional Turmoil Many victims experience a feeling of guilt for not having conducted themselves in a heroic manner. A hostage may suffer defeats in captivity, and once released, may need professional help to sort through the feelings and emotions.
Hostages may also emerge from the ordeal with hostile feelings toward their government. They may feel that the ir government should have been more active in their release. Remember that a government’s unwillingness to makeconcessions to terrorists discourages future acts of terrorism and sends a
message to all terrorists worldwide. When governments have paid ransoms for captives of terrorists, these payments have been used by terrorists to increase their status and capability to continue terrorist acts. It does not mean that your life had no value.





The purpose of the review lesson examination is to prepare you for your final
examination. We recommend that you try to complete your review lesson
examination without referring to the text. However, those items (questions)
you are unsure of, restudy the text.


Note: You have the possibility to answer each question unlimited again after submitting a wrong answer. Please keep in mind that all your wrong answers will be tracked too.



Select the ONE answer that BEST completes the statement or that answers
the item. For multiple choice items, circle your response. For matching
items, place the letter of your response in the space provided.


Terrorism is defined as “the calculated use of _____________ or threat of ____________ to inculcate (instill) fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological.”

  • unlawful violence, torture
  • unlawful violence, unlawful violence
  • terror, terror
  • force, violence


The strategy of terrorists is to commit acts of violence that draw the attention of the _____________, the government, and the world to their cause.

  • media
  • leadership
  • local populace
  • church


A successful attack for a terrorist is one that _______________ .

  • gains the greatest publicity.
  • claims the most victims.
  • destroys the most property.
  • makes the most money.


The three perspectives of terrorism are, the terrorist’s perspective, the ____________ perspective, and the general public’s perspective.

  • victim’s
  • government’s
  • family’s
  • media’s


Terrorists believe they are _____________, fighting for what they believe in, by whatever means possible.

  • freedom fighters
  • heroes
  • martyrs
  • legitimate combatants


The general public’s view of a terrorist incident is the ____________ view of the three.

  • most stable
  • most unstable
  • least important
  • most important

7 - 9

Matching: For items 7 through 9,match the terrorist group in column 1 to its description in column 2. Place your responses in the spaces provided.

  • 7. National Terrorists
    A group that operates in and aims to attain political power within a single nation.
  • 8. Transnational Terrorists
    A group that operates across national borders.
  • 9. International Terrorists
    A group that is controlled by a sovereign state and that represents the state's interests.
  • -
    A group that operates solely in the local area.


Three categories of governmental affiliation are _______________, _______________, and __________________.

  • state sustained, state maintained, state directed
  • non-state supported, state supported, non-state directed
  • non-state supported, state supported, state directed
  • non-state sustained, non-state maintained, non-state directed


Terrorism is motivated by political ideologies,___________, nationalism, and religion.

  • money
  • special interests
  • violence
  • invocation of fear


Freeing prisoners is an example of a/an ______________ goal of terrorists.

  • immediate
  • long-term
  • primary
  • short-term


Theft or extortion of money and equipment is an example of a/an ______________ goal of terrorists.

  • primary
  • long-term
  • immediate
  • short-term

14 - 16

Matching: For 14 through 16, match the type of long-term goal in column 1 to its description in column 2. Place your responses in the spaces provided.

  • 14. Revolutionary
    To help bring about the complete overthrow of an incumbent government.
  • 15. Sub-revolutionary
    To influence a government or other groups of people to change against their will.
  • 16. Establishment
    Directly controlled or at least tolerated by a particular state to attack enemies of the government.
  • -
    To attack major infrastructures and destroy economies.


Any criminal act carried out by a person or group to gain attention for a cause by using terror-causing tactics or to raise capital or obtain equipment for future operations is the definition of a terrorist _____________ .

  • operation.
  • action.
  • procedure.
  • maneuver.

18 - 22

Matching: For 18 through 22, match the Phase of Terrorist Operations in column 1 to its definition in column 2. Place your responses in the spaces provided.

  • 18. Pre-incident
    Activities include reconnaissance missions, lengthy periods of training, and rehearsals.
  • 19. Initiation
    Terrorist move to their targets.
  • 20. Negotiation
    Terrorists decide that a hostage/barricade or another event is a worthwhile endeavor to gain publicity or obtain a demand.
  • 21. Climax
    Signals the end of the operation, terrorist’s retreat.
  • 22. Post-incident
    Terrorist members regroup, critique and criticize the operation.
  • -
    Definieren Sie Ihre Antwort…


What are the two terrorist operations that are major financial sources for terrorist groups?

  • carjacking and ambush
  • kidnapping and NBC attacks
  • international narcotics support and robbery
  • robbery and assassination


The different categories of terrorist targets include ___________________, communication and supplies, engineering and energy systems, and humans.

  • weapons sites
  • transportation
  • factories
  • military headquarters


Three characteristics of a soft target are ________________, ___________, _____________.

  • unarmed, heightened awareness, and predictable
  • armed, heightened awareness, and unpredictable.
  • armed, accessible, and predictable.
  • unarmed, predictable, and unaware.


Three characteristics of a hard target are ______________, _____________, and ______________ .

  • hardened vehicles, minimal chance of confrontation with police, and unaware.
  • hardened residence, unpredictable, and armed.
  • accessible, unpredictable, and armed.
  • hardened vehicles, unaware, and unpredictable.


How do you establish yourself as a hard target?

  • Avoid forming routines in your daily life.
  • Form routines in your daily life.
  • Alternate your routines weekly.
  • Have your routines mirror that of your coworkers and neighbors.


What is the basic structure of a terrorist organization called?

  • cell
  • block
  • group
  • section


What cell is the building block for which all groups are formed. This cell is the action arm of the terrorist group?

  • Intelligence
  • Command
  • Operational and Clandestine
  • Support


Whether large or small, terrorist groups all have the following cells: command, operational and clandestine, intelligence, ___________, __________, and assault.

  • support, reconnaissance
  • reconnaissance, support by fire
  • maintenance, reconnaissance
  • recovery, covert


Internal training is conducted at the ______________________ level by members of the group within the target country, usually in a clandestine fashion.

  • national
  • local
  • cellular
  • secular


What type of training is intended to plant or reinforce the ideals of terrorists groups within the individual member ?

  • Political indoctrination
  • Mental conditioning
  • Specific tactics
  • Survival


What type of training is being conducted when terrorists are trained to do things such as photographing contents and resealing individual's mail?

  • Tradecraft
  • Communications
  • Specific tactics
  • Psychological warfare


What is the continuous or periodic act of observing, usually by surreptitious means, a person, a place, or an object for the purpose of obtaining information?

  • Observation
  • Spying
  • Scouting
  • Surveillance


The different methods of surveillance are ____________, ___________, __________, foot, vehicle, leading, progressive, and technology.

  • fixed or stationary, ruses, moving
  • fixed or stationary, mobile, hoax
  • scouting or recon, mobile, ruses
  • spying or observation, ruses, mobile


What is the most difficult method of surveillance to conduct?

  • Foot
  • Enroute or moving
  • Progressive
  • Leading


The second phase in terrorist surveillance is known as the _________________ phase.

  • target selection
  • assessment
  • Attack/Operational
  • reconnaissance


What will assist you in detecting stationary surveillance?

  • Area analysis
  • Cityscape analysis
  • Neighborhood pattern analysis
  • Landmark analysis


In order to detect moving surveillance it is necessary to increase your awareness to the point where ____________________ becomes an integral part of your daily activities.

  • attention to detail
  • reporting everything
  • following rules
  • training


What should you try to do if someone attempts to keep you under surveillance?

  • Confront them
  • Make a complete and detailed report
  • Run away
  • Report them


What is the crucial part to making accurate observations?

  • Remembering everything
  • Concentration on every scene
  • Retention of details
  • Visualizing


An individual’s voice is an example of a _________________ characteristic

  • general
  • distinguishing
  • changeable
  • specific


An individual’s age is an example of a __________________ characteristic.

  • distinguishing
  • changeable
  • specific
  • general


Which of the following is a precaution to consider when selecting a residential site?

  • Pets
  • Community services
  • Taxi availability
  • Safety


High wall and fences, trees and shrubs, dogs, warning signs, night watchmen, and lighting are examples of what?

  • Physical security
  • Precautions for the selection of a residence
  • Electronic security
  • Personal security and safety measures


Knowing where your family members are at all times is an example of _________ and safety measures.

  • family readiness
  • residential precautions
  • physical security
  • personal security


Asking neighbors to place garbage in your garbage can, making arrangements for someone to pick up your mail/newspaper daily, ____________________, turning down your telephone ringer and answering machine are examples ways to create an appearance of occupancy while you are away for extended periods.

  • arranging for lawn services to continue regularly
  • parking your automobile on the street
  • leaving your interior lights on the entire time you are gone
  • leaving television set or radio on


What are the five countermeasures that make intelligence collection and targeting difficult?

  • Visitor control procedures, working procedures, arrangement of the office space, contingency plans for alternate work locations, and mail handling procedures.
  • Visitor control procedures, working procedures, arrangement of the office space, emergency control procedures, and mail handling procedures.
  • Visitor control procedures, general working procedures, arrangement of the office space, contingency plans for emergencies, and mail handling procedures.
  • Emergency control procedures, normal working procedures, varied daily routine, contingency plans for emergencies, and mail handling procedures.


"Unknown callers should not be privy to any unnecessary information”, is an example of what countermeasure?

  • General working procedures
  • Measures used to handle suspicious activity
  • Personal protective measures
  • Home security protective measures


What are some of the measures used to handle/identify suspicious packages?

  • No return address, excessive amount of postage, abnormal size or shape, protruding strings or wires, grease marks or stains, springiness, or a foreign postmark.
  • Inflexibility, no return address, excessive amount of postage, abnormal size or shape, protruding strings or wires, grease marks or stains, and springiness.
  • Strange postmark, no return address, excessive amount of postage, abnormal size or shape, USPS packaging, protruding strings or wires, grease marks or stains, and springiness
  • Strange postmark, no return address, excessive amount of postage, abnormal size or shape, protruding strings or wires, grease marks or stains, springiness, and balanced weight.


Getting briefed, routes, language, phones, safe havens, and ____________ are all aspects of a crisis response plan.

  • training
  • transportation
  • emergencies
  • reacts


What is the purpose of a phrase card?

  • To provide common greetings and methods of asking for assistance in the local language.
  • To provide a list of local contacts in case of an emergency.
  • An easy to reference chart that contains photos of the local area.
  • Identifies local establishments using the “touch and point” method.


Remaining on roads, __________________, maintaining a cautious attitude, apply surveillance detection methods, walking in well- lit areas, and walking with others are all individual protective measures for pedestrians.

  • walk with traffic
  • walk facing traffic
  • always use a sidewalk during heavy vehicular traffic
  • never walk in heavy traffic areas


What are tinted windows, alarms, armor, upgraded tires, and horsepower examples of?

  • Vehicle security upgrades.
  • Minimum security requirements for diplomatic employees overseas.
  • Allowable upgrades at government expense while deployed to imminent danger areas.
  • Standard upgrades of vehicle security for high ranking government officials.


What is an acceptable tire rating?

  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D


What is a basic rule for emp loying chauffeurs?

  • Give the chauffeur your itinerary in order to maintain a strict timeline.
  • Do not permit the chauffeur to remain in the vehicle while parked. This would draw unneeded attention.
  • Prearrange a signal with the chauffer showing that it is safe to enter.
  • Substitute drivers are encouraged so as not to show predictability.


What is the reason for driving in the left lane?

  • This will not allow you to be forced to the curb and will allow maneuverability out of a crisis situation.
  • Average speed in the left lane is faster than the other lanes. The greater speed will permit you to become less of a target.
  • This will allow a greater speed and prevent other vehicles from pulling along side.
  • The left lane is wider and allows for increased maneuverability out of a crisis situation.


How long should it take to conduct an effective vehicle bomb search?

  • 1 to 5 minutes
  • 5 to 10 minutes
  • 5 to 15 minutes
  • 10 to 15 minutes


What are some signs that would indicate a vehicle has been tampered with?

  • Vehicle moved, doors ajar, and scratches around locks or handles
  • Pieces of tape, discarded wires, grease marks, or foreign materials on or round the vehicle
  • Debris around the vehicle, fingerprints on the paint or window, and door ajar
  • Pieces of tape, wire insulation, and slide marks on the ground


What are the preferred seats to sit in on an aircraft?

  • A window seat positioned in the middle, rear of the aircraft.
  • A window seat positioned in the middle, front of the aircraft
  • An aisle seat positioned in the middle, rear of the aircraft.
  • An aisle seat positioned in the middle, front of the aircraft.


Some individual protective measures used when traveling are: stay alert, watch what you say, ___________, and keep track of your luggage.

  • avoid symbols
  • avoid alcohol
  • dress down
  • carry limited identification


What is the first action you should take when being rescued during a skyjacking?

  • Find cover
  • Offer assistance
  • Identify yourself
  • Seek to assist the rescuers


Security guards, cameras to monitor activity, and visitor control procedures are all examples of what?

  • Security mandated by NATO.
  • Minimum accepted security for U.S. citizens.
  • Items terrorists look for in a hotel.
  • Security measures hotels can employ.


What are some guidelines to use when asking for a hotel room?

  • Avoid upper level rooms, reserve a specific room that you are familiar with, and change hotels occasionally.
  • Avoid street level rooms, reserve a specific room that you are familiar with, and change hotels occasionally.
  • Avoid street level rooms, do not reserve a specific room, and change rooms occasionally.
  • Avoid street level rooms, do not reserve a specific room, and maintain the same room.


What is the proper way to respond to an unexpected hotel page?

  • Move to an area to observe the pager.
  • Do not respond.
  • Call the front desk to verify the identity of the pager.
  • Contact hotel security for identification.


What are the three types of hostile peacetime detention?

  • Hostile government, hostile government-sponsored, and independent terrorist group.
  • Hostile government, government-sponsored, and independent terrorist group.
  • Hostile government, hostile government-sponsored, and corporate sponsored terrorist group.
  • Hostile political party, hostile government-sponsored, and independent terrorist group.


What is the difference between a hostage and a detainee?

  • A detainee is being held for some type of ransom. A hostage is being held for collateral reasons.
  • A hostage is being held for some type of ransom. A detainee is being held for collateral reasons.
  • A detainee is being held in violation of international law. A hostage is being detained in a country legally for violation of the local law.
  • A hostage is being held in violation of international law. A detainee is being detained in a country legally for violation of the local law.


What are the two categories of hostage takers that pose a threat to the western countries?

  • Political and economical extremist
  • Political and religious extremist
  • Environmental and religious extremist
  • Social and religious extremist


What are the three subcategories of religious extremists?

  • Member of a radical offshoot of a recognized religion, member of a cult, and a religious loner
  • Religious loner, cult member, and evangelists
  • Member of a radical offshoot of a recognized religion, religious loner, and left wing religion members
  • Religious loner, cult member, and violent passives


What information should detainees provide to their captors?

  • Name, rank, social security number, date of birth, and innocent circumstances leading to detention
  • Name, social security number, date of birth, next of kin, and innocent circumstances leading to detention
  • Name, rank, social security number, next of kin, and innocent circumstances leading to detention
  • Name, rank, social security number, date of birth, and next of kin.


Developing a physical fitness program, reading, writing, daydreaming, and keeping active are all good ways to overcome what?

  • Physical fatigue
  • Over excitability
  • Mental fatigue
  • Boredom


What are the two types of isolation?

  • Active and passive
  • Eventual and passive
  • Social and perceptual
  • Social and eventual


Identify a way to limit harmful stress.

  • Maintain confidence and physical condition
  • Chat with your captors
  • Attempt to establish a relationship with other hostages
  • Begin practicing a new religion or teachings


What are the three most common defense mechanisms hostages use in order to survive?

  • Denial, acceptance, and identification
  • Acceptance, compassion, and identification
  • Regression, compassion, and a feeling of mortality
  • Denial, regression, and identification


In addition to protect sensitive information, maintain your bearing and do not be fooled by a friendly approach, what are some other methods used to resist interrogation?

  • Give detailed answers, and resist every time
  • Give confusing answers, and resist as needed
  • Give short answers, and resist as needed
  • Give short answers, and resist every time


What is the Stockholm syndrome?

  • An unexpected behavior displayed by a hostage taker aligning himself with the hostage.
  • An unexpected behavior displayed by a hostage aligning himself with the hostage taker.
  • When the hostages align together and ultimately force the hostage takers into surrendering.
  • Negative and positive contact, isolation, and abuse beyond what the human body can tolerate.


What are some experiences commonly associated with victims of Stockholm syndrome?

  • Positive contact, sensing and identifying with the human qualities of the captors, and willingness to tolerate situations beyond the logical limits.
  • Positive contact, sensing and identifying with the human qualities of the captors, and turning against other hostages.
  • Negative contact, isolation, and abuse beyond what the human body can tolerate.
  • Negative and positive contact, isolation, and abuse beyond what the human body can tolerate.


How can you establish rapport with your captors?

  • Single yourself out
  • Introduce commonalities
  • Show compassion for their cause
  • Share inner feelings


What elements of information are necessary for an effective escape plan?

  • The captors, strengths and weaknesses of the facility, surrounding areas, and items or materials used for support.
  • The captors, strength and weaknesses of the facility, and items or materials needed for support.
  • Organization of the captors, information on surrounding areas and facilities, and technical support.
  • Organization of the captors, information on surrounding areas and facilities, technical support, and MEDEVAC procedures for casualties.


What is the safest response during a rescue attempt?

  • Drop to the floor immediately, lie as flat as possible, crawl to the nearest exit, and assist the rescuers as needed.
  • Drop to the floor immediately, lie as flat as possible, do not move, do not say anything, and do not attempt to pick up a weapon or help the rescuers.
  • Standup and announce that you are a “(your country) citizen”, and do not attempt to pick up a weapon or help the rescuers.
  • Standup and announce that you are a “(your country) citizen”, attempt to assist the rescuers as needed.