How to avoid fire damages and what to do in the case of fire

Fire is one of the basic elements helping mankind for thousands of years, yet at the same time a source of potential danger one rarely is aware of in daily life. We are all using fire in many controlled ways, without even thinking of the consequences once it got out of control. This training material is aimed to give guidance for you about how to avoid fire damage, but also what to do and how to behave once fire indeed broke out. A couple of simple tests shall also help you sink in your newly acquired knowledge along the way. 


Fire is not quite fire

The control of fire by early humans was a turning point in the cultural aspect of human evolution that allowed humans to cook food and obtain warmth and protection. Making fire also allowed the expansion of human activity into the dark and colder hours of the night, and provided protection from predators and insects. The earliest definitive evidence of the human control of fire dates back to 200.000 to 700.000 years before our time, showing the use of ordinary combustibles such as firewood.

Along with the evolution of our race and the technological advancements by now, today fire may occur from various sources and for various reasons. Experts classify fires in five different categories today:

  • Class A

  • Class B

  • Class C

  • Class D

  • Class K

Class A fires


CLASS A fires are fires in ordinary combustibles, such as wood, paper, cloth, trash, and plastics.

In order to put out such fires the following extinguishing substances can be used: water, foam, dry powder and wet chemical. CO2 must not be used, however.


Class B fires


CLASS B fires are fires in flammable liquids such as gasoline, petroleum oil and paint. Class B fires also include flammable gases such as propane and butane. Class B fires do not include fires involving cooking oils and grease.

Use foam, dry powder and CO2 to fight these fires, not water or wet chemicals. 


Class C fires


CLASS C fires are fires involving energized electical equipment such as motors, transformers, and appliances. Remove the power and the Class C fire becomes one of the other classes of fire.

Fight them with dry powder or CO2 only !

Class D fires


CLASS D fires are fires in combustible metals such as potassium, sodium, aluminum, and magnesium.

Only dry powder may be used against this type of fires ! 


Class K fires


CLASS K fires are fires in cooking oils and greases such as animals fats and vegetable fats.

Only wet chemicals are effective against these fires; frying pans on fire shall be covered with a wet kitchen cloth.

Or, in other words...

Sounds complicated ? Don't worry - here is an easy way to remember:

  • Class A fires leave ASH

  • Class B fires BOIL

  • Class C fires have CURRENT

  • Class D has DENSE METAL, and of course...

  • Class K stands for KITCHEN !

​See ? Not so difficult after all !

Pair up the labels so that you get four correct sentences !

  • Class A fires...
    ...leave an ash.
  • Class K fires...
    ...may involve cooking oils and vegetable fats.
  • Class D fires...
    ...are fires of combustible metals.
  • Class B fires...
    ...may involve combustible liquids.
  • Class X fires... not exist

Tick the correct answers !

  • Burning cooking oil can best be put out by pouring water on it.
  • For burning eletrical equipment, CO2 must be used as extinguisher.
  • Flammable metals can be extinguished by dry powder.
  • Class A fires may be put out with any extinguishing substance, even CO2.


The most important thing to remember when you hear the fire alarm

When you hear the fire alarm sound, you MUST stop working immediately and you MUST immediately leave the building through the closest escape route. Escape routes are marked with a green-and-white sign that looks like this: 

Complete the sentences !


"When you hear the fire alarm, you  head towards the  exit."


"The exits showing which way to leave the building in case of fire are called  signs."


"These signs are always colored  .