In-text Referencing and Reference Lists

This course offers a practical how-to guide on using the Harvard referencing system. This course aims to introduce the Harvard referencing system, offer practical guidelines on how to implement it and an appreciation of the importance of referencing. 

The value of Referencing

So why should you cite your references?

We reference in order to 

  • Avoid plagiarism – or the sanctions associated with plagiarism 
  • To demonstrate that you have read widely on a topic.  
  •  To support your hypothesis with comments from expert authors- which lends credibility to your own work. 
  • You are also allowing the reader to follow-up your references and to check the validity of your arguments for themselves.  This is an important part of making a logical argument as it leads to accountability.
  • Referencing also allows you to keep track of where you have found information in case you need to go back and verify something.

What is a citation?

citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not).

Types of Plagiarism

What are the types of plagiarism?

  • Copying Verbatim: copy someone else's words, word for word without giving them credit.   
  • Copying verbatim, cited: copy word for word and cite it but forget to include the quotation marks “  “.  
  • Paraphrasing (without citation): Where you copy the ideas within the content but its not word for word the same.

What is paraphrasing?

  • Its when you put the material from a source in your own words.
  • When you paraphrase, you say something in different words.
  • The length of your paraphrased text will be approximately the same as the original

What is summarising?

  • Summarising balances the source material with your own ideas. 
  • When you summarise, you use different words and state the main idea of a passage
  • The length of your summary will be shorter than the original passage.
  • When you summarise, you must still cite your source. Even when putting source information in your own words, you must still cite the idea. 

How to avoid plagiarism

Here are some suggestions on how to avoid plagiarism:

  • Always cite sources 
  • If directly quoting from a source always place within inverted commas.
  • Try write in own words- if you paraphrase make sure to still cite the source.
  • Don't cherry pick words and phrases to replace with synonyms from the direct text thinking that is paraphrasing. 

Did you know?

You don't need to cite commonly known facts and information i.e.:

  • January is the first month of the year
  • The ship the Titanic sank

Video: How to summarise, paraphrase and direct quote

Test your Knowledge 1 Paraphrasing

Below is a paragraph from a source, choose the correct paraphrasing option from below

“Hand gestures, like other forms of nonverbal communication, can change the meaning of our words as well as carry meanings totally by themselves.  Unless we understand the meanings attached to certain hand gestures in the different cultures, we are likely to send and receive unintended messages when dealing with people from other cultures. When two ordinary citizens from two different cultures miscommunicate through hand gestures, the result can be embarrassment or hard feelings” (Ferraro, 2001)


Ferraro, Gary. Cultural Anthropology: An Applied Perspective, Fourth Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, Inc. 2001.

  • Both body language and words are used to convey meaning. Movements such as hand gestures can alter the meaning of spoken words, or be used alone to convey meaning. If we don’t understand the meaning a person from another culture intends to convey through his hand gestures, and if that person doesn’t understand the meaning of ours, there’s a good chance we’ll misunderstand each other and feel ill at ease or possibly offended (Ferraro, 2001).
  • Both body language and words are used to convey meaning. Movements such as hand gestures can alter the meaning of spoken words, or be used alone to convey meaning. If we don’t understand the meaning a person from another culture intends to convey through his hand gestures, and if that person doesn’t understand the meaning of ours, there’s a good chance we’ll misunderstand each other and feel ill at ease or possibly offended.

Test your Knowledge 2 - Paraphrasing

Select the correct summary of the text below

"Hand gestures, like other forms of nonverbal communication, can change the meaning of our words as well as carry meanings totally by themselves. Unless we understand the meanings attached to certain hand gestures in different cultures, we are likely to send and receive unintended messages when dealing with people from other cultures. When two ordinary citizens from two different cultures miscommunicate through hand gestures, the result can be embarrassment or hard feelings" (Ferraro, 2001).


Ferraro, Gary. Cultural Anthropology: An Applied Perspective, Fourth Edition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, Inc. 200

  • Body language can convey meaning alone and can alter the meaning of spoken words. If people from different cultures attempt to communicate without comprehending each other's hand gestures, they are apt to misunderstand, leading to uneasiness or ill will.
  • Body language can convey meaning alone and can alter the meaning of spoken words. If people from different cultures attempt to communicate without comprehending each other's hand gestures, they are apt to misunderstand, leading to uneasiness or ill will (Ferraro, 2001).
  • Hand gestures, like other forms of nonverbal communication, can change the meaning of our words as well as carry meanings totally by themselves. Unless we understand the meanings attached to certain hand gestures in different cultures, we are likely to send and receive unintended messages when dealing with people from other cultures. When two ordinary citizens from two different cultures miscommunicate through hand gestures, the result can be embarrassment or hard feelings (Ferraro, 2001).

The Harvard Referencing System

How to cite in-text: Publications with various numbers of Authors

An in-text citation requires:

  • Author's name, year of publication and the page number for direct quotations.
    • For example (Brown, 2008:1)
  • If its a direct quote it needs to be placed in inverted commas. 

Books and Journals with One Author

The format is author, publication date: page number. This can be placed within parenthesis or the author can be referred to in the sentence and only the date and page number is used in parenthesis. 

  • "...there appears to be no correlation between the size of the state ... and the performance of the economy..." (Wilson, 1990:232). 
  • Sloman (1997:5) defines opportunity cost as "the cost of any activity measured in terms of the best alternative foregone".

Books and Journals with Two or three Authors

Refer to both authors and use 'and'.

  • According to Lipsey and Chrystal (1999:166) "cartels tend to be unstable".

alternatively:

  •  "Cartels tend to be unstable" (Lipsey and Chrystal, 1999:166).

Books and Journals with more than three authors

For more than three authors first cite all authors on the first occasion there after use the surname of the first author only, followed by et al.
  • For example Lipsey et al (1996:6)


Books by Same Author/s more than one article or book published in a year.

Especially with journal articles or other source material like newspapers, magazine you may need to source the same author/s in the same year, as they have written more than one book or article. this is done by including a letter by the date starting at a for the first mentioned source in the report or chapter:

  • (Visser, 1997a:15) 
  • (Visser, 1997b:98)

1. Test Your Knowledge: In-text Citations

The following is an excerpt from page 386 of Whose Mecca? Divergent experiences of Post Productivism and tourism in Nieu-Bethesda, South Africa, by P.M. Irvine, T. Kepe, D.T. de Wet and N.P. Hamunime from the South African Geographical Journal, 2016, vol 98, number 2, pages 386 -401. 

 

Tourism has, indubitably, brought about the economic revival of an isolated and declining Karoo town. It is clear, however, that some compromises need to be made for the betterment of the community as a whole. After all, the poorest of the poor bear the burden of the cost of the isolation of the village with travel so expensive and a lack of essential services, amenities and goods nearby. The fact that leakage of income to larger urban centres is so high limits the local economic multipliers and, therefore, the positive effects that tourism can bring.

Please complete the in-text citation for this sentence:

stated that the "poorest of the poor bear the burden of the cost of isolation".

How to cite in-text: Different Source Types

When there is no author

Some publications don't cite an author. When no author is indicated use the publication name or the name of the organisation. Use the full publication date in the reference list.

Always remember to use credible sources 

Example: 

  • (Business Day, 1997:2)
  • (The Economist, 2017:1)
  • (The World Bank, 2007:25)

Internet References

When citing material found on a website, you should cite it like any other source, usually the author surname in brackets and the date. Do not include the URL of the website in your citation. 

  • If there is no obvious author of a document use the organisation's name as the author.
  • The publication date of websites can often be found at the bottom of a webpage.
  • If you are citing specific information from a website that does not have page numbers, you do not need to indicate this in the in-text citation.

eBooks

Cite sources from an e-book reader in exactly the same way as any other source, usually by the author's surname and year of publication.

In your reference list or bibliography, you need to indicate that you were using an e-book formatted for a particular e-reader.

You should include page numbers if you quote directly from the text. If there are no page numbers, include chapter, section and paragraph number, if available, following the format given in the example below:

Example: (Smith, 2013, Chapter 2, Section 1, para. 8)

Sometimes there may only be limited information available, such as the chapter number. If that is the case, just include the information that is available to you:

Example: (Smith, 2013, Chapter 2)

If none of this information is available, use (no pagination):

Example: (Smith, 2008, no pagination)

A Chapter from an Edition

Use the author of the chapter in your citation. 

In your bibliography:

Chapter author's name, date of publication. Name of chapter. In: Editor's name. ed. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, pages of chapter.

Examples: 

It was emphasised that speaking and captivating audience attention required practice (Jones, 1998).

Reference list:

Jones, M. 1998. Speaking to an audience. In: Smith, T. ed. Successful presentations. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, pp.15-27. 

Personal communication

Personal communications may include:

  • letters
  • memos
  • electronic communication (e.g., email or messages from non-archived discussion groups or electronic bulletin boards), 
  • personal interviews
  • telephone conversations.

If you wish to cite someone you interviewed or that you communicated with you use their surname and the year:

(Surname, Year)


Government Publications

  • Can use the department that authored the report as the author.

Example: Education is in the process of transformation (Department of Education, 1995)…

  • When quoting the South African Constitution this can be referenced as follows:

Example: According to The Bill of Rights (1996)... 

Reference list: The Bill of Rights of the Constitution of the Republic of South African. (1996).Government Gazette. (No. 17678).


GIS Data

You should include proper citations for GIS maps that make use of datasets. 

Location maps developed by Urban-Econ staff of generic location information can be referenced under Urban-Econ GIS and year that it was produced. 


How to cite: Statistics and Reports

Cite past reports by Urban-Econ or your primary research etc.

Statistics

Tables and graphs of statistics need to be cited in reports. 

  • Cite the name of the dataset developer and date the data was developed not when you accessed it.

In the bibliography include the name of the developer, date of the dataset, Name of dataset, 

  • if online: how it was accessed , URL, date accessed.


Examples:

QUANTEC, 2017b. Standardised Regional Database. [Online] Available: http://www.easydata.co.za/. [Accessed January 2018].

STATISTICS SOUTH AFRICA, 2018. Labour Force Survey. [Online] Available: http://www.easydata.co.za/. [Accessed January 2019].

How to cite a secondary resource

What if you want to reference a quote that someone else has referenced?

Always refer to the source where you found the information, not the original source. For example:

Sue reads a book by J Benjamin Hurlbut. Hurlbut cites or refers to statements made by Laura Stark. Sue wants to refer to Stark's statement in her assignment.

Always cite the document you are reading

Citation:

“…new forms of oversight and ethical review were integrated into growing bureaucracies of big bioscience” (Stark, cited in Hurlbut, 2017: 3)

Reference:

HURLBUT, J.B., 2017. Experiments in democracy: human embryo research and the politics of bioethics. Columbia University Press, New York.

2. Test Your Knowledge: In-text Citations other types of texts


The following references are in the reference list, how would you cite them in text? Choose the true and false statements.

LEISTRITZ, F.L. 1995. Economic and Fiscal impact Assessment. in Vanclay, F and Bronstein, D.A. (eds). Environmental and Social Assessment. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. 





  • (Leistritz, 1995)
  • (Vanclay and Bronstein, 1995)

Reference List

Reference Lists- Books

Referencing Books 

The basic format of this reference is:

AUTHOR/EDITOR, Date. Title (edition). Place of publication: Publisher's name.


A book with one author:

ROSE, L., 1977. Crime and Punishment. London: Batsford.

A book with two authors

GORDON, E.W. and ROURKE, A., 1966. Compensatory education for the disadvantaged. New York: College Entrance Examination Board.

A book with three or more authors

MEYER, B.S., ANDERSON, D.P., Bohning, R.H. & Fratanna, D.G., Jr., 1973. Introduction to plant physiology. New York: Van Nostrand.

An edition of a book

LIPSEY, R.G.; COURANT, P.N. and RAGAN, C.T.S., 1999. Economics (12e). Reading Mass: Addison-Wesley Longman.

Chapter within an Edition

AUTHOR(s) of chapter/article. Year. Chapter no and title of chapter/ title of article. In: Authors/Editors. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher.

LEISTRITZ, F.L., 1995. Economic and Fiscal Impact Assessment. In: Vanclay, F. and Bronstein, D.A. (eds). Environmental and social assessment. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. 

Reference Lists- Journals and Periodicals

Reference List Order

A list of reference should be included at the end of a report. Keep track of references as you go in your research to ensure that developing a reference list isn't an onerous task. Pay close attention to the order of references. these should be:

  • Alphabetical by author
  • If author starts with 'The' alphabetise based on next word
  • If the same author has written different publications in different years, start with the earliest publication to most recent.

Example:

Dollar, E.S.J. 1998. Paleofluvial geomorphology in Southern Africa: A review. Progress in Physical geography, 22, 325-349

Dollar, E.S.J. 2004. Fluvial geomorphology. Progress in Physical Geography, 28, 405-450.



Journals/ Periodicals/ Newspapers

The format of references is as follows:

AUTHOR. Year. title of article. Title of Journal. Volume, No: page numbers.

 Example:

NEL, H., 1996. The Term Structure of Interest Rates. South African Journal of Economics. 64,3:161-174.

Magazine / Newspaper:

For a magazine/newspaper article where you know the name of the author: 

SANCTON, T,. 2000. World Economic Forum: a great leap. Time. 155,4:38-42. 31 January.

SIKHAKANE, J. 1999. SADC Free Trade: Growing Together or not at all. Financial Mail. 7 December. pp 16-17.

Magazine / Newspaper where there is no specified author example:

BUSINESS DAY, 2000a. Oil heads up as mercury drops. Business Day. 24 January. pg 12.

BUSINESS DAY, 2000b. Black market bale-out revealed. Business Day. 4 February. pg 9.

ECONOMIST, 2000. The world's view of Multinationals. The Economist. 29 January. pp 19-20. 

Reference Lists- Published and unpublished materials

Sourcing other materials

The general format is to include the author's affiliation and city, the format and source type and include the title in bold. 

Unpublished report

ANTROBUS, G.G. and KOEN, J. 1998. The present nature and future expansion potential of accommodation at the Standard Bank National Arts Festival, Grahamstown. Unpublished report for the Grahamstown Accommodation Guild. Grahamstown: Department of Economics, Rhodes University. 

Theses

AUTHOR, date. Title of thesis. Degree for which the thesis is submitted. Location: Institution name.  

Example:

CATTANEO, N.S., 1998. The Theoretical and empirical analysis of trade integration among unequal partners: implications for the Southern African development community. Unpublished MSc Thesis. Grahamstown: Rhodes University. 

Personal Communication

The reference needs to include the respondent's profession or position and affiliation. The date of the communication should be included.

RESPONDENT NAME, YEAR. Position, Affiliation, Personal communication. date. 

Example:

Mc HANIC, L,A., 1999, Principal Environmental Officer, Municipality of Grahamstown, Personal communication. 28 October. 

Email Communication

You may wish to reference email correpondence specifically and this can be done using teh following format:

SENDER (sender’s e-mail address). Day month year). Subject of message. E-mail to recipient (recipient’s e-mail address).

LOWMAN, D. ([email protected]). (4 April 1996). RE: ProCite and Internet Refere. E-mail to Cross, P. ([email protected]).

Reference Lists- Internet and Electronic Sources

Internet Sources

The basic format is as follows:

AUTHOR, Year of posting or update. Title of page. Name of Organisation. [Type of medium]. Available: electronic address or URL. [Date accessed]. 

examples:

DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE, 1999. Budget Review 1999. [Online]. Available: www.finance.gov.za. [Accessed 7 February 2000]. 

WORLD BANK, 1999. Global economic prospects and the developing countries 2000. [Online]. Available: www. worldbank.org/prospects/gep2000. Washington, D.C.:World Bank. [Accessed 11 February 2000]. 


e-book reader format, eg Kindle

NAME, INITIAL(S). Year. Title. Edition (if not first edition). [Name of e-book reader]. Place of publication: Publisher.

example:

WU, T., 2010. The master switch: the rise and fall of information empires. [Kindle DX e-book]. London: Atlantic Books

3. Test your Knowledge: Reference Lists

Choose the correct reference for the source above. Paying close attention to punctuation.


  • IRVINE, P.M. and KEPE, T. and DE WET, D.T., and HAMUNIME, N.P. 2016. Whose Mecca? Divergent experiences of Post-productivism and tourism in Nieu Bethesda, South Africa. South African Geographical Journal. 98,2: 386-401.
  • IRVINE, P.M. et al. 2016. Whose Mecca? Divergent experiences of Post-productivism and tourism in Nieu Bethesda, South Africa. South African Geographical Journal. 98,2: 386-401.
  • SOUTH AFRICAN GEOGRAPHICAL JOURNAL. 2016. Whose Mecca? Divergent experiences of Post-productivism and tourism in Nieu Bethesda, South Africa. 98,2: 386-401.

Feedback

The course objectives were as follows:

  • To introduce the importance of referencing
  • To learn how to cite in-text.
  • To learn the Harvard method of referencing and citation
  • To understand how to paraphrase and direct quote in reports

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