Which of the following is not a function of the skin?
8 Functions of Skin
The skin is the largest organ in the human body
- Secretion of Sebum / Absorption of Drugs or Essential oil / Keeps out bacteria and creates barrier against rays of the sun
- Elimination of waste products / Some toxins are eliminated from the body through the skin via the sweat glands
- Sensation/ pain, cold, heat, pressure and touch
Vitamin D and Melanin production
- Vitamin D is essential for the formation and maintenance of bone
- The melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis to produce melanin, a substance which produces a darkening of the skin to protect the underlying structures. The pigment protects the body from harmful effects of the sun’s rays since dark colours absorb radiation.
- Temperature regulation
Structure of the Skin
The skin is a part of the integumentary system.
The integumentary system comprises of the skin and its associated components such as the hair and nails.
There are two main layers of the skin:
- the epidermis, which is the outer, thinner layer
- the dermis, which is the inner, thicker layer.
Below the dermis is the subcutaneous layer, which attaches to underlying organs and tissues.
Although the skin is technically a single organ, the two main layers do have different structures and functions
Which of the following is responsible for making the skin pigmentation darker?
The epidermis is composed of 4 types of cells and has 5 layers.
This complex cellular structure allows new cells to be continually produced to replace those that get worn away and facilitates the healing of damaged skin.
- Horny layer - hardened, flattened dead cells, constantly being shed-desquamation
- Clear layer (stratum lucidum) - This layer consists of transparent cells which permit light to pass through. The cells in the clear layer are filled with a substance called eleidin, which is produced from keratohyalin and is involved in the keratinisation process.
- Granular layer (stratum granulosum) - This layer consists of distinctly shaped cells that resemble granules, which are filled with keratin and produce intercellular lipids (the substances that fill the spaces between the upper epidermal cells) from structures called lamellar bodies.
- Prickle cell layer (stratum spinosum) - the thickest layer of the epidermis
- Basal layer - contains pigment known as melanin which gives the skin natural color. Melanin is produced by melanocytes. This layer of the epidermis is concerned with cell regeneration
Which specialized cells are responsible for production of areolar tissue, collagen, elastin?
The dermis is thicker than the epidermis, tough and elastic. It is composed of connective tissue, collagen (a protein) and elastic fibres. Demis is also called true skin.
Dermis is composed of connective tissue, collagen (a protein) and elastic fibres
- Papilla: small conical projections at the base of the hair containing blood vessels and nerves which supply the hair with nutrients
- Fibro: responsible for production of areolar tissue, collagen, elastin
- Mast: produce histamine as a allergic response
- Histiocytes: produce histamine
- Leucocytes: white blood cells helping to fight infection
- Fibroblast cells
- Mast cells
In which layer of the skin would you find collagen fibres?
Layers of Dermis
The key function of the papillary layer of the dermis is to provide vital nourishment to the living layers of the epidermis above.
Papillary Region (Upper)
The upper portion of the dermis The papillary region is characterized by small, finger-like projections called dermal papillae that indent the epidermis. Dermal papillae can contain loops of capillaries and nerve endings.
Reticular Region (Lower)
It contains connective tissue and a network of collagen fibres and coarse elastic fibres. These fibres provide the skin with strength, extensibility and elasticity. The reticular region contains the hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous (oil) glands and ducts, and sweat glands
- Papillary layer
- Reticular layer
- Subcutaneous layer
- Basal cell layer
Which part of the dermis contains a network of collagen and elastic fibres that give the skin its strength, extensibility and elasticity?
Sebaceous (oil) glands & Hair Follicles
Sebum and sweat combine together then form the acid mantle which helps to control bacteria levels and prevents infections and disease and also acts as a natural moisturiser
* Past Exam Question
Sebaceous glands is connected with what?
Answer: hair follicles
Fill in the blanks
Sebaceous gland is connected with .
They produce , a fatty acid which keeps the skin moist.
What type of sweat glands that are widely distributed throughout the body?
Sweat glands play an important role in temperature control. They release sweat which removes heat from the body. Sweat, containing a mixture of water, salts, urea, uric acid, amino acids, ammonia, sugar, lactic acid and ascorbic acid, is secreted from the coiled glands and travels up the sweat duct.
When the duct reaches the surface of the epidermis it forms a pore from which the sweat is released.
* Knowledge of Ikeda treatment *
Ganbanyoku detox treatment will stimulate eccrine gland which can help to reduce the accumilation of organic matter in sweat, therefore effectively reducing body odor.
When you sweat on the Ganbanyoku bed, sebum and sweat combine together then form the acid mantle which helps to control bacteria levels and prevents infections and disease and also acts as a natural moisturiser.
* Past Exam Question
In which homeostatic process do the sweat glands perform a major role?
Answer: Temperature control
Which type of sweat gland releases sweat directly onto the surface of the skin?
Which type of sweat gland begins to function at puberty?
* Past Exam question
What name is given to the connective tissue containing fat that makes up the majority of the subcutaneous layer?
Answer: Adipose tissue