The beauty of brain

how brain works

how brain works

The Parts of Brain Tour

The brain is made of three main parts: the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. Each parts have its own function. 

how can brain helps in learning?

Teaching Grows Brain Cells

 An IQ is not fixed at birth and brain development and intelligence are “plastic” in that internal and environmental stimuli constantly change the structure and function of neurons and their connections.

We now know that through neuroplasticity, interneuron connections (dendrites, synapses, and myelin coating) continue to be pruned or constructed in response to learning and experiences throughout our lives.

High Stress Restricts Brain Processing to the Survival State

The prefrontal cortex, where the higher thinking processes of executive functions (judgment, critical analysis, prioritizing) is also the CEO that can manage and control our emotions.

PFC not fully matured during school. Students do not have the adult brain’s developed circuits of reflection, judgment, and gratification.

Limbic system is a switching-station that determines which part of the brain will receive input and determine response output.

New information cannot pass through the amygdala (part of the limbic system) to enter the frontal lobe if the amygdala is in the state of high metabolism or overactivity provoked by anxiety. à behaviour is involuntary.

Know your brain

  • taste
  • motor response
  • sensory response
  • vision

Brain memory space

Memory is Constructed and Stored by Patterning

The brain turns data from the senses into learned information in the hippocampus. This encoding process requires activation or prior knowledge with a similar “pattern” to physically link with the new input if a short-term memory is to be constructed.

cognitive testing reveals that the most successful construction of working (short-term) memory takes place when there has been activation of the brain’s related prior knowledge before new information is taught.

When learning that involve patterns, connections and relationship that exist between new and old learning, the probability for students to understand increases.

Memory is Sustained by Use

Each time students participate in any endeavor, a certain number of neurons are activated. When they repeat the action, the same neurons respond again. The more times they repeat an action, the more dendrites grow and interconnect, resulting in greater memory storage and recall efficiency.

Multisensory instruction, practice, and review promote memory storage in multiple regions of the cortex, based on the type of sensory input by which they were learned and practiced.

Pattern recognition facilitation and opportunities for knowledge transfer extends the brain’s processing efficiency for greater access to and application of its accumulated learning.

How brain effect the response

Although the brain is an amazing organ, it’s not equipped to process the billions of bits of information in every second. Filters in brain protect it from becoming overloaded. These filters control the information flow so that only approximately 2,000 bits of information per second enter the brain.

The Thinking Brain and the Reactive Brain

Once sensory information enters the brain, it’s routed to one of two areas: (1) The prefrontal cortex, the thinking brain that can consciously process and reflect on information; or (2) the lower, automatic brain, the reactive brain, which reacts to information. The prefrontal cortex is actually only 17 percent of your brain and the rest makes up the reactive brain.

By calming the brain, we can control which sensory data from the environment of our brain to let in or keep out—and influence which information gets admitted to the prefrontal cortex.

When stress levels are down and interest is high, the most valuable information tends to pass into the thinking brain. When anxious, sad, frustrated, or bored, brain filters conduct sensory information into your reactive brain. These reactive brain systems do one of three things with the information: ignore it, fight against it as a negative experience (sending signals that may cause you to act inappropriately) or avoid it that cause to daydream. If information gets routed to this reactive brain, the brain undergoes information and remembering process.

Three major brain elements help control the input of information that is the reticular activating system, the limbic system, and the transmitter dopamine.

If you build your power to focus your attention on the sensory input that is most valuable and important to attend to at the moment, the important input will make it into your thinking brain. If you feel overwhelmed, your reactive brain will take over.

brain work optimally when physically healthy and well rested and to develop awareness of—and some control over—your emotions. Then you can approach learning calmly and with positive emotions. Practice focusing and observing yourself, for example, by taking a short break from work to check in with your emotions. Just take a few minutes to think about what you’re feeling. If it’s a good feeling, take time to enjoy it and consider how your good emotional state affects your thinking.

As you become aware of your emotions, you build brain networks that help you control your actions with your thinking brain.

Limbic system: Emotion centre

New information that becomes memory is eventually stored in the sensory cortex areas. 

data must first pass through brain’s emotional core, the limbic system, where amygdala and hippocampus evaluate whether this information is useful or not. 

When experiencing negative emotions like fear, anxiety, or even boredom, amygdala’s filter takes up excessive amounts of brain’s available nutrients and oxygen. This puts brain into survival mode, which blocks entry of any new information into your prefrontal cortex.

Stress closes off the pathways that direct information into thinking brain and memory centers. But if things can turn around to become calm and focused, amygdala will “decide” to send new information to your prefrontal cortex.

Teachers set up lessons to include some fun activities so that students feel good during a lesson, amygdala will add a neurochemical enhancement, like a memory chip, that strengthens the staying power of any information presented in the lesson. People actually remember more of what they hear and read if they are in a positive emotional state when they hear or read it.

Hippocampus is where the links of new sensory input to both memories of your past and knowledge already stored in your long-term memory to make new relational memories.

Prefrontal cortex contains highly developed nerve communication networks that process new information through what are called executive functions, including judgment, analysis, organizing, problem solving, planning, and creativity. The executive function networks can convert short-term relational memories into long-term memories.

Focusing and a positive emotion can more successfully coding memories into long-term knowledge.

When practice something you’ve learned, dendrites actually grow between nerve cells in the network that holds that memory.

Each time you review that knowledge, this mental manipulation increases activity along the connections between nerve cells.

Repeated stimulation—for example, studying the times tables many times—makes the network stronger and that makes the memory stay in your brain. Practice makes permanent.

When you review new learning through actions, using the knowledge to create something, solve problems, or apply it to another subject, this mental manipulation strengthens the neural pathways and your brain becomes even more efficiently wired.

Dopamine: Feeling good helps you learn

Dopamine is one of the brain’s most important neurotransmitters.

Messages connected to new information travel from neuron to neuron as tiny electrical currents. Like electricity, these messages need wiring to carry them. But there are gaps, called synapses, between the branches that connect nerve cells and there’s no wiring at these gaps. Chemical neurotransmitters like dopamine carry electrical messages across the gap from one neuron to another. This transmission is crucial to your brain’s capacity to process new information.

Brain releases extra dopamine when an experience is enjoyable. As positive emotions cause dopamine to travel to more parts of your brain, additional neurons are activated. Thus a boost in dopamine not only increases sense of pleasure, but also increases other neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine, that enhance alertness, memory, and executive functions in the prefrontal cortex.

Interacting with friends, laughing, physical activity, listening to someone read to you, and acting kindly increase dopamine levels.

Learning can be if you get them into your day. Experiencing pride at accomplishing something is also correlated with higher dopamine. It will increase learning power if pursuing activities that give sense of accomplishment. Think about your personal strengths, such as artistic ability, leadership, helping classmates resolve conflicts, athletic skill, or even qualities like optimism, kindness, and empathy. Use these skills to do projects you want to do—and do them well—and you’ll find you can use your brain power more successfully to make judgments and solve problems.

You now have the power to use your most powerful tool to achieve the goals you choose. Congratulations on the dendrites you’ve grown along the way!

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Always stay positive for a happy brain. Keep calm and relax.