Print (books, newsletter, magazines, journals, and other printed materials)
Print media advertising is a form of advertising that uses physically printed media, such as magazines and newspapers, to reach consumers, business customers and prospects. Advertisers also use digital media, such as banner ads, mobile advertising, and advertising in social media, to reach the same target audiences. The proliferation of digital media has led to a decline in advertising expenditure in traditional print media. Advertising revenue for national newspapers, for example, fell from $7,653 million in 2000 to $3,777 million in 2011, according to the Newspaper Association of America.
Advertisers can choose from a wide range of different types of newspapers, including local, regional or national titles published in daily, evening, weekly or Sunday editions. Newspapers target different readerships with a mix of content, often including sports, entertainment, business, fashion and politics in addition to local, national or world news. Advertisers can buy different sizes of advertising space, from small classified ads with text only, to display ads featuring text, photographs, illustrations and graphics in sizes up to a full page or even a double-page spread.
Magazines offer advertisers extensive choices of readership and frequency. Consumer magazines cover a wide range of interests, including sport, hobbies, fashion, health, current affairs and local topics. Many business and trade magazines provide coverage of specific industries, such as finance or electronics. Others cover cross-industry topics, such as communications or human resources, while still others focus on job-specific areas, such as publications for executives, marketing professionals or engineers. Publishing frequency is typically weekly, monthly or quarterly. As with newspapers, advertisers can take advertising spaces from classified ads to full page ads in black and white or color.
Billboards and Posters
Advertising on billboards and posters gives advertisers the opportunity to reach consumers on the move. Putting posters in retail malls, for example, helps advertisers reach consumers close to the point of purchase. Posters or billboards in train stations, airports or busy town centers have the potential to reach large groups of consumers. Advertisers can change the messages on billboards and posters at a frequency of their choice.
Advertisers use direct mail to reach smaller target audiences or selected prospects. Direct mail often take the form of a letter, brochure or flyer sent via the postal service. Advertisers can compile their own list of prospects and customers for the mailing, or rent a mailing list from a specialist firm.
Print Media Selection
Print media advertising offers advertisers the opportunity to target different readerships, with advertising costs based on circulation and nature of the readership. Advertisers and their agencies compare the costs of reaching their target audience using circulation figures and readership research from individual media or industry groups, such as the Association of Magazine Media or the National Newspaper Association.
Write and explain what is a Printed Media.
Broadcast (radio, television, and film)
The Purpose of Broadcast Media
Broadcast media is the most expedient means to transmit information immediately to the widest possible audience, although the Internet currently challenges television as the primary source of news. Most people now get their daily news through broadcast, rather than printed, media. Integration of the Internet has increased the pressure on broadcast media groups to deliver high quality information with minimum cost. Improving operations is more important for these groups now than ever before.
A Brief History of Broadcast Media
Broadcast media originated with the development of the radio in the twentieth century. Prior to the radio, news and other information was transmitted across telegraphs and, later, telephones, but both technologies transferred information from one party to another. Radio allowed for information transfer from one party to multiple parties and, just as importantly, freed information transmission from physical wires. Radio was in its infancy prior to World War I, and governmental restrictions during the war prevented its rapid expansion. After the war, the development of radio technology increased quickly although programming remained limited. During the 1920s the US government developed guidelines and regulation for radio broadcasting that influenced the development of NBC and CBS.
By the 1930s radio had become well established as a medium for entertainment and information. By 1946 NBC, CBS and an emergent ABC (formed from a court-mandated division of NBC similar to NBC’s formation from a court-mandated division of AT&T’s radio and telephone operations) began regular television broadcasts, including newscasts that were generally ten to fifteen minutes in length. Although slow at first, the acceptance of television increased rapidly during the boom of the 1950s, and television ultimately replaced radio as the chief source of in-home entertainment by 1960.
Edward R. Murrow laid the foundation for modern television newscasts on CBS with the first program featuring simultaneous transmission coast-to-coast. Newscasts in the 1960s expanded to half-hour programs, and included The Huntley-Brinkley Report on NBC (later the NBC Nightly News) and the CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite. Color television, first introduced in the 1950s, spread slowly both because of the associated production costs, and because many people who had first purchased black and white televisions sets were slow to transition – based in part on the limited availability of color programming. Cable television expanded the possibilities for broadcast media, and in 1980 Ted Turner launched CNN, the first 24-hour news channel. It has since been followed by numerous other networks devoted entirely to news broadcasts.
Modern Trends in Broadcast Media
The development of the Internet has challenged the broadcast news organizations. Just as 24-hour cable news channels diminished the audience for the major networks, the Internet has begun to draw the audience away from television in general. More and more people report every year that the Internet is their main source of news. An increase in media broadcast outlets and declining viewership have generated intense competition within the industry in the early twenty-first century.
write down the evolution of broadcast media.
New Media (internet)
New media most commonly refers to content available on-demand through the Internet, accessible on any digital device, usually containing interactive user feedback and creative participation. Common examples of new media include websites such as online newspapers, blogs, wikis, video games and social media. A defining characteristic of new media is dialogue. New Media transmit content through connection and conversation. It enables people around the world to share, comment on, and discuss a wide variety of topics. Unlike any of past technologies, New Media is grounded on an interactive community.
Most technologies described as "new media" are digital, often having characteristics of being manipulated, networkable, dense, compressible, and interactive. Some examples may be the Internet, websites, computer multimedia, video games, augmented reality, CD-ROMS, and DVDs. New media are often contrasted to "old media," such as television, radio, and print media, although scholars in communication and media studies have criticised rigid distinctions based on oldness and novelty. New media does not includetelevision programs (only analog broadcast), feature films, magazines, books, – unless they contain technologies that enable digital interactivity. Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia, is an example, combining Internet accessible digital text, images and video with web-links, creative participation of contributors, interactive feedback of users and formation of a participant community of editors and donors for the benefit of non-community readers. Facebook is an example of the social media model, in which most users are also participants. Wikitude is an example for augmented reality. It displays information about the users' surroundings in a mobile camera view, including image recognition, 3D modeling and location-based approach to augmented reality.