Unit 1: PART II



2.1 Types of Vocabulary

There are three types of dentistry vocabulary:

1. Words built from Latin & Greek word parts.

2. Words based on a person’s name.

3. Words using modern English words.

2.1.1 Word Formation Principles


Adding affixes to existing words (the base or root) to form new words is common in English for dentistry. A prefix is found at the beginning of a dental term. It often indicates information such as abnormal conditions, numbers, positions, or times. Prefixes usually do not change the class of the base word. A suffix is found at the end of a dental term. The type of information it provides includes: conditions, diseases, surgical procedures, and diagnostic procedures involving the word root. Suffixes usually change the class of the word.

 Some frequently used suffixes are present in the text, such as

-ial,-al (means “typical of”; usually used with nouns to form adjectives, e.g., dental, critical),

-ist (means: a doer, e.g., a dentist),

-ment (used after a verb to form a noun that refers to the action of a verb, e.g. to govern, government),

-ing (used after a verb to form a noun that expresses the action of a verb, its result, product, material, e.g. to build, building).

Task 1

 Find the words in the text that are derived by means of the suffixes –ial, -al, -ist, -ment, -ing and fill in the table below. Discuss their meaning in context.








Task 2

 Explain or translate the literary meaning of the terms formed from the root dent-.

  explanation translation















Work in pairs and explain the meaning of the words using the expressions below.






describes …

is defined as…

is used…




is concerned with




deals with

relates to


Task 3

Form nouns from the verbs below adding an appropriate suffix. Then write down sentences with the nouns from the text Clinical Audit in Dentistry: From a Concept to an Initiation.




Sentences from the text


to improve




to plan




to measure




to implement




to sustain




to audit




to develop




to equip




to treat




to function




to maintain




to monitor




to encourage



Task 4

Use the nouns you have formed in Task 3 to complete the sentences.

1. You need from your colleagues who understand what you are trying to do.

2.  Paramedics are to have extra training in administering on-the-spot .

3. The hospital bought high-tech  for keeping the premature born children’s

     temperature steady.

4. The new assessment system could pinpoint areas for  within the whole healthcare


5. Cell divisions during the  occur in a fixed sequence.

Task 5

Use the following expressions in the sentences of your own in the dental context.

  1. Words of encouragement
  2. To be an encouragement to somebody
  3. With a bit of encouragement
  4. To be in treatment
  5. To receive treatment for
  6. To put up with treatment
  7. The equipment consists of
  8. An area for/of improvement
  9. To show signs of improvement
  10. To have a stage in the development of
  11. To be under development
  12. Research and development

2.1.2 Word Formation Principles


A compound noun contains two or more words that join to create a single noun. Compounds can be expressed in three ways:

a closed form: two words joined make one word, e.g., dentilingual,

a hyphenated form, e.g., a diagnosis-related treatment,

an open form: two words that stand next to each other, e.g., dental floss.

Task 6

Explain how the compounds used in the text Clinical Audit in Dentistry: From a Concept to an Initiation have been formed.

Task 7

Write sentences of your own by using the compounds below:

  1. follow-up
  2. evidence-based
  3. wellbeing
  4. real-time buildup of data
  5. multi-users
  6. clinical decision-making process
  7. work culture 

2.2 Lexical Feature Acquisition: Creating Meaning

The text Clinical Audit in Dentistry: From a Concept to an Initiation uses a variety of word combinations that contain the word care. Highlight/underline them in the text.

The noun care collocates with many adjectives that can be used in dentistry discourse, which can relate to several types of care, for example, medical, clinical, emergency, health, nursing, patient, constant, short-term, long-term, temporary, daily, day-to-day, outpatient non-hospital, high-quality professional care.

Task 8

Use the collocations with the noun care in sentences of your own.

For example:

        He spent last night in an intensive care unit, where he received round-the-clock medical care.

Task 9

Read the explanation of the meanings of the nouns careconcern – solicitude – anxiety – worry.

 - Care implies the provision of what is necessary for the health, welfare, maintenance, and protection of someone or something.

For example: Data for audit should ideally therefore be perennially available as part of the process of care.

- Concern implies a troubled state of mind because of personal interest, relation or affection or responsibility that leads to this state

For example: Patients’ wellbeing and doctors’ work culture should be of hospitals’ concern.

- Solicitude implies great concern and connotes either thoughtful attentiveness towards somebody.

For example: It is much easier to treat young patients if a dentist behaves with maternal solicitude.

- Anxiety implies anguished or painful uncertainty or fear of misfortune or failure.

For example: The patient referred to the dentist’s office with deep anxiety about his dental condition.

- Worry implies matters that may or may not be a real cause for anxiety.

For example: Evidence-based work culture of a dentist can reduce patients’ worries about his dental condition and treatment appropriacy.

Use the nouns care – concern – solicitude – anxiety - worry  in the sentences below.

1. His health is a constant source of doctor’s worry.

2. The lady was sick with only about her own healthcare.

3. Our aim is to reduce and help patients relax.

4. Many families suffer from growing over the effects of increasing


5. Students should train their skills to cope with .

6. What are your main as a dentist?

7. Babies’ overweight should be a common for new parents.

8. Out of for my colleague’s health condition, we suggested that she should have

    some time off work.

9. We have always been under a constant of our general physician Dr. Gang.

10. He left his job to take of his sick daughter.

11. A paternal is of the same importance as a maternal for psychological,

      emotional and intellectual development of a child. 

2.3 Polysemantic Words

Task 10

Make a list of the meanings of the word wonder in the following sentences. Use the words, phrases in your own sentences.

1. The new Nokia model is a technological wonder of the 21st century. 

2. It is a wonder that these technologies are applied in the treatment of heart and blood

    vessel problems.

3. It is a new wonder medicine that is used in the treatment of newborn children.

4. My doctor is a wonder: all what he does is so efficient.

5. Wonders will never cease!

Task 11

Make a list of the meanings of step (noun, verb) in the following sentences. Use the words, phrases in your own sentences.

  1. Take a step forward and stop then.
  2. Steps should be taken to decrease child mortality rates in Latvia.
  3. This promotion is a step up for her being such an inexperienced student.
  4. I heard her steps in the neighboring room. 
  5. There is a taxi-stop a few steps down the street.
  6. Step down because you cannot work as a chairperson of the board any more.
  7. If the problems at the governmental level are not solved, the international administrative bodies will step in.

Task 12

Some words are easily confused because they are similar in form but different in meaning. Choose one of the words (the grammatical form may vary) in italics to complete the following sentences and explain the difference in meaning.


The  is the part of reality that is given objectively, the is the part that is given subjectively through intuition.



The scholar characterized Goethe’s view of Nature and his method of knowledge of her as “Goetheanism”.

The human being the ability and power to seek his ideal in nature.



Regular studies help students very good results in the English language acquisition. The hard-up people some charities thanks to individual donations.