COACH JACKSON'S FOOTBALL OFFICIATING

This course will give a broad overview of officiating the game of football.  

 

 

 

FOOTBALL OFFICIATING 101

INTRO

DEALING WITH NEGATIVE BEHAVIOR

IMPORTANCE OF YOUR ROLE

CHARACTERISTICS TO POSSESS

IMPROVING YOUR CRAFT

FIELD ORIENTATION

REGULATION FIELD SIZE 

A regulation football field, the one you see on weekends watching college and professional games, measures 120 yards long by 53½ yards wide. The field is 100 yards long, and the end zones at each end are 10 yards long. Here’s what else you can find on the field:






FIELD VARIATIONS

YOUTH FOOTBALL FIELD SIZE

•In youth football, the younger the kids, the smaller the field. You can’t expect youngsters in their size 5 cleats to cover a large field without becoming exhausted — and frustrated. 

•Keeping beginning players confined to a small playing area, perhaps one that’s just 30 yards in length, allows them to stay involved in the action rather than spend all their time chasing around in a wide open area. As players get older and gain experience, the fields they run and make tackles on are gradually lengthened to account for their advanced skills and increased speed and strength.

 •Quite often, one regulation football field can accommodate a half-dozen youth games at one time. A combination of how much space is available and how many youngsters are participating often determines field sizes, which vary greatly from community to community.

FIELD MARKINGS

FIELD MARKINGS

•Goal posts: These Y-shaped or H-shaped structures are located on the back line of each end zone, and they’re what crazy fans sometimes tear down to celebrate their team’s win at the collegiate level. The crossbar stands 10 feet high and 18 feet, 6 inches wide at the collegiate level; at the high school level, it stands 10 feet high and 23 feet, 4 inches wide. 

•End zones: These are those coveted patches of turf at each end of the field that offenses desperately want to reach every time they have the ball. Getting there produces lots of smiles, cheers, and congratulatory high-fives. 

•Goal line: The point where the end zone meets the playing field is called the goal line. Cross this line with the ball in your hands, and your team has a touchdown and six points on the scoreboard. Only the ball must break the plane of the goal line for a touchdown to be awarded. 

•Yard lines: Lines stretching across the width of the field mark the number of yards from the goal line in 5-yard intervals. The yardage number is marked on the field at every 10-yard interval, beginning with the 10-yard line and working up to the 50-yard line, which is in the center of the field. From there, the yardage markers start at 40 and descend every 10 yards until they reach the opposite goal line. 

•Hash marks: These are short lines that appear on the field at 1-yard intervals. Most fields typically have a set running down each side of the field. 

•Sideline: This is the boundary line that extends the length of the field. If a youngster on the field of play steps on or over this line, he’s out of bounds. 

•Player box: These lines designate an area 1 yard off the sideline that extends between the 25-yard lines at each end of the field. Only coaches are allowed to stand in this area. It’s there to give officials room to work during the game and helps protect the players not involved in the game when the action spills over to the sideline



SIDELINE ORIENTATION

MOVING AREAS ON THE FIELD

•Line of scrimmage: This designates where the ball is snapped (hiked) to begin a play. 

•Backfield: This is the area approximately 5 yards behind the line of scrimmage where the running backs line up.

•Neutral zone: This is the imaginary area that extends from one tip of the football to the other before it’s snapped. No players on either team (except the center, who has his hands on the ball) are allowed to enter the neutral zone before the ball is snapped, or a penalty is called. 

QUIZ #1

  • A REGULATION SIZE FOOTBALL FIELD IS 100 YARDS LONG AND 53 1/2 YARDS WIDE
  • YOUTH FOOTBALL FIELD SIZES DO NOT VARY IN SIZE
  • A REGULATION SIZE FOOTBALL FIELD IS 110 YARDS LONG AND 54 YARDS WIDE
  • YOUTH FOOTBALL FIELDS VARY IN SIZE
  • IT IS BEST TO STAY CALM AND COLLECTIVE WHEN DEALING WITH AN UNRULY PARENT AT AN EVENT
  • IT IS BEST TO SINGLE OUT AN UNRULY PARENT AND HAVE THEM REMOVED FROM THE SPORTING EVENT
  • AS AN OFFICIAL YOU SHOULD TAKE SERIOUSLY YOUR ROLE
  • THE ROLE OF THE OFFICIAL IS TO DETERMINE THE OUTCOME OF GAMES
  • THE COACHES BOX IS ON THE PLAYING FIELD
  • A MOVING FIELD MARKER WOULD BE THE LINE OF SCRIMMAGE
  • EACH YARD LINE SHOULD BE CLEARLY MARKED ON THE FIELD OF PLAY OR ON THE SIDELINE

EQUIPMENT

PARTICIPANTS

PARTICIPANTS

•Each position on the football field carries a unique set of responsibilities. The positions you’re filling are as different as the kids under your care. 

•In a typical full-scale football game, you have 11 players on offense and 11 on defense. A basic offense consists of an offensive line (center [C], two guards [G], and two tackles [T]), two wide receivers (WR), a tight end (TE), two running backs (RB), and a quarterback (QB). On defense, you have the defensive line (two tackles [DT] and two ends [DE]), three linebackers (MLB/OLB), two cornerbacks (CB), and two safeties (SS/FS).


OFFENSE 

•QUARTERBACK 

•RUNNING BACKS 

•WIDE RECEIVERS 

•TIGHT END 

•OFFENSIVE LINE : center, two guards, and two tackles •

DEFENSE 

•DEFENSIVE LINE 

•LINEBACKERS 

•SECONDARY 


Coaches can modify lineups and use all sorts of different formations. For example, they may decide the team is best suited to having four wide receivers on offense instead of the standard two; or they may discover the defense is more effective with six defensive backs (cornerbacks and safeties) rather than the normal four.

PARTICIPANT VARIATION AT YOUTH LEVELS

•Although regulation football games feature 11 players on the field for each team, the younger the children are, the fewer players you MAY have on the field at any one time. The idea at the youngest age levels is to introduce kids to the game by giving them lots of chances to run with the ball, make tackles, and of course, get that colorful uniform grass-stained and dirty. That can happen only with several players on the field at one time. Just imagine having a full squad of 6-year-olds on the field at one time. The kids would be lucky to get in on even a handful of plays during the game.

 •That’s why scaled down games, such as 6-on-6, are quite common around the country. These smaller games are great for promoting an interest in the game because the kids can experience the action-packed thrill of running, catching, kicking, and tackling. This type of approach stirs interest in the sport and opens kids’ eyes to how much fun playing this great game can be.

THE GAME

LENGTH OF GAME

•A regulation football match typically consists of four periods of 12 minutes in length with a 10-15 minute halftime and 1-2 minute intermission between periods in each half. For younger age groups the time for each period can be adjusted to 8 or 10 minutes depending on league rules. 

•Some leagues will have scoreboards that will keep the official game time of each period. If not, the referee shall keep the time on the field. •If a period begins with a kickoff then the game clock starts when the kick is touched by the opposing team. For younger leagues, if a period begins with a snap then the game clock starts when the ball is legally snapped. Throughout the game, the game clock stops is either of the teams score, if either team takes a timeout or if there is an unusual delay.

 •For some leagues rules are slightly adjusted for the last two minutes of either half. The game clock can be stopped when the down ends following a foul, an official’s or team timeout occurs, the ball is out of bounds, a legal or illegal forward pass is incomplete, a touchback occurs, a fair catch is made or an inadvertent whistle is sounded. Depending on league rules the clock will start again with the snap of the ball or when the ready for play signal is given. 


SCORING

•TOUCHDOWN: 6 POINTS

•EXTRA POINT: 1 POINT 

•FIELD GOAL: 3 POINTS 

•SAFETY: 2 POINTS 

•BLOCKED EXTRA POINT FOR SCORE: 2 POINTS


CLOCK RULES

When does the clock stop in football? 

•During timeouts • At the end of a quarter 

•When a ball carrier runs out of bounds

•On a penalty 

•When a player is injured 

• When a team scores 

• When the ball changes possession 

•After a play ending in an incomplete pass 

•When the officials need to measure for a first down In college and high school the play clock also stops when a team gets a first down.

25 / 40

•The offensive team only has so long to hike the football and start another play. In the case where play is continuing, they have 40 seconds from the end of the previous play to start a new play. 

• If play has stopped, like for a timeout, then they have 25 seconds from the time the referee sets the ball and starts the play clock. 

•Referee Clock and Timing Signals Timeout - A timeout is signaled by the referee waving his arms above his head. 

•Clock not Stopping - The referee can signal that the clock isn't stopping by moving his arm in a wide circle in the clockwise direction. 

•Delay of Game - If the play clock goes to zero before the offensive team starts a play, the referee will signal delay of game by folding his arms in front of him. 

Reset Play Clock - To start the 25 second clock the referee will hold his right hand in the air, open palm out and pump his arm to signal the clock starting. He will use both arms to signal the 40 second clock is starting.


VIOLATIONS, RULES AND SIGNALS

VIOLATION AND RULES

•Running into the kicker (5 yards) - A penalty called to protect the kicker from getting injured while kicking. Depending on the severity of the hit, the referee may also call roughing the kicker, which is a 15 yard penalty. Note: if the defender touches or blocks the ball, then the penalty is not called. Also, if the player is blocked into the kicker by an offensive player, then the penalty should not be called. 

•Tripping (10 yards) - Players are not allowed to stick out their leg in order to trip another player. 

• Spearing with the helmet (15 yards) - Players are not allowed to hit another with the top of their helmet. This especially applies to a quarterback throwing a pass, a receiver while catching a ball, a player on the ground, or a player already being tackled. A helmet on helmet hit is also illegal and can result in other penalties such as suspension or fines. 

•Fair catch interference (15 yards) - Once a player calls for a fair catch on a punt return, the defenders may not touch him or the ball unless the ball touches the ground. Piling on (15 yards, automatic first down) - Once a ball carrier is down, other players may not jump onto him late or with too much force. If the referee determines the player used excessive force, then it is a 15 yard penalty and automatic first down. 

• Roughing the passer (15 yards, automatic first down) - Since the quarterback is unable to protect himself while throwing the ball, there are rules about how the defenders can hit him. They cannot hit at his knees or at his head. They aren't supposed to drive him into the ground or slam him down. This is up to the referee and a lot of emphasis has been placed on keeping these star players from injury. 

•Roughing the kicker (15 yards, automatic first down) - When trying to block a punt or field goal, the defender cannot touch the kicker. Depending on the severity of the hit, the referee may call roughing for 15 yards or running into the kicker for 5 yards. Running into the kicker is not an automatic first down. This doesn't count if the defensive player touches or blocks the ball or if they are blocked into the kicker by an offensive player. 

•Face mask (15 yards) - You are not allowed to twist or pull on another players face mask. This is usually called when the face mask is grabbed during a tackle. 

•Blocking Penalties Chop block (15 yards) - One player is not allowed to block the defender below the thigh at the same time that another player is blocking the defender up high.

•Clipping below the waist (15 yards) - This occurs when a player blocks below the waist from behind. This can cause injury when the player "rolls up" onto the players legs. 

•Illegal crackback block (15 yards) - This is to prevent players in the backfield or wide receivers from coming into the tackle box area around the line of scrimmage and blocking a player from behind. Other Penalties 

•Unnecessary roughness (15 yards) - Anytime that the referee feels that one player is trying to injure another, he may make this call. This includes tackling a player that is out of bounds or hitting a player that is already down. 

•Unsportsmanlike conduct (15 yards) - This includes acts that are considered by the referee to be unsportsmanlike. It could include bad language, threatening gestures, arguing with the officials, or fighting. 

•Encroachment (5 yards) - Encroachment is when a defensive player crosses the line of scrimmage before the snap and makes contact with an offensive player. 

•Offside (5 yards) - Offside is when part of the defensive player's body is over the line of scrimmage when the ball is snapped. 

•Neutral zone infraction (5 yards) - A neutral zone infraction is when a defensive player crosses the line of scrimmage prior to the snap and then causes an offensive player to move. Rather than call a false start on the offense, the penalty is called on the defensive player. 

•False start (5 yards) - Offensive players must remain set prior to the snap. Any movement, other than the player in motion, will result in a false start. 

•Illegal formation (5 yards) - The offense must have 7 players lined up on the line of scrimmage. Players not on the line of scrimmage must be at least 1 yard back. 

•Illegal motion (5 yards) - Only players in the backfield can go into motion. Once in motion they must either only move parallel to the line of scrimmage or be set prior to the snap. They cannot be moving toward the line of scrimmage when the ball is snapped. 

•Too many men in motion (5 yards) - Two players cannot be in motion at the same time. 

• Delay of game (5 yards) - When the offensive team does not snap the ball before the play clock has expired, they will be given a delay of game penalty. This is a five yards. The play clock is either 40 seconds or 25 seconds long. In the case where play is continuing from a previous play, they have 40 seconds from the end of the previous play. In the case where play has stopped, like with a time out, then they have 25 seconds from when the referee says the ball is ready. 

• Offense or Defense Illegal substitution (5 yards) - This is typically called when the offensive team breaks the huddle with 12 players. Even if one of them is running off the field, you cannot break the huddle with 12 players. 

•Too many players on the field (5 yards) - Each team may only have 11 players on the field when the ball is snapped

•Ineligible player downfield during a pass (5 yards) - Only certain players are eligible for a pass during a play, such as the running backs, wide receivers, and tight ends. If a non-eligible player, typically an offensive lineman, is more than two yards downfield during a pass play, it will result in a penalty. 

•Helping the runner (10 yards) - Anytime an offensive player tries to help push or move the ball carrier once he is being held by the defense. • Holding or illegal use of the hands by the offense (10 yards) - One of the key rules to football is that blockers can't hold on or use their hands to grab defensive players. This is what makes blocking difficult and gives the defense a chance to get to the ball carrier. If an offensive lineman or blocker grabs, pulls, or tackles a defender, they will get called for holding. 

• Intentional grounding (10 yards, loss of down) - This is called when the quarterback throws a pass to an area without a receiver in order to avoid being sacked. In the case where the quarterback is outside of the tackle box (the area between the two tackles) he can purposely throw the ball out of bounds as long as it goes beyond the line of scrimmage. In this case he will not be called for grounding. 

•Illegal contact (5 yards) -Once a receiver is 5 yards beyond the line of scrimmage, the defensive player may not block or "chuck" him to disrupt his route. Inside the 5 yards the defender may block the receiver, but not hold him. 

•Defensive holding (5 yards, automatic first down) - A defensive player may not tackle, hold, or throw down an offensive player other than the ball carrier. This penalty is often called on defensive backs who impede the progress of a receiver. If they do this before the ball is thrown, a holding penalty is called. If the ball is in the air, then pass interference is called. 

•Pass interference by the defense (at the spot of the penalty) - When the ball is in the air, each player has an equal right to go after the ball. They cannot impede their opponent from getting to the ball. Pass interference is often called on a safety or cornerback for grabbing a receiver or hitting a receiver just before the ball arrives. The result is an automatic first down and the team gets the ball at the point of the penalty (note: in college and high school it is a 15 yard penalty). 

•Kickoff out of bounds (5 yards) - If the kickoff goes out of bounds (not in the end zone) and no one touches it, they get a 5 yard penalty and have to re-kick. If this happens a second time, the receiving team may accept the ball 30 yards from where the ball was kicked or at the point where the ball went out of bounds. 

• Ineligible player downfield during a punt (5 yards) - With the exception of the two players on the end, the rest of the offensive players must stay on the line of scrimmage until the ball is kicked. If they move downfield before the ball is kicked, it will be a 5 yard penalty.



SIGNALS

•Delay of game: Following a delay of game the official will cross his arms in front of his body. Placing his right hand on his left shoulder and his left hand on his right shoulder. 

•Clipping: The referee will chop the back of thigh/knee with one hand. 

•Unsportsmanlike conduct, Noncontact foul: A referee will outstretch his arms to the sides of his body with palms facing down. 

•Start Clock: When the clock starts during a game a referee will swing his hand in a full circular motion in front of him. 

•Tripping: For tripping calls, a referee will repeat the action of his right foot tapping the back of his left heel.

•Forward pass interference, Kick catching interference: An official will place his hands open and extend forward from shoulders with hands vertical. 

•Roughing passer: When roughing of the passer occurs a referee with an open-fist arm extended above same-side shoulder, brought diagonally downward towards the opposite side waist. 

•Chop block: The referee will extend his arms alongside the body, palms facing outward, then moving in to the upper thigh in a chopping motion. 

•Touchdown, Field goal, Point(s) after touchdown: To signal a touchdown, field goal, or points after a touchdown the referee will extend both arms above her head. 

•Safety: An official will place both hands above their head and push palms together. 

•Loss of down: The referee will place both hands behind her head. 

•Incomplete forward pass, Penalty decline, No play, No score, Toss option delayed: When any of the previous procedures happen, a referee with palms facing down with shift her hands back and forth in a horizontal crisscross motion. 

•Ball dead, Touchback: The referee will raising one arm above his head with an open hand. The hand will be moved side to side to signal a touchback. 

•First down: When a first down is awarded the referee will point her arms towards the defensive team’s goal. 

•Blocking below waist, Illegal block: For referees they must bring both hands, wrists turned inward, in a chopping motion across the front of the thighs. 

•Disregard flag: To disregard a flag that has been thrown, a referee will raise his hand with the flag in hand and move side to side above his head. 

•Holding/obstructing, Illegal use of hands/arms: A common foul in football is holding where a referee will raise one arm in front of the body and grab its wrist with the opposite hand. 

•Ineligible downfield on pass: In some cases a receiver will be ineligible downfield. To signal this, a referee will touch the top of his head with the elbow out to the side. 

•Illegal pass/forward handling: The official will place one hand flat behind the small of his back and wave it up and down. 

•Intentional grounding: Both hands held out flat, facing each other, in front of the referee, moving down together diagonally roughly from one shoulder to the opposite hip will be used when signally intentional grounding. 

•Running into (NCAA) or Roughing kicker or holder: An official must extend one leg, straight, up to about a 20 degree angle in front of her body. 

•Illegal participation: When signally illegal participation the referee will place two hands, palms down, touching the top of the head, with an elbow out to each side. 

ANNOUNCEMENTS 1 VIDEO

ANNOUNCEMENTS 2 VIDEO

ANNOUNCEMENTS 3 VIDEO

ANNOUNCEMENTS 4 VIDEO

THE CREW

THE CREW



PRE GAME

PRE GAME RESPONSIBILITIES

•Referee:

 –Visit each dressing room, give the head coaches a list of officials and notify them of the length of intermission. 

–Ask head coach to verbally verify in presence of umpire, that all players are legally equipped in compliance with National Federation rules. 

–Check with each head coach for any unusual plays or formations, including any that require prior notification. 

–Secure name of coaching staff personnel who will be responsible for sideline control of team members and report this information to all officials. 


Umpire

–Accompany referee and examine any player equipment about which the coach has a question of legality.

–Ask the head coach if his team meets all the requirements for Legality and Safety Rules as specified by the rules.

•ask the coach if any players have eye shields (if so, they must be clear). •ask the coach if all players have mouthpieces.

 –Review any appropriate documentation for equipment and pads.


Linesman

–Check line-to-gain equipment and meet crew.

–Make sure that you have a clip for the chains, a chain repair kit, and tape to mark the 5 yd spot on the chains. 


Field Judge

–Review starting time and be sure an auxiliary stopwatch, which records accumulated time, is available. 

–Is responsible to keep game time in the event the stadium clock malfunctions. 


Field Judge and Side Judge: 

–Instruct ball person(s) to hold football(s) that are not in use by moving up and down sideline. When dead following change of possession, hand ball to nearest official. Ball person should not enter field unless beckoned.


Back Judge: 

–Review positions and coverage during scrimmage kicks: 

–First touching by K. 

–Fair catch situations. 

–Kicks out-of-bounds. 

–Kick catching interference. 

–Numbering requirements. 

–Substitution rule. 

–Starting and stopping clock. 

–Procedures during measurement. 

–Duties during time-outs and intermission between periods. 

–Penalizing personal and unsportsmanlike fouls. 

–Penalty administration. 

–Overtime procedure, if applicable.

POST PRE GAME CONFERENCE

POST CONFERENCE RESPONSIBILITIES

•All Officials:

–Enter field together at least twenty (20) minutes before game time. 

–Perform duties in business-like manner. 

–Performance and tempo sets tone for way in which the game will be officiated. 


Referee, Line Judge and Side Judge will go together on press box side of field; Linesman, Umpire , Field Judge and Back Judge together will proceed to side of field opposite press box. 


Referee: 

–Inspect playing field and pylons. Inspect both 3 yard marks. 

–Direct game management to remove any hazards on or near field. 

–Approve clock operator, either scoreboard or sideline; must know where he is. 

–Review signals for starting or stopping clock with operator and with public address announcer. 

–Inform coaches of starting time and where time will be kept. 

–Inform coaches of halftime intermission length - 15 minutes. It may be increased to a maximum of 20 minutes only for special half time activities (Homecoming or Parents' Night). 

–Keep official score. 

–Instruct clock operator to time intermission - set at 15 minutes and start it when teams have left field - reset 3 minutes and time warm- ups once both teams have entered field. 

–Secure and approve game ball - use assigned ball person.


•Umpire: 

–Check player equipment of players to your sideline. 

–You are the final authority on legality of equipment. Do not permit use of any illegal equipment.


Linesman:

–Secure and check the line-to-gain equipment and down markers plus all auxiliary equipment. 

–Make sure the chains have tape at the 5 yard measurement. 

–Check whether game management has distinctive vests or jackets for the crew. 

–Remind crew of their duties and responsibilities. 

–Instruct crew that you will use your heel to mark at sideline where rear rod is to be placed for every first down. 

–Work on side nearest line-to-gain equipment, which is opposite press box, if there is one. 

–Ask game management to specify side if there is no press box.


Line Judge

–Inspect field with referee. 

–Check player equipment of players to your sideline.

 –Along with Side Judge, instruct ball personnel on your side of field. 

 –With Side Judge, will notify head coach when to bring team onto field and remain with team to see it arrives on time at start of each half. 


Field Judge and Side Judge: 

–Secure game balls from referee. 

–Locate ball person on your sideline and instruct ball person(s) to hold ball not in use moving up and down sideline. 

–No less than 8 minutes before scheduled kickoff, will return to team dressing area to notify head coach when to bring team onto field and remain with team to see it arrives on time at start of each half. 

–Responsible for securing correct time and carrying an accurate watch. 

–In case of field clock failure, Field Judge will time the game. [if 


Back Judge:

–Responsible for 25 second count and one minute time outs. 

–No less than 8 minutes before scheduled kickoff, with Side Judge will return to team dressing area to notify head coach when to bring team onto field and remain with team to see it arrives on time at start of each half. 

COIN TOSS

COIN TOSS

•The coin toss may be held on the field twenty (20) minutes before kickoff and in the end zone near the official scoreboard. 

•The official or simulated toss will be held at center of field three (3) minutes prior to start of game. 

•Before game time, the Back Judge with the Field Judge, and the Line Judge with the Side Judge, are responsible to escort teams from locker rooms to field. They shall leave the field in adequate time to insure the return of the teams for the coin toss.

•The Referee and Umpire stand in center of field. 

•On signal from the Referee, Field Judge and Side Judge escort captains to the in bounds line and from there return to the vicinity of the team area. 

•The Line Judge, Linesman, and Back Judge remain at the sideline. Restrict all other team members to their team box areas and well away from the vicinity of the toss. No team personnel should be on any part of the field during the toss.

•At conclusion of toss procedures and when captains have been dismissed, move together for final instructions from the Referee. 

•Record which team has the first choice for second half. 

•At Referee's signal, hustle to kickoff positions.

 


SECOND HALF / OVERTIME

SECOND HALF

•Before the conclusion of halftime, the Back Judge with the Field Judge, and the Line Judge with the Side Judge, are responsible to escort teams from locker rooms to field. They shall leave in adequate time to insure the return of the teams for the second half choice of options. 

•The same mechanics shall be used escorting the captains to the center of the field as were used during the original coin toss. 

•After choices are completed, come together at the center of the field for any final instructions. 

•Hustle to kickoff positions. Linesman and Judge(s) clear the sidelines before going to kickoff position 


OVERTIME

•Coin toss will be held three minutes after the completion of the fourth period. Hold coin toss at center of field, using general coin toss mechanics. 

•Toss winner shall choose end of field at which ball will be put in play, or to go on offense, or to go on defense.

•To start each new series, the team may designate the location of ball between the in-bounds lines. 

•The Referee will indicate the winner of toss by placing a hand on his shoulder: 

–then position the offensive captain facing the goal toward which ball will be advanced and defensive captain facing his opponent and opposite goal. 

–Give 1st down signal toward goal being used.

FREE KICKS

FREE KICKS

Referee

Before kick

•Position close to goal line in the middle of the field. 

•Count R players. 

•Check position of other officials. 

•Hold arm above head to request ready sign from Linesman and Line Judge.

 •After ready signs from Line Judge and Linesman have been received, drop arm and sound whistle to signal that kick be made. 


•If a short free kick is anticipated: 

–Take position near R's ten (10) yard line. 

–Be alert to assist other officials. 


After kick

•Kick down the middle: 

–Signal clock to start when kick is touched other than first touching by K. 

–Pick up runner and follow until releasing to covering official. 

•Kick deep: 

–Rule on touchback. 

–If kick caught inside five (5) yard line and player is downed in end zone, or ball goes out-of-bounds there, rule on whether player's momentum took him into end zone and mark spot of catch with bean bag. 


•Kick to either side zone: 

–Move cautiously with play.

 –Observe action of players in vicinity of runner. 

–Serve as clean-up behind, to side of, and around runner. 


Line Judge 

Before kick

•Position: On R's ten (10) yard line on sideline opposite Lineman, or adjust position to kicker's ability. 

•Count R players.

 •Be certain all non team personnel are behind the limit lines. 

•After receiving ready signal from Umpire, hold arm above head to indicate to Referee that you, the Umpire, and the Side Judge are ready. 

•If short free kick is anticipated, position on R's thirty (30) yard line. 


After Kick

•Kick to your side - pick up runner and follow. 

•When kickoff goes outside opposite in bounds line: 

–Move cautiously toward play. 

–Observe action of other players in vicinity of runner. 

–Serve as clean-up behind, to side of, and around runner. 

•Maintain position enabling coverage of your sideline at all times. 

•Mark out-of-bounds spot if kick goes -out-of-bounds in your area. 

–Bean bag if last touched in bounds by R. 

–Penalty marker if untouched in bounds by R or not last touched in bounds by R.


Linesman 

Before kick

•Position: R's ten (10) yard line on sideline opposite the press box and line judge, or adjust position to kicker's ability. 

•Monitor bench area and assist receiving team in getting into position. 

•Be certain all non-team personnel are behind the limit lines and coaches and substitutes are in the team box.

 •Count R players. 

•After receiving ready signal from Field Judge, hold arm above head to indicate to Referee that you and the Field Judge are ready. 

•If short free kick is anticipated position on R's thirty (30) yard line. 


After kick: •Kick to your side: 

–Signal clock to start when kick is touched, other than first touching by K.

 –Pick up runner and follow. 

–When ball becomes dead, sound whistle and give timeout signal. 

•Be alert for first touching by K. 

•Mark spot of first touching with bean bag. 

•Mark spot where kick goes out-of-bounds on your side of field: 

–Bean bag if last touched in bounds by R. 

–Penalty marker if untouched in bounds by R or not last touched in bounds by R. 

•Maintain position enabling coverage of your sideline to the goal line at all times. 

•Observe legality of blocks and action away from ball when you are not covering runner. 


•Kick to opposite side of field: 

–Move cautiously toward play. 

–Observe action of other players in vicinity of runner. 


Umpire 


Before Kick

•Be certain all non-team personnel are behind limit lines and coaches and substitutes are in team box. 

•Position: R's free kick line, outside sideline opposite line-to-gain equipment.

 •Count R players. 

•After receiving ready signal from Side Judge, hold arm above head to indicate to Line Judge that you and the Side Judge are ready. 

•Watch for any infractions involving free kick lines and cover twenty (20) yards down sideline to thirty (30) yard line. 


•If short free kick is anticipated: 

–position on K's free kick line.

 –Be alert for first touching by K or kick which does not cross R's free kick line. 


After kick

•Be alert for first touching by K 

- mark spot with bean bag.

 •If ball becomes dead in your area, sound whistle and give time-out signal. 

•Mark spot where kick goes out-of-bounds on your side of the field: 

–Bean bag if last touched in bounds by R. 

–Penalty marker if untouched in bounds by R or not last touched in bounds by R. 

•After ball has gone downfield, move deliberately in that direction while watching for fouls away from the ball, maintaining a position to take over coverage of runner in your area on a long return. You have coverage of your sideline to the end line at all times.


Field Judge

 

Before kick

•Position just outside the sideline on R's 30 yard line opposite the Umpire and the press box side of field. to monitor bench area and assist receiving team in getting into position. 

•Count K players. 

•Be certain all non-team personnel are behind the limit lines and coaches and substitutes are in team box. 

•Hold arm above head to indicate to the Linesman that you are ready. 


After kick

•Mark out-of-bounds spot if kick goes out-of-bounds in your area: 

–Bean bag if last touched in bounds by R. 

–Penalty marker if untouched in bounds by R or not last touched in bounds by R. 

•Be in position to take over coverage of runner in your area on a long return. You have coverage of your sideline to end line at all times. 

•Observe legality of blocks and action away from the ball when not covering the runner. 


•Kick to Opposite side of field: 

–Move cautiously towards play. 

–Observe action of other players in vicinity of the runner. 


Side Judge 


Before kick:

•Position on K's free kick line at sideline on press box side of field to monitor bench area and assist kicking team in getting into position. 

•Count K players. •Obtain captain's ready signal. 

•Be certain all non-team personnel are behind the limit lines and coaches and substitutes are in team box.

 •Hold arm above head to indicate you are ready. 


After kick

•Be alert for first touching by K 

- mark spot with bean bag. 

•Be alert for kick which does not cross K's free kick line.

 •Mark out-of-bounds spot if kick goes out-of-bounds in your area: 

–Bean bag if last touched in bounds by R. 

–Penalty marker if untouched in bounds by R or not last touched in bounds by R. 

•Watch initial blocks by players in five (5) yard zone and action against kicker and holder. 

•After the ball has gone downfield, move deliberately to the hash mark while watching for fouls away from the ball and officiating from the inside of field out.


Back Judge 


Before kick

•Take charge of ball. Time 25 second count. 

•Position on K's free kick line at sideline to monitor bench area and assist kicking team in getting into position. 

•Move onto field to kicker and after checking legality of kicking tee, hand kicker ball, point out referee and instruct kicker to wait for referee's signal before kicking. 

•Count K players. •Obtain captain's ready signal. 

•Move to a position just outside the sideline on K's free kick line on the Linesman's side of field.

 •Be certain all non-team personnel are behind the limit lines and coaches and substitutes are in team box. •Hold arm above head to indicate you are ready. 

•If there is a dead ball foul, administer the penalty and place ball ready for play. 


After kick:

•Be alert for first touching by K 

- mark spot with bean bag. 

•Be alert for kick which does not cross K's free kick line. 

•If there is a penalty for a foul before kick ends requiring rekick, administer penalty and place ball ready for play.

 •Mark out-of-bounds spot if kick goes out-of-bounds in your area: 

–Bean bag if last touched in bounds by R. 

–Penalty marker if untouched in bounds by R or not last touched in bounds by R. 

•Watch initial blocks by players in five (5) yard zone and action against kicker and holder. 

•After the ball has gone downfield, move deliberately to the hash mark while watching for fouls away from the ball and officiating from the inside of field out.

EXTRA POINT / FIELD GOAL

EXTRA POINT / FIELD GOAL

Back Judge and Field Judge 

- Take positions inside the limit line. Rule on success or failure of field goal and try attempts. Official nearest ball rules on play with the other official reflecting the signal. 

•Be alert for ball striking an upright or a cross bar. If ball strikes crossbar, the BJ is responsible for the ruling. 

•Break out into position to cover end zone in the event of a fake attempt and be ready to cover passes and runs as usual. 


Linesman and Line Judge: Take regular position, responsible for: Normal sideline responsibilities. 

•Quick passes and helping out with blocking on linebackers, 

•Covering play on short receiver on short field goal attempts. 

•The area behind the Umpire and the Side Judge belong to the two deep officials.


Umpire - Adjust to position seldom more than 7 yards deep, observing action on long snapper. 


Side Judge - Adjust to position seldom more than 7 yards deep, observing action in the line opposite the Umpire 


Referee - Responsible for action on kicker and holder. Basic position is one to two yards to the rear and two to three yards to the side of the kicker facing the holder.


SCRIMMAGE KICKS

SCRIMMAGE KICKS

Back Judge 

•Initial Position is normally outside and slightly ahead of the deepest receiver on the wide side of field. 

•Count Team B Players. 

•When it appears that the ball will land between the sideline and the hashmark, you are responsible for: –Covering the play in front of the receiver and play behind the runner if the play is away from you. 

–Being ready to take over runner if return is to your side. 

–Watching the action of man who signaled fair catch and does not touch the ball (prohibited from blocking). 

•When it appears that the ball will land anywhere other than obviously outside the hashmarks, you are responsible for: 

–Moving into position ruling on validity of catch or signal, ruling on interference, and following the ball if receiver fails to field kick. 

–Being in position to rule on legality of handoffs. 

–Ruling on play of the ball into end zone; be alert for batting violations.

 –Covering the runner until he enters another official's zone.


Field Judge and Side Judge

Initial Position is near sideline approximately 10 to 15 yards ahead of deepest receiver. 

•Count Team B Players. 

•When it appears that the ball will not land in your area on your side of the near hashmark, you are responsible for: 

–Covering play in front of the receiver. 

–Being ready to take over the runner if the return is to your side. 

–Watching the action of man who signaled fair catch and does not touch the ball (prohibited from blocking) 

•When it is obvious the kicked ball will clearly land on your side of the hash mark, signal by extended arm towards B's goal line that you will take the ball. You are responsible for: 

–Moving into position to rule on validity of catch or signal, ruling on kick catch interference, and following the ball if receiver fails to field kick.

–When ball is snapped on or inside B's 40 yard line, take an initial position at the goal line pylon to rule on kicks going into the end zone. 

–Being in position to rule on legality of handoffs. 

–Ruling on play of the ball into end zone; be alert for batting violations. 

–Covering the runner until he enters another official's zone.


Umpire

-Count offensive players, knowing the ineligibles.

•Observe defensive man over center. (Avoid serious injury to the snapper.) 

•After the players go past your position, and on a signal from the Referee, turn and move towards the return areas, with particular attention to clips or illegal blocks in front of the runner who is returning the kick. Linesman and Line Judge 

-Hold your position until ball crosses the neutral zone.

 •Assist Referee in knowing if kick is tipped by a blocker. 

•On short line-drive kick, watch for ball being touched by K or R beyond the neutral zone expanded. 

•The Linesman MUST hold his position until the ball crosses the neutral zone, even after a muffed snap. Rule on whether or not kick has crossed neutral zone. 


Referee

•Count Offensive players. 

•Take a position on the kicking leg side of kicker, wide enough to see the ball from snap to kick, and being in position to be even with or slightly in front of kicker when ball is kicked. 

•Be able to see blockers and kickers at the same time. 

•If the flight of the kick is toward a sideline, move quickly to position in line with the flight and use arm signals to direct the covering official to the out-of-bounds spot. 



KICKING GAME TRAINING VIDEO

SCRIMMAGE DOWNS

SCRIMMAGE DOWNS


Side Judge and Field Judge 

•Take original position no less than 15 yds deep on or near sideline.

•Be aware of your position as game progresses. Do not allow yourself to get too deep. 

•Officiate from the outside-in. DO NOT LET A PLAYER get between you and the sideline. 

•Know your eligible receiver responsibilities 

•Be aware of violations of the restricted team area. 

•Responsible for counting defensive team. Confirm count with each other using an extended fist; once in agreement, drop hand. Observe that replaced players leave the field immediately.


Back Judge 

•Back Judge has ultimate responsibility for the end line. 

•Take original position 20-25 yards deep favoring the tight end side of the field. 

•Must always be in position to cover from the inside (looking out). 

•Must be aware of motion back, who is BJ's responsibility at the snap. 

•Will place his arm straight overhead with palm open to signify that 20 seconds have elapsed in the 25 second play clock.


Linesman and Line Judge

•Take original position on or near sideline and adjust to the spot of the snap. Read the offensive formation and know your eligible receiver responsibilities. 

•Watch for illegal formations, including encroachment prior to the snap. 

•Watch for false starts by offensive players. •Indicate the offensive line of scrimmage by extended foot, then take final position straddling the neutral zone. 

•Cover man in motion going away from you for illegal motion. This man continues to be your responsibility, even though he changes direction. (Does not relieve opposite official from making obvious call). 

•If Team A has an unbalanced line, the flank official who has four (or more) linemen on his side may indicate by using a sign such as putting a open hand to the side of his face. 

•If widest eligible receiver is off the line of scrimmage, hold arm extended towards the backfield until the snap. Drop signal if receiver goes and motion and new widest receiver is off the line.


Linesman 

•Is responsible for counting for minimum of seven offensive lineman.


Umpire 

 •Position variable according to the formations of both teams, avoid position which will interfere with linebackers. Adjust distance behind the defensive line according to the width of Team A's formation and (except on goal line or try situations) be at least 5, but seldom more than 7 yards deep. Whenever possible, coordinate your position with the R for best coverage of the interior line play. Normal position is on side opposite the tight end. 

•Read offensive alignment and know 5 ineligibles. 

•Count offensive players. Signal to Referee with closed fist if the offense has 11 players. 

•Rule on illegal movement by restricted linemen prior to the snap. 

•Be certain the defensive team does not use words or signals to disconcert the opponents. 


•Referee

•Be in a position where you may be comfortable to see the ball and backs and tackle on your side, except flankers, or a man in motion toward you. Usual position is behind and about 5-7 yards outside the deepest back or backs. Work on the throwing arm side of the quarterback. 

•Check the offensive formation and count the offensive players. Signal to Umpire with closed fist to confirm that the offense has 11 players. Observe that replaced players leave the field immediately. 

•Check the setbacks and quarterback for illegal motion, the ball at the snap, and assist the Umpire if there is movement of restricted lineman.


TRAINING VIDEO

GOAL LINE TRAINING VIDEO

TARGETING TRAINING VIDEO

INTENTIONAL GROUNDING TRAINING VIDEO

PERSONAL FOULS TRAINING VIDEO

ILLEGAL BLOCK TRAINING VIDEO