Unit 2: PART II



2.1. Morpho-syntactic Features of Vocabulary

Word Formation Principles: Prefixation


The prefix ecto- originates in the Greek language; it means “outer”, “outside”, “external”. It is used in the formation of compound nouns and adjectives, for example, ectoblastic.


The prefix ento- originates in the Greek language; it has a meaning “within”. It is used in the formation of compound nouns, for example, entoderm.


The prefix meso- originates in the Greek language; it has a meaning “middle”. It is used in the formation of compound nouns and verbs, for example, mesoblast.


The prefix en- meaning “within” occurs in loanwords from the Greek language, for example, enthusiasm.  


Word Formation:  Suffixation       


The suffix -old originates in Old English; it is used after the words that refer to a number or quantity to form adjectives. It means “having the number of kinds or parts” or “multiplied the number of times”, for example, threefold.


The suffix -let originates in Middle English; it is used after a noun to indicate a smaller version of the original noun or root, for example, droplet.


The suffix -able originates in Latin; it is added to verbs to form adjectives that  means “fit for” or “capable of”, for example, teachable.


The suffix –al originates in Latin; it is added to verbs to form nouns that have a meaning of “the art of”, for example, fundamental.

Task 13

Identify and explain the meaning of the terms below considering the meanings of the prefixes ecto-, ento-, meso, en-.

A) Ectoblastic, ectoblast, ectoderm, ectoenzyme, ectoparasite

B) Mesoderm, mesoappendix, mesocratic

C) Energy, to encamp, encyclopaedia, entelechy

Task 14

Identify and explain the meaning of the following words considering the meaning of the suffixes -fold, -let, -able, -al.

A) fourfold, manifold, tablet, booklet,

B) comparable, available, photographable

C) denial, dental, refusal

2.2. Dentistry/ Medicine English and the Related Vocabulary

In the six exercises (task 15-20) that follow you will be able to learn about and practice Dentistry/Medicine English and other related vocabulary 

Task 15

Create verbs and adjectives from the nouns given (where possible):

  1. Apology, apologist, apologia - 
  2. Detection, detector - 
  3. Prevention - 
  4. Containment, container - 
  5. Recovery - 

Task 16

Use words from Task 14 to fill the gaps.

1. Please accept our sincere  for this wrongdoing.

2. The 21st century has to ensure the early of cancer.

3. He gave an smile when leaving

4. I owe you an for what I said last night - I’m really sorry for that.

5. Many forms of cancer can be cured if early.

6. Smoke often save lives.

7. John has a severe toothache that may him from taking part in tomorrow’s marathon.

8. Simple measures will reduce the risk of infection in summer time.

9. medicine deals with medical treatment, advice, and health education that is designed to disease happening rather than cure it.

10. The patient could not her anxiety any longer.

11. She was so excited she could hardly herself.

12. Doctors are struggling to the epidemic disease.

13. Public has to be informed about the of public expenditure on health care.

14. Many remedies and medicines come in plastic .

15. My manager is from a heart attack.

16. I wish you a quick from this disease.

17. After a few days of a fever, he started to .

18. The restaurant manager was very and said that we could have our meal for free; even more, he sent an letter to all the guests of the restaurant for having too salty food served.

Task 17

Linguistic Expressive Means: Metaphor

The Word  Body

The word body can have different meanings in different contexts of its use. It can be used in its literal meaning, i.e., a physical structure of a person or animal, or it can have its metaphoric meanings, such as 

a) a large amount of information or knowledge, 

b) a group of people who have been officially organized to deal with a particular problem or situation, 

c) a large area of water.

Identify the meaning of the word body in the sentences below.

1. Today’s medicine needs a large body of information to treat patients with care and accuracy.

2. An exact diagnosis of kidney disease can only be made by obtaining  a sufficient body of data. 

3. Latvia is rich in a large body of lakes in its eastern part.

4. The student body of the faculty is entitled to coming up with their decisions in order to advance the academic quality of studies.

5. The political, governing and legal bodies of the country should draw and implement the rules and regulations so that they meet expectations and needs of the whole population of this country.  


Task 18

Examine  and explain the meaning of the word eye in the sentences below.

  1. The study programme in dentistry is looked through the eyes of  students.
  2. The picturesque places in Latvia are seen through the eyes of a tourist; 
  3. The would-be-dentists’ competence is developed eye for details is developed in the study process.  
  4. Latvia medicine has to do a lot to keep its good reputation in the public eye

Task 19

Examine and explain the meaning of the word blood in the sentences below.  

  1. It is a pity to find out that this family has bad blood between its close relatives.
  2. The press informs us that may people in Syria are beaten to death in cold blood; we know that the war victims in the Ukraine are   shot down in cold blood as well.
  3. I know that singing and gardening are in her blood. 
  4. He is my husband’s closest blood relative.
  5. Armenians are very hot-blooded.

Task 20

Examine and explain the meaning of the word heart in the sentences below.  

1. She is a good heart person.

2. His subordinates know him for his cruel heart.

3. You broke my heart by telling this very sad story. It was really a heart-breaking story.

4. My heart goes out to my grandchildren when I find out that they do not feel well and healthy.

5. Take heart, not all is lost.

6. He lost heart for the process of study, and was a drop-out at the end of semester.

2.3.1 General English Vocabulary Expansion

2.3.1 Semantic Structures:  Polysemantic Words

Level - Layer

Tasks 21 and 22

Task 21

The word level has several meanings, such as:

     a) the measured amount of something,

     b) height,

     c) standard,

     d) floor/ground,

     e) rank of job.


Identify the meanings of the noun level in the following sentences. Use the five meanings of the word level in your own sentences.

1. Inflation rate in Latvia has reached its highest level since the end of the nineties. 

2. Could you hang the picture at the eye level, please?  

3. I study the English language at an advanced level at the University. 

4. My neighbours’ house is built on one level for the convenience of their little children. 

5. Significant decisions at the bank are usually made at a managerial level. 

6. On a more practical level, students have to be explained that dental decay is a disease of the modern Western world: dietary is its major cause.  


TASK 22: The word layer


 The word layer  has several meanings, such as:

     a) an amount of substance that covers all of a surface,

     b) one of several levels of substances lying one on the top of another,

     c) to put something down in layers.


Identify the meanings of the noun layer and of the verb to layer in the following sentences. Use three meanings in your own sentences.

1. A thin layer of snow lay on the surface of the ground. 

2. When it gets colder, we usually put one layer of clothing upon another. 

3. We like to prepare mushrooms layered with garlic and onions for winter.  

2.3.2 General English Vocabulary Expansion

2.3.2 Semantics Structures: Phrasal Verbs 

Phrasal verbs take in/take up

Tasks 23 and 24

Work with a partner and complete the two tasks that follow orally. You should write your answers on a piece of paper. These will be discussed in class.


TASK 23: Phrasal verbs take in/take up

Compare the meanings of the verbs in italics. Identify the equivalents for the phrasal verbs and create your own sentences that demonstrate the use of the phrasal verbs.

1. Why don’t we take in this person for a night? Tomorrow he will find his lodgings.

2. The price on rent takes in the costs on electricity, gas and usage of telephone.

3. I told you we leave in a month’s time; it is a pity you did not take it in.

4. Don’t be taken in by doctors who promise you to drop overweight within one day. They can make harm to your health.

5. I am happy that I have taken up endodontics as a key area of my research.

6. I took up my first teaching classes in the area of medicine in the University of Latvia in 2017.

7. Justification of the patient’s treatment plan took up all my spare time last week.


TASK 24: Phrasal verbs bring about/bring back

Compare the meanings of the verbs in italics. Identify the equivalents for the phrasal verbs and create your own sentences that demonstrate the use of the phrasal verbs.

1. The new health care system has brought about many positive changes in our daily life.

2. The smell of this food brings me back to my childhood.

3. The recent political scandal brought the society back to discuss cases of corruption at the governmental level in Latvia.


Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, (2011), USA, Paragraph 19

Fathi, S. (2013). PR Insider: The Executive Apology, Avoid Making It Worse Once  You’ve Already Screwed Up. In Fearn-Banks,K.(2017) Crisis Communication, 31

Kenneth M.Hargreaves/Lous H.Berman (2016). Cohen’ s Pathways of the Pulp Eleventh Edition. Elsevier Inc.

Gutmann, J. L. Dumsha, T.C. Lovdahl, P.E(2006). Problem Solving in Endodontics. Prevention, identification and management. Elsevier Inc.

Pitt, S. (2011) Problem-Based Learning in Endodontology. Wiley-Blackwell

Saylor URL http://www.saylor.org./books, 1-14