Independent and dependent variables
In Kahneman and Tversky (1974) participants saw a wheel of fortune being spun, then had to guess the % of African countries in the UN. On average, estimates were higher for higher random numbers. What was the INDEPENDENT VARIABLE in this experiment?
- The participants' guess of the % of African countries in the UN
- The random number generated by the wheel of fortune
- The participant's actual knowledge of global politics
In Englich (2007), participants had to count backwards from a high or low number (depending on the group), then guess the average price of a German car. Results supported the “anchoring effect” theory. What was the DEPENDENT VARIABLE in this experiment?
- The participantss guess of the average price of a German car
- The high or low number participants had to count backwards from
- The participants' actual knowledge about the German auto industry
In Bermeitinger (2014), graduate students had to mark essays they were told had been marked once already--by an unqualified person. Regardless, the fake grades substantially influenced the grading. What was the INDEPENDENT VARIABLE in this experiment?
- The grades given by the participants
- The fake initial grades
- The qualification of the graduate students to mark essays in their subject
In Borgi (2014) children were asked to rate the cuteness of faces manipulated to look more or less infantile. Results supported the theory that infantile traits affect cuteness perception. What was the DEPENDENT VARIABLE in this experiment?
- The manipulation of the portraits (making them more or less infantile looking)
- The cuteness ratings given by participants
- The fact that the participants were children
In Langlois and Roggman (1990) participants had to rate the attractiveness of original and composite pictures. The rating were higher for the “averaged” pictures. What was the INDEPENDENT VARIABLE in this experiment?
- The fact that the pictures were original or composite and thus "averaged"
- The attractiveness ratings given by the participants
- The personal tastes of the participants