E-Learning Packages

This e-learning packages are done with the intention to provides you with the best information on deep foundation and knowledge and understanding on Health and Safety Training to construction workers and employees.

Training outlines

Syllabus Content

Through this whole e-learning packages, the topics covered are as follows :

  • Short notes on Deep Foundation
  • Pile Foundations and Its uses
  • Malaysian Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 1994
  • Implications of OSHA in construction works

Learning Outcomes

Training Outcomes

At the end of this e-learning packages, workers or employees are expected

  1. To understand the important factors on keeping the construction sites safe from any danger by applying the OSHA during construction works at sites.
  2. To apply the related safety and health aspects which have been explained briefly in this packages to overcome any damages or accidents on the construction sites.
  3. To evaluate the application of OSHA in their construction sites whether they have implemented the correct safety and health aspects for every steps in their construction procedures.

Having a false application of OSHA or there are some aspects which have been left out may resulting a dangerous impacts to the employees and construction workers through the whole process of completing the project.


What is the definition of deep foundation

  • A type of foundation which transfers building loads to the earth very near the surface, rather than to a subsurface layer or a range of depths as does a deep foundation.
  • A type of foundation which transfers building loads to the earth farther down from the surface than a shallow foundation does, to a subsurface layer or a range of depths.
  • The lowest load-bearing part of a building, typically below ground level.

What are the types of deep foundation

  • Pile foundations
  • Spread footings
  • Pier foundations
  • Combined footings

Based on the following statements, choose whether the statement is true or false.

  • Deep foundations are used when there are weak soils near the surface or when loads are very high
  • Deep foundations are used to support an individual point load such as that due to a structural column
  • A deep foundation normally consists of a concrete slab which extends over the entire loaded area
  • Deep foundations transfers some or all of the load to deeper soils and are considerably more expensive and complex than shallow foundation systems.

Deep Foundations

Definition and types of Deep Foundations

What is Deep Foundations?

deep foundation is a type of foundation which transfers building loads to the earth farther down from the surface than a shallow foundation does, to a subsurface layer or a range of depths. A pile is a vertical structural element of a deep foundation, driven deep into the ground at the building site. A deep foundations is commonly used for :

  • Commercial / Industrial
  • High capacity / Greater than 100 tons
  • Underpinning applications
  • New construction
  • Build on weak soil sites
  • Limited access
  • Bridges

Types of Deep Foundations

Deep foundations can be categorized into few types namely piles foundations, pier foundations and caissons.

1. Piles foundations 

Pile foundations are the part of a structure used to carry and transfer the load of the structure to the bearing ground located at some depth below ground surface. The main components of the foundation are the pile cap and the piles. Pile foundations are frequently needed because of the relative inability of shallow footings to resist inclined, lateral, or uplift loads and overturning moments.

2. Pier foundations

A pier foundation, sometimes called a post-and-beam or pier-and-beam foundation, consists of wood posts or concrete piers set into the ground to bear the weight of a building or home. Pier foundations are easier to build and are less costly than the more common concrete foundation. They are best used for smaller buildings and homes with a low likelihood of earthquake or hurricane force winds.

3. Caissons

In geotechnical engineering, a caisson is a watertight retaining structure used, for example, to work on the foundations of a bridge pier, for the construction of a concrete dam, or for the repair of ships.


Pile Foundations

What is Pile Foundation?

A pile is a long slender foundation member, made either of timber, structural steel or concrete which might be cast-in-situ or driven and acts as a structural member to transfer the load of the structure to a required depth in deep foundations carrying a load which may be vertical or lateral or lateral plus vertical.

Figure 1.0 : Diagram of Pile foundations

Uses of Piles

As far as deep foundations are concerned there are numbers of types of deep foundations and pile foundation is among one of them; uses of Pile Foundation depends on the type of pile used, the intended function for which the pile is used, the load which is to be applied on the pile and the type of material which is used for the construction of the pile;
The following are the uses of piles;

a)    End Bearing or Compressive Strength

Sometimes we use the piles to achieve the required compressive strength in the soft soil; in that case we use the piles to transfer the load through that soft soil to a suitable bearing stratum by using the end bearing or toe bearing property of the pile.

b)    Scour Depth:

To build a structure within the water and on the water river or canal bed; we have to build the foundation through the river bed and within the scour depth.
For River Ravi in Pakistan, the scour depth is 30 to 35 cm below the bed. In these sorts of situations if we go for shallow foundation we might have to use coffer dam or some diversion which is very uneconomical.

c)    Tension or Uplift:

Piles are usually used to carry compressive nature of load through tip bearing or end bearing; but in case of tall structures or like towers there might be tension that must be resisted by piles. For example for a tower carrying high power transmission lines the thrust of wind might produces over turning that must be resisted by the tension piles; other options include use of deep foundation or thick raft which is sometimes uneconomical.

d)    Vibration Control

For foundation of buildings supporting vibrating equipment like Turbines where the vibrations is significant and might cause failures as well; there are two options there you might go for the massive block to absorb the vibrations or you can use the deep foundations and same that the massive block is very uneconomical.

e)    Compaction Piles:

Sometimes the piles are driven in a weaker strata of soil to increase the bearing capacity of the soil those piles are called compaction piles; and thus by using compaction piles we can increase the bearing capacity of the soil.

f)    Rapid Construction

To tackle or to avoid any problem relating to soils deep foundations and specially piles are a very good option when the time schedule is very tough. They are rapid to construct and not difficult to design as well.

Malaysian Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 1994

Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 1994

The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 1994 - Act 415 provides the legislative framework to promote, stimulate and encourage high standards of safety and health at work. The aim is to promote safety and health awareness, and establish effective safety organisation and performance through self-regulation schemes designed to suit the particular industry or organisation. The long-term goal of the Act is to create a healthy and safe working culture among all Malaysian employees and employers.

OSHA 1994 defines the general duties of employers, employees, the self-employed, designers, manufacturers, importers and suppliers of plant or substances. Although these duties are of a general character, they carry a wide ranging set of responsibilities. The Act provides a comprehensive and integrated system of law to deal with the safety and health of virtually all people at work and the protection of the public where they may be affected by the activities of people at work.

The general duties of employers, employees, the self-employed, designers, manufacturers, importers and suppliers of plant or substances are clearly defined under OSHA 1994. Employers must safeguard so far as is practicable, the health, safety and welfare of the people who work for them. This applies in particular to the provision and maintenance of a safe plant and system of work. Arrangements must also be made to ensure safety and health in the use, handling, storage and transport of plant and substances. Under OSHA 1994, definition of ‘plant’ includes any machinery, equipment, appliance, tool and component, whilst ‘substance’ means any natural or artificial substance whether in solid, liquid, gas, vapor or combination thereof, form.
Risks to health from the use, storage or transportation of substances must be minimized. To meet these aims, all practicable precautions must be taken in the proper use and handling of any substance likely to cause a risk to health. It is the duty of employers to provide the necessary information, instruction, training and supervision in safe practices, including information on the legal requirements. Employers need to consider the specific training needs of their organisations with particular reference to processes with special hazards.

An employer employing 40 or more persons must establish a safety and health committee at the workplace. The committee’s main function is to keep under review the measures taken to ensure the safety and health of persons at the workplace and investigate any related matters arising. An employer must notify the nearest occupational safety and health office of any accident, dangerous occurrence, occupational poisoning or disease which has occurred or is likely to occur at the workplace.
Some operation, installation, maintenance and dismantling of equipment and process need competent persons. Thus, during the installation of machinery and equipment such as cranes, lifts and local exhaust ventilation systems, competent persons are compulsory to ensure safe erection, whilst a boilerman and a steam engineer are required to operate high risk equipment such as boilers. Processes that use hazardous chemicals require competent persons to conduct the air quality and personal monitoring, and a safety and health officer and an occupational health doctor are required to ensure the proper surveillance of the workplace.

There are seven regulations under OSHA 1994 that enforced by DOSH. They are:
  1. Employers’ Safety and Health General Policy Statements (Exception) Regulations, 1995
  2. Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards Regulations, 1996
  3. Classification, Packaging and Labelling of Hazardous Chemicals Regulations, 1997
  4. Safety and Health Committee Regulations, 1996
  5. Safety and Health Officer Regulations, 1997
  6. Use and Standards of Exposure of Chemicals Hazardous to Health Regulations, 2000
  7. Notification of Accident, Dangerous Occurrence, Occupational Poisoning and Occupational Disease Regulations, 2004

Contravention of some of the requirements can lead to prosecution in court. A person who fails to comply with an improvement or prohibition notice that is served on him is liable to prosecution, with a maximum fine of RM 50,000 or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 5 years, or both.

OSHA on construction sites

HEALTH AND SAFETY ASPECTSSteps under Construction Regulations

  • remove debris and excavated soil near excavation site.
  • arrange to protect workers from falling into excavation.
  • plan for removing water in excavation.
  • identify and locate overhead power lines.
  • know soil types [s. 226] and what sloping, shoring or pre-fabricated, hydraulic or engineer systems are required.
  • notification requirements.
  • requirements for when support system must be engineered.
  • prepare emergency plan.
  • worker(s)shall not perform work in trench unless another worker is working above ground.
  • obtain utility locations before digging.

Reasonable precautions under OHSA section 25(2)(h)

  • determine how workers will enter and exit excavation
  • know in advance what excavation equipment and tools are needed
  • consider possibility of environmental hazards (rain) in excavation
  • be aware of nearby vehicles and mobile equipment causing soil to vibrate
  • provide training to workers

Procedure Trenching and Excavation For Deep Foundation

Excavation and trenching are among the most hazardous construction operations. OSHA defines an excavation as any man-made cut, cavity, trench, or depression in the earth’s surface formed by earth removal. A trench is defined as a narrow underground excavation that is deeper than it is wide, and is no wider than 15 feet (4.5 meters).

  • Keep heavy equipment away from trench edges.
  • Keep surcharge loads at least 2 feet (0.6 meters) from trench edges.
  • Know where underground utilities are located.
  • Test for low oxygen, hazardous fumes and toxic gases.
  • Inspect trenches at the start of each shift.
  • Inspect trenches following a rainstorm



Hazard: Trench collapses cause dozens of fatalities and hundreds of injuries each year. Trenching deaths rose in 2003.


  • Never enter an unprotected trench.
  • Always use a protective system for trenches feet deep or greater.
  • Employ a registered professional engineer to design a protective system for trenches 20 feet deep or greater.
  • Protective Systems:
    • Shielding to protect workers by using trench boxes or other types of supports to prevent soil cave-ins.
  • Always provide a way to exit a trench--such as a ladder, stairway or ramp--no more than 25 feet of lateral travel for employees in the trench.
  • Keep spoils at least two feet back from the edge of a trench.
  • Make sure that trenches are inspected by a competent person prior to entry and after any hazard-increasing event such as a rainstorm, vibrations or excessive surcharge loads.



Videos of OSHA in construction sites

Videos of Safety Orientation for Construction
Videos of Crane Safety in Construction Sites