This course teaches you what is all about MEDIA AND INFORMATION LITERACY by knowing the types of media, Evolution of Traditional to New Media , Current and Future Trends of Media and Information , People Media  and Text Information and Media.This course contains content, questions and and all the components typically included medias and information literacy.

UNIT 1: Types of Media

Print (books, newsletter, magazines, journals, and other printed materials)



Print media advertising is a form of advertising that uses physically printed media, such as magazines and newspapers, to reach consumers, business customers and prospects. Advertisers also use digital media, such as banner ads, mobile advertising, and advertising in social media, to reach the same target audiences. The proliferation of digital media has led to a decline in advertising expenditure in traditional print media. Advertising revenue for national newspapers, for example, fell from $7,653 million in 2000 to $3,777 million in 2011, according to the Newspaper Association of America.


Advertisers can choose from a wide range of different types of newspapers, including local, regional or national titles published in daily, evening, weekly or Sunday editions. Newspapers target different readerships with a mix of content, often including sports, entertainment, business, fashion and politics in addition to local, national or world news. Advertisers can buy different sizes of advertising space, from small classified ads with text only, to display ads featuring text, photographs, illustrations and graphics in sizes up to a full page or even a double-page spread.


Magazines offer advertisers extensive choices of readership and frequency. Consumer magazines cover a wide range of interests, including sport, hobbies, fashion, health, current affairs and local topics. Many business and trade magazines provide coverage of specific industries, such as finance or electronics. Others cover cross-industry topics, such as communications or human resources, while still others focus on job-specific areas, such as publications for executives, marketing professionals or engineers. Publishing frequency is typically weekly, monthly or quarterly. As with newspapers, advertisers can take advertising spaces from classified ads to full page ads in black and white or color.

Billboards and Posters

Advertising on billboards and posters gives advertisers the opportunity to reach consumers on the move. Putting posters in retail malls, for example, helps advertisers reach consumers close to the point of purchase. Posters or billboards in train stations, airports or busy town centers have the potential to reach large groups of consumers. Advertisers can change the messages on billboards and posters at a frequency of their choice.

Direct Mail

Advertisers use direct mail to reach smaller target audiences or selected prospects. Direct mail often take the form of a letter, brochure or flyer sent via the postal service. Advertisers can compile their own list of prospects and customers for the mailing, or rent a mailing list from a specialist firm.

Print Media Selection

Print media advertising offers advertisers the opportunity to target different readerships, with advertising costs based on circulation and nature of the readership. Advertisers and their agencies compare the costs of reaching their target audience using circulation figures and readership research from individual media or industry groups, such as the Association of Magazine Media or the National Newspaper Association.

Write and explain what is a Printed Media.

Broadcast (radio, television, and film)

The Purpose of Broadcast Media

Broadcast media is the most expedient means to transmit information immediately to the widest possible audience, although the Internet currently challenges television as the primary source of news. Most people now get their daily news through broadcast, rather than printed, media. Integration of the Internet has increased the pressure on broadcast media groups to deliver high quality information with minimum cost. Improving operations is more important for these groups now than ever before.

A Brief History of Broadcast Media

Broadcast media originated with the development of the radio in the twentieth century. Prior to the radio, news and other information was transmitted across telegraphs and, later, telephones, but both technologies transferred information from one party to another. Radio allowed for information transfer from one party to multiple parties and, just as importantly, freed information transmission from physical wires. Radio was in its infancy prior to World War I, and governmental restrictions during the war prevented its rapid expansion. After the war, the development of radio technology increased quickly although programming remained limited. During the 1920s the US government developed guidelines and regulation for radio broadcasting that influenced the development of NBC and CBS.

By the 1930s radio had become well established as a medium for entertainment and information. By 1946 NBC, CBS and an emergent ABC (formed from a court-mandated division of NBC similar to NBC’s formation from a court-mandated division of AT&T’s radio and telephone operations) began regular television broadcasts, including newscasts that were generally ten to fifteen minutes in length. Although slow at first, the acceptance of television increased rapidly during the boom of the 1950s, and television ultimately replaced radio as the chief source of in-home entertainment by 1960.

Edward R. Murrow laid the foundation for modern television newscasts on CBS with the first program featuring simultaneous transmission coast-to-coast. Newscasts in the 1960s expanded to half-hour programs, and included The Huntley-Brinkley Report on NBC (later the NBC Nightly News) and the CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite. Color television, first introduced in the 1950s, spread slowly both because of the associated production costs, and because many people who had first purchased black and white televisions sets were slow to transition – based in part on the limited availability of color programming. Cable television expanded the possibilities for broadcast media, and in 1980 Ted Turner launched CNN, the first 24-hour news channel. It has since been followed by numerous other networks devoted entirely to news broadcasts.

Modern Trends in Broadcast Media

The development of the Internet has challenged the broadcast news organizations. Just as 24-hour cable news channels diminished the audience for the major networks, the Internet has begun to draw the audience away from television in general. More and more people report every year that the Internet is their main source of news. An increase in media broadcast outlets and declining viewership have generated intense competition within the industry in the early twenty-first century.

Related Content

write down the evolution of broadcast media.

New Media (internet)

New media most commonly refers to content available on-demand through the Internet, accessible on any digital device, usually containing interactive user feedback and creative participation. Common examples of new media include websites such as online newspapersblogswikisvideo games and social media. A defining characteristic of new media is dialogue. New Media transmit content through connection and conversation. It enables people around the world to share, comment on, and discuss a wide variety of topics. Unlike any of past technologies, New Media is grounded on an interactive community.

Most technologies described as "new media" are digital, often having characteristics of being manipulated, networkable, densecompressible, and interactive.[2] Some examples may be the Internet, websites, computer multimedia, video gamesaugmented reality, CD-ROMS, and DVDs. New media are often contrasted to "old media," such as television, radio, and print media, although scholars in communication and media studies have criticised rigid distinctions based on oldness and novelty. New media does not includetelevision programs (only analog broadcast), feature films, magazinesbooks,  – unless they contain technologies that enable digital interactivity.[3] Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia, is an example, combining Internet accessible digital text, images and video with web-links, creative participation of contributors, interactive feedback of users and formation of a participant community of editors and donors for the benefit of non-community readers. Facebook is an example of the social media model, in which most users are also participants. Wikitude is an example for augmented reality. It displays information about the users' surroundings in a mobile camera view, including image recognition, 3D modeling and location-based approach to augmented reality.

What is the essence of new media.

UNIT 2: The Evolution of Traditional to New Media



The word media is defined as "one of the means or channels of general communication, information, or entertainment in society, as newspapers, radio or television."

The beginning of human communication through designed channels, i.e. not vocalization or gestures, dates back to ancient cave paintings, drawn maps, and writing.

The Persian Empire (centred on present-day Iran) played an important role in the field of communication. It has the first real mail or postal system, which is said to have been developed by the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great (c. 550 BC) after his conquest of Media. The role of the system as an intelligence gathering apparatus is well documented, and the service was (later) called angariae, a term that in time turned to indicate a tax system. The Old Testament (Esther, VIII) makes mention of this system: Ahasuerus, king of Medes, used couriers for communicating his decisions.[citation needed]

The word communication is derived from the Latin root communicare. This was due to the Roman Empire also devising what might be described as a mail or postal system, in order to centralize control of the empire from Rome. This allowed for personal letters and for Rome to gather knowledge about events in its many widespread provinces. More advanced postal systems later appeared in the Islamic Caliphate and the Mongol Empire during the Middle Ages.

The term "media" in its modern application relating to communication channels is traced back to its first use as such by Canadian communications theorist Marshall McLuhan, who stated in Counterblast (1954): "The media are not toys; they should not be in the hands of Mother Goose and Peter Pan executives. They can be entrusted only to new artists, because they are art forms." By the mid-1960s, the term had spread to general use in North America and the United Kingdom. ("Mass media", in contrast, was, according to H.L. Mencken, used as early as 1923 in the United States.)[5]

Electronic media

Main article: Electronic media

In the last century, a revolution in telecommunications has greatly altered communication by providing new media for long distance communication. The first transatlantic two-way radio broadcast occurred in 1906 and led to common communication via analogue and digital media:

The difference between analog and digital photography is that digital photography is easier to edit and have a lot of choices after taking photos, but analog photography is more simple and you have to accept the photo if you don’t like it. In digital photography you can edit the photo even before taking it, unlike analog which had limited settings.

Modern communication media now allow for intense long-distance exchanges between larger numbers of people (many-to-many communication via e-mailInternet forums, andteleportation). On the other hand, many traditional broadcast media and mass media favor one-to-many communication (televisioncinemaradionewspapermagazines, and also social media).

Electronic media usage is growing, although concern has arisen that it distracts youth from face-to-face contact with friends and family. Research on the social engagement effect is mixed. One study by Wellman finding that “33% of Internet users said that the Internet had improved their connections to friends ‘a lot’, and 23% said it had increased the quality of their communication with family members by a similar amount. Young people in particular took advantage of the social side of the Internet. Nearly half (49%) of the 18- to 29-year-olds said that the Internet had improved their connections to friends a lot. On the other hand, 19% of employed Internet users said that the Internet had increased the amount of time they spent working in home” (Lee, Leung, Lo, Xiong, & Wu p. 377 & 378).

Electronic media now comes in the forms tablets, laptops, desktops, cell phones, mp3 players, DVDs, game systems, radios, and television. Technology has spiked to record highs within the last decade, thus changing the dynamic of communication. The meaning of electronic media, as it is known in various spheres, has changed with the passage of time. The term media has achieved a broader meaning nowadays as compared to that given it a decade ago. Earlier, there was multimedia, once only a piece of software (application software) used to play audio (sound) and video (visual object with or without sound). Following this, it was CD (Compact Disc) and DVD (Digital Versatile Disc), then camera of 3G (Third Generation) applications in the field. In modern terms, the media includes all the software which are used in PC (Computer) or Laptop or Mobile Phone installed for normal or better performance of the system; today, however, hard discs (used to increase the installation capacity of data) of computer is an example of electronic media. This type of hard disc is becoming increasingly smaller in size. The latest inclusion in the field is magnetic media (magnetic stripe) whose application is common, in the fastest growing Information Technology field. Modern day IT media is commonly used in the banking sector and by the Income Tax Department for the purpose of providing the easiest and fastest possible services to the consumers. In this magnetic strip, account information linking to all the data relating to a particular consumer is stored. The main features of these types of media are prepared unrecorded (blank form), and data is normally stored at a later stage as per the requirement of its user or consumer.

Social impacts

Media technology has made communicating increasingly easier as time has passed throughout history. Today, children are encouraged to use media tools in school and are expected to have a general understanding of the various technologies available. The internet is arguably one of the most effective tools in media for communication tools such as e-mail, SkypeFacebook etc., have brought people closer together and created new online communities. However, some may argue that certain types of media can hinder face-to-face communication and therefore can result in complications like identity fraud.

In a large consumer-driven society, electronic media (such as television) and print media (such as newspapers) are important for distributing advertisement media. More technologically advanced societies have access to goods and services through newer media than less technologically advanced societies. In addition to this “advertizing” role, media is nowadays a tool to share knowledge all around the world. Analysing the evolution of medium within the society, Popkin [6] assesses the important role of media, by building connection between politics, culture and economic life and the society: for instance periodical newspaper has been an opportunity to first advertize and second to be up-to-date with current foreign affairs or the nation economic situation. In the mean time, Willinsky [7] was promoting the role of modern technology as a way to come across cultural, gender, national barriers. He saw in internet an opportunity to establish a fair and equal system of knowledge: as internet may be accessible to anyone, any published information may be read and consulted by anyone. Therefore, internet is a sustainable solution to overcome the “gap” between developed and developing countries as both will get a chance to learn from each other. Canagarajah [8] is addressing the issue of unbalanced relations between the North and South countries, asserting that Western countries tend to impose their own ideas on developing countries.Therefore, internet is way to re-establish balance, by for instance enhance publication of newspaper, academic journal from developing countries. Christen [9] is the one who created a system that provide access to knowledge and protect people’s customs and culture. Indeed, in some traditional society, some gender cannot have access to a certain type of knowledge therefore respecting these customs limit the scope of dissemination but still allow the diffusion of knowledge. Within this process of dissemination, media would play a role of “intermediaries”, that is say translation an academic research into a journalistic format, accessible by lay audience ( Levin[10]). Consequently, media is a modern form of communication aiming at spreading knowledge within the whole world, regardless any form of discrimination.

Media, through media and communications psychology, has helped to connect diverse people from far and near geographical location. It has also helped in the aspect of on-line or internet businesses and other activities that have an on-line version. All media intended to affect human behavior is initiated through communication and the intended behavior is couched in psychology. Therefore, understanding media and communications psychology is fundamental in understanding the social and individual effects of media. The expanding field of media and communications psychology combines these established disciplines in a new way.

Timing change based on innovation and efficiency may not have a direct is correlation with technology. The information revolution is based on modern advancements. During the 19th century, the information "boom" rapidly advanced because of postal systems, increase in newspaper accessibility, as well as schools "modernizing". These advancements were made due to the increase of people becoming literate and educated.[citation needed] The methodology of communication although has changed and dispersed in numerous directions based on the source of its sociocultural impact. Biases in the media that affects religious or ethnic minorities takes the form of racism in the media and religious bias in the media.

State the evolution of media accordingly and explain.

UNIT 3: Current and Future Trends of Media and Information

Massive open online content

Massive Open Online Course (MOOC /mu╦Ék/) is an online course aimed at unlimited participation and open access via theweb.[1] In addition to traditional course materials such as filmed lectures, readings, and problem sets, many MOOCs provide interactive user forums to support community interactions among students, professors, and teaching assistants (TAs). MOOCs are a recent and widely researched development in distance education which were first introduced in 2008 and emerged as a popular mode of learning in 2012.[2][3]

Early MOOCs often emphasized open-access features, such as open licensing of content, structure and learning goals, to promote the reuse and remixing of resources. Some later MOOCs use closed licenses for their course materials while maintaining free access for students.[4][5][6][7] Robert Zemsky (2014) argues that they have passed their peak: "They came; they conquered very little; and now they face substantially diminished prospects."[8] Others have pointed to a backlash arising from the tiny completion rates.[9]

Elaborate the concept of massive open online content

Wearable technology (i.e. Google glass, iPhone watch, etc.)

Wearable technologywearablesfashionable technologywearable devicestech togs, or fashion electronics are clothing and accessories incorporating computer and advanced electronic technologies. The designs often incorporate practical functions and features.[1]

Wearable devices such as activity trackers are a good example of the Internet of Things, since they are part of the network of physical objects or "things" embedded withelectronicssoftwaresensors and connectivity to enable objects to exchange data with a manufacturer, operator and/or other connected devices, without requiring human intervention.

Give examples of wearable technology and explain its impact globally.

3D Environnent (i.e. 3D printer, 3D films, hologramme, etc.)

Explain 3D environment.

Ubiquitous Learning

And we want you to show us that you can apply all this. Therefore we want you to share your course with easygenerator. We will review it and comment on it. The last page of this course outlines this assignment.

The final objective of the course is that you, as the learner, are able to apply the principles of course design to creating a course in easygenerator. Before we ask you to complete this assignment, we will repeat some the the information in this course. Repetition is key to learning. This course has only one statement question that you need to identify the correct answers. You will find that statement question on the next page.

Untitled open question

New (Information) Age

UNIT 4: People Media


People Media is a targeted online dating service focusing on specific demographic groups. A niche or targeted online dating site differs from broad dating sites like by recognizing commonalities important to customers such as ethnicity, religion and lifestyle. As ranked by comScore Media Metrix People Media operates 6 of the top 50 ranked personals websites including,,, and With $11.6 million of EBITDA in 2008 and 255,000 paying members, People Media is atop the niche or targeted segment of the online dating industry.


List and explain the roles of people in media.

Text Information and Media


Information and Media Literacy (IML) enables people to interpret and make informed judgments as users of information and media, as well as to become skillful creators and producers of information and media messages in their own right.

Prior to the 1990s, the primary focus of Information Literacy has been research skills. Media Literacy, a study that emerges around the 1970s traditionally focuses on the analysis and the delivery of information through various forms of media. Nowadays, the study of Information Literacy has been extended to include the study of Media Literacy in many countries like UK, Australia and New Zealand. The term Information and Media Literacy is used by UNESCO[1] to differentiate the combined study from the existing study of Information Literacy. It is also defined as Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the United States.Educators, such as Gregory Ulmer, has also defined the field as electracy.

IML is a combination of information literacy and media literacy. The purpose of being information and media literate is to engage in a digital society; one needs to be able to use, understand, inquire, create, communicate and think critically. It is important to have capacity to effectively access, organize, analyze, evaluate, and create messages in a variety of forms. The transformative nature of IML includes creative works and creating new knowledge; to publish and collaborate responsibly requires ethical, cultural and social understanding.

Elaborate the concept of text information and media.