Paediatric Radiology for final years

This module has been created to increase your confidence in interpreting paediatric radiology 

Aim and objectives

Aims and objectives

  • To improve confidence in interpreting paediatric radiological films
  • To become competent in interpreting films alongside clinical information

Chest X-rays

Paediatric chest X rays

Top tips:

  • take into consideration age: in babies, more triangular shaped  chest
  • more likely to see air bronchograms in neonates and young infants- would be pathological if more peripheral
  • higher hemidiaphragms in infants
  • thymus gland more common cause for mediastinal shadow - become less evident between 2 and 8 years of age
  • thymus gland- classic sail shaped outline- shown on above image with arrows

Case 1

Case 1

A 5 year old boy has presented to A&E with fever and shortness of breath. You note intercostal recession on examination and order a chest X-ray. His X-ray is show above.


What is the likely diagnosis?

  • Left lower lobe collapse
  • Right lower lobe consolidation

Case 2

A newborn baby has presented with cyanosis and substernal recessions. They were born at 32 weeks. The chest X-ray is shown above.

What does the X -ray show?

  • Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
  • Right lobar consolidation
  • Pulmonary atresia
  • Transient Tachypnoea of the newborn (TTN)

Case 3

5 months old present with SOB and cyanosis on crying and feeding. Chest X-ray is shown above.

What is the likely diagnosis?

  • Pneumothorax
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Asthma
  • CF

Abdominal X-rays

Case 4

A newborn baby is presenting with bilious vomiting after feeds. An abdominal film is shown above.

What is the diagnossi?

  • Pyloric stenosis
  • Duodenal atresia
  • Biliary atresia

Case 5

A neonate has presented with distended abdomen and bilious vomiting. Abdominal X-ray is shown above.

What does the X-ray show?

  • Constipation
  • Intussusception
  • Volvulus

CT head

Case 6

A 6 month old baby presents with increased drowsiness. A CT head is performed and the results are above.

What does the scan show?

  • Space occupying lesion
  • Extradural bleed
  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage
  • Subdural bleed

What is your top differential?

  • Vascular abnormality
  • Non-accidental injury
  • Birth injury