Skeletal System

 

Introduction

Learn all about the human skeletal system. 

There are 5 learning objectives, each learning objective contains information and questions to help prepare you for the upcoming lesson.

 

 

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1. Describe the structure and function of the skeletal system.

Which of the following statements about the functions of the skeletal system is false?

  • The skeleton supports the body and gives it shape.
  • The skeleton protects internal organs
  • The red marrow in the bones consists of fat which is used as an energy store
  • The skeleton facilitates movement by providing the fixation point for muscles and tendons
  • The bones act as a mineral reservoir

Which mineral salt has the largest role to play in the process of ossification?

Bone forming process (Ossification)

Ossification process creates spaces in this tissue and then deposits calcium and other mineral salts.

* Past Exam question

What’s the name of bone forming process?
Answer: Ossification

  • Phosphorous
  • Potassium
  • Sodium
  • Calcium

What name is given to the skull, spine, ribcage and sternum?

Skeletal system consists of :

  • 206 bones
  • Cartilage
  • Bone Marrow

Marrow :

  • red (producing red blood cells to carry oxygen) or
  • yellow (producing white cells for the immune system)

Bone marrow is found in the medullary cavity of certain bones (large long bones and flat bones), in adults, the highest concentration is found in flat bones

Axial skeleton, consisting of the skull, spine, ribcage

Appendicular skeleton, consisting of the shoulders, arms, hands, pelvis, hips, legs and feet.

  • Axial skeleton
  • Appendicular skeleton

How many bones are there in the human body?

  • 106
  • 206
  • 306
  • 406

Which type of bone are the patella classifies as?

Bone Shape

  • Short
  • Long
  • Irregular
  • Sesamoid

Video of Human Skeletal System

2. Describe the position and function of axial skeleton.

Name of Bone

  • Mandible - Lower jaw
  • Ulna - Smaller bone
  • Radius - Larger bone

The Tibia is the larger of the two forming the “shin bone”

  • Fibula - Smaller
  • Tibia - larger

What is the largest bone in the face?

Cranium and Facial Bone

Parietal bone - top and sides of the cranium

Temporal bone - sides and lower part of the cranium

Occipital bone - back of the cranium

Frontal bone - forehead and upper eye cavity

Sphenoid bone - base of the cranium and it has a wing-like projection

Ethmoid bone - an unpaired bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain.

Lacrimal bone - part of the eye socket

Nasal bone - form "the bridge" of the nose.

Zygomatic bone - cheek bone

Maxilla - Upper jaw

Mandible - Lower jaw

  • Mandible
  • Maxilla
  • Nasal
  • Zygomatic

Where would you find the frontal bone?

  • In the chest area
  • On the back by the thoracic vertebrae
  • On the front of lower arm
  • On the forehead

The vertebral column consists of how many individual irregular bones ?

Vertebral column

Vertebral consists of 33 individual irregular bones

The top 2 cervical vertebrae have distinct names, as they have a greater range of movement than the other vertebrae

The Atlas (C1): 1st cervical vertebra. Allows you to nod your head

The Axis (C2): 2nd cervical vertebra. Allows you to turn your head

* Past Exam quiz

Which type of bone are the vertebrae classified as?
Answer: Irregular

 bones

The shoulder girdle

The shoulder girdle consists of two scapulae (shoulder blades)and two clavicles (collar bones).

Its made up of:

  • Clavicles (collar bones)
  • Scapula (shoulder blade)
  • Humerus (top of arm)

The bone forming the posterior part of the shoulder girdle is the:

  • Scapula
  • Sternum
  • Manubrium
  • Clavicle

Thoracic cage

Ribs: 12 pairs in total

  • Pairs 1-7  “true ribs” (attach to sternum),
  • Pairs 8 -12  “false ribs
  • 8, 9, 10 attach to lowest true rib
  • 11 & 12 “floating” ribs, do not reach around to the front of the body
     

The sternum (Breastbone) is formed of 3 parts:

  • Manubrium
  • The Body (these join together at the sternal angle, which you can usually feel)
  • The Xiphoid process, the pointy bit at the base

* Exam quiz

What is called the 1st to 7th ribs which is attached to the sternum?
Answer. True ribs

3. Describe the position and function of the appendicular skeleton.

What is the name of the bone in the upper arm?

Name of Bone

  • Mandible - Lower jaw
  • Ulna - Smaller bone
  • Radius - Larger bone

The Tibia is the larger of the two forming the “shin bone”

  • Fibula - Smaller
  • Tibia - larger

  • Ulna
  • Femur
  • Radius
  • Humerus

Identify the different bones

  • Cranium
  • Clavicle
  • Sternum
  • Humerus
  • Femur
  • Patella
  • Fibula
  • Tibia
  • Phalanges

Arm Bone

There are:

  • 8 carpals bones
  • 5 metacarpals bones
  • 14 phalanges bones

Carpals consists of how many bones?

Hand Bones

 bones

Which type of bone are carpals classified as?

  • Short
  • Long
  • Irregular
  • Sesamoid

What is the largest tarsal bone that forms the heel?

Foot Bone

  • Cuneiform
  • Calcaneus
  • Cuboid
  • Talus

4. Describe the different types of joints.

Is Tendons attach muscle to bone and, ligaments attach bone to bone?

Joints

Joints are the point at which two or more bones articulate (meet)

The impetus for any movement is derived from the contraction of a muscle. However muscles rarely connect directly to the bones – most muscles are connected to the bones by tendons.

Tendons are comprised of strong, almost inelastic white fibrous connective tissue and vary in length and thickness. When a muscle contracts it pulls on its tendon. The tendon then pulls on the bone to which it is attached to cause the bone to move at the joint.

Ligaments join bone to bone to strengthen, support and protect joints. They hold the bones together to prevent dislocation but stretch slightly to allow movement. Ligaments are thicker at the joints that require the most strength and support (e.g. the hip) but are thinner and less abundant in joints that require a lot of movement (e.g. the shoulder).

* Past Exam question

Tendons attach muscle to bone and ligaments attach bone to bone. True or false?
Answer: True

  • True
  • False

3 Types of Joints

What is the shoulder and hip joint type?

  • Gliding
  • Saddle
  • Ball And Socket
  • Hinge

Video of Synovial Joints

5. Describe the disease and disorders of the skeletal system.

Gout

Caused by excess uric acid crystals in the blood and tissue. 

Frequently affects the large joint of the big toe, although any joint can be affected.

Acute gouty arthritis is sudden onset of joint pain caused by inflammatory reaction to precipitated uric acid deposited in a joint.

Occurs predominantly in men.

Osteoporosis

Caused by low calcium diet, lack of physical activity, accelerated bone loss especially in post-menopausal.

Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis.

Osteo arthritis will normally affect which joints?

Osteo Arthritis

It commonly occurs in the weight-bearing joints of the hips, knees, and spine. thinned cartilage causing bone ends rub together. joint disease characterised by the breakdown of articular cartilage, growth of bony spikes, swelling of the surrounding synovial membrane and stiffness and tenderness of the joint. It is also known as degenerative arthritis.

  • Spine
  • Knees
  • Hip
  • All of the above

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Auto immune disease.

Swollen inflamed synovial membrance.

A chronic inflammation of peripheral joints resulting in pain, stiffness and potential damage to joints. It can cause severe disability. Joint swellings and rheumatoid nodules are tender.

Stress

When stressed, muscles tension increases and this causes poor posture.

Revision

Which type of bone are the vertebrae classified as?

  • irregular
  • sesamoid
  • long
  • short

How many bones are there in the human body?

  • 106
  • 206
  • 306
  • 406

Which mineral salt has the largest role to play in the process of ossification?

  • Phosphorous
  • Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Potassium

What name is given to the skull, spine, ribcage and sternum?

  • Appendicular skeleton
  • Axial skeleton

The vertebral column consists of how many individual irregular bones ?

 bones

What is the largest and most superior pelvic bone?

  • ilium
  • pubis
  • ischium
  • sacrum

Osteo arthritis will normally affect which joints?

  • Spine
  • Knees
  • Hip
  • All of the above

Which type of bone is scapula classified as?

  • Sesamoid
  • Small
  • Irregular
  • Flat

Which bone is a part of eye socket?

  • Sphenoid bone
  • Temporal bone
  • Lacrimal bone
  • Ethmoid bone

Which is the only moveable bone in the head?

  • Mandible
  • Nasal
  • Frontal
  • Maxilla

Which type of joint is least movable of all joints?

  • Hinge
  • Pivot
  • Saddle
  • Gliding

What are the bones running across the centre of the hand called?

  • Tarsals
  • Metacarpals
  • Phalanges
  • Carpals

Which of the following joint does not contain a hyaline(articular) cartilage?

  • Saddle
  • Freely movable
  • Fibrous
  • Synovial

Identify the different bones

  • Cranium
  • Clavicle
  • Sternum
  • Humerus
  • Femur
  • Patella
  • Fibula
  • Tibia
  • Phalanges