Cite On: APA Edition

This tutorial will introduce American Psychological Association (APA) formatting style and provide basic step-by-step instructions on how to conduct in-text citations and reference list. 

American Psychological Association

Before beginning the tutorial, please rate your experience with APA formatting style

  • I can cite APA without the use of additional resources
  • I can cite APA with little to no additional resources
  • I can cite APA with the use of additional resources
  • I have never used APA

What is American Psychological Association?

American Psychological Association also known as APA is a formatting style that is used to cite sources within the social sciences. It was comprised by psychologist, anthropologist, and business managers with the intentions to establish a simple set of procedures, or style rules, that would place a systematic code to the many components of scientific writing to increase the ease of reading comprehension. 

CHECK POINT

  • APA stands for American Psychiatry Association
  • APA stands for American Psychological Association

General Format

Research Paper Format Guidelines

Click on the hotspots to identify general APA guidelines

In-Text Citations

Terminology:

In-Text Citation 

The author's last name and the year of publication from which the quotation of paraphrase is taken. It must appear in the text. 


In-Text Citation: Types of Quotations

Short Quotations

Use this style of in-text citation when directly quoting from a work. The format is (author, year of publication, and page number preceded by a "p."). 

Long Quotations 

Use this style of in-text citation when placing direct quotations that are 40 words or longer. Omit quotation marks and indent 1/2 inch from left margin. Place citation formatting  after the punctuation mark as (page number preceded by a "p"). 

In-Text Citation: Summary or Paraphrase

Paraphrase or Summary 

This form of in-text citation does not involve taking direct quotations from another work. Complete the paraphrase and format the citation as (author's last name, publication date, and page number preceded by a "p."). 

In-Text Citations

View the video below for more information on how to format in-text citation then click next.

*This video highlights the various in-text citations that are available in research papers. 

CHECK POINT

  • Short Quotation
    Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?
  • Long Quotation
    Jones's (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed. (p. 199)
  • Paraphrase
    According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

Reference List

Terminology:

Reference List 

The reference list is comprised of all sources included in the body of the research paper. It should appear on the last page of the paper and be formatted on it's on page. 

Books

General Format

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for    subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Single Author 

Jackson, P. J. (2012). Friendship and dating development. Current Actions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10.

More than one author

Williams, D. T., & Princeton, R. E. (2018). Mood across psychological  states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.

Journal Articles

Journal article with DOI

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. doi:0000000/000000000000 or http://doi.org/10.0000/0000

Benson, D. (2017). Toward the advancement of learning styles: A bibliography. Librarian Journal of Engagement, 41, 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161

Journal article without DOI

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number. Retrieved from http://www.journalhomepage.com/full/url/

Knight, I. A. (2005). A Priest response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Christian Ministry, 8. Retrieved from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbec/church.html

Which image is a reference list of a journal with no DOI?