Every Village Short Term Trip Training

Welcome to the Every Village Short Term Trip Training!   

The purpose of the training is provide information regarding Every Village's programs as well as to familiarize you with South Sudan, exploring history and culture. 

Introduction to Every Village

A Heart for South Sudan

South Sudan is a place filled with beautiful people facing immense challenges.

On July 9, 2011, South Sudan became the world’s newest nation—declaring independence from neighboring Sudan. The celebrated secession, however, didn’t bring a cure to the economic hardship, inaccessible clean water, minuscule literacy rate, and limited knowledge about Jesus. A vast country with virtually no infrastructure, South Sudan is a war-torn place that’s easily forgotten.

But God remembers the South Sudanese, and He is raising up a movement of people who are passionate about reaching every village with His hope and love.

Why are you feeling led to visit South Sudan? 


Why Every Village?

Why Every Village?

Since South Sudan separated from Sudan in July 2011, the name of our ministry needed to change.   The name chosen also communicates what God has called us to do for his kingdom and glory in South Sudan. 

Why did Every Village change its name?  Watch the video below.

  • Because we needed a different name since the independence in 2011. Now we want to reach every village in the world.
  • Because it needing a different name since the independence in 2011. We also wanted to communicate urgency and passion to reach every village with the gospel and community development.  

The Every Village Mission

The Every Village Mission


Every Village exists to bring glory to God 

through the transformation of every village in South Sudan 

by the spread of the gospel and community development.


Unpacking our Mission Statement:

transformation:

  • Definition: A metamorphosis.  A renewal of all things. A revival of hearts, churches and society.  A change from the inside out.  A new creation in Christ where the old is gone and behold all things are new!
  • How it happens: Through earnest persevering prayer, through widespread preaching of God's Word, through thorough discipleship of individuals, and through the sovereign work of God’s Spirit.   

spread of the gospel:

  • The Great Commission for South Sudan is to disciple the 64 People Groups (nations).
  • Discipleship of these nations requires saturation and permeation of the gospel through gospel-centered radio programming
  • Short term teams take part in making disciples of water and radio staff who will then disciple their people through their gospel ministries  
  • We will pray and labor in faith for the Holy Spirit to cause the word of truth, the gospel of salvation to spread rapidly, be honored and glorified in South Sudan.

community development:

  • Community development is a ministry of mercy to demonstrate the love of Christ in action.
  • The goal of community development is to bring Christ’s lordship over the lives and social systems of the South Sudanese.
  • Through community development programming on the radio, providing clean water and health training through a sustainable water program, and professional training of our staff, we seek to minister to the physical needs of the South Sudanese especially to our brothers and sisters in Christ. 


Every Village exists to bring  to God through the   of every village in South Sudan by the spread of the  and  . 

The Every Village Process

Our Process

Radio  

Illiteracy is rampant in South Sudan, and many are unable to read – radio may be people’s only connection with the outside world. 

Every Village operates three FM radio towers in Aweil, Tonj and Mvolo. Radio content consists of gospel preaching, Bible stories, health and hygiene training, news, and educational programs – all in local languages. So people can hear the radio signal, we distribute solar-powered, hand-held radios to local communities

Every Village initially provides the equipment to start up the station. Local staff are trained in radio broadcasting and continue to receive training throughout their time with Every Village.

The radio stations which are established form a network for the purpose of mutual fellowship, encouragement, equipping and accountability.

Water

Disease plagues many villages, directly resulting from inaccessible clean water. In fact, 40% of the country does not have access to clean water.  That's what we are working to change.

Every Village is drilling water wells throughout South Sudan, helping to meet one of the greatest physical needs. Our efforts deepen relationships with local communities and offer a tangible expression of God’s love.

Every Village raises funds to drill water wells. Each radio station location has a water team that is formed there. These men are trained in surveying methods, sanitation, and community relations. They are the face of Every Village to the community regarding water.  

Every Village is moving towards the maintenance and sustainability of wells.

Training

Every Village seeks to invest in the South Sudanese through professional and spiritual development training. Both the radio and the water teams will receive continued training through various means.

Training is achieved through:

Short Term: Workshops are offered through short-term trips in the areas of professional skills training, spiritual training, and program-specific training.

Mid Term: Internships and training offered to selected team members with collaborating organizations.  

Long Term: Scholarship programs for selected team members to attend University and continued training to grow our team professionally and spiritually.  

Introduction: Loving the South Sudanese

Ancient History: Kush, Nubia, and the Nilotics

Cush

Cush (Kush) was an ancient kingdom beginning in 1700 BC and centered on the confluences of the Nile rivers in Northern Sudan.  At the height of their glory, the Cushites conquered an empire that stretched from what is now known as South Kordofan (central Sudan) all the way to the Sinai. 

  There are several prophecies in the Old Testament that speak of the people of Cush.  

"Cush shall hasten to stretch out her hands to God" Psalm 68:31

"... Tribute will be brought to the LORD of hosts from a people tall and smooth, from a people feared near and far, a nation mighty and conquering whose land the rivers divide, to Mount Zion, the place of the name of the LORD of hosts."  Isaiah 18:7" From beyond the rivers of Cush my worshipers, the daughter of my dispersed ones, shall bring my offering." Zephaniah 3:10



Nubia

After the collapse of the Cushite Empire several states emerged in its former territories, among them Nubia.  In Greek geography, Nubia was named Ethiopia.   The "Ethiopian Eunuch" (Acts 8:26-39) was most likely a black Nubian from the Meroë.  By the 6th century, three kingdoms emerged as the political and cultural heirs of the Meroitic Kingdom. Nobatia in the north, the central kingdom of Makuria and Alawa in the heartland of old Meroë.  Missionaries brought different forms of Christianity to the three Kingdoms.  Islam progressed in the area over a long period of time through intermarriage and contacts with Arab merchants.


Nilotics

The  Nilotic people of South Sudan—the Acholi, Anyuak, Bari, Dinka, Nuer, Shilluk, Zande and others— are most likely among the descendants of the ancient people of Kush and Nubia.   The Nilotic tribes first entered South Sudan sometime before the 10th century. During the period from the 15th to the 19th centuries, tribal migrations, largely from the area of Bahr el Ghazal (green), brought the Anyuak, Dinka, Nuer and Shilluk to their modern locations of both Bahr El Ghazal and Greater Upper Nile Regions (Yellow), while the Acholi and Bari settled in Equatoria (Blue).


What does God promise the peoples of Cush in the Scriptures?

  • That they will be perpetually fighting amongst themselves.
  • That they will be judged by God.
  • That they will bring their offerings of worship to the Lord of Hosts

Generations of War

The Sudanese Civil Wars:

It could be said that South Sudan is 600,000 square kilometers of suffering.   Having passed through two civil wars (Anyanya I:  1955 - 1972 and Anyaya II: 1983 - 2005 ) in Sudan and now in the midst of a civil war in South Sudan (2013-), three successive generations have lived through the horrors of war.   

Anyana I

The territories of modern South Sudan and the Republic of Sudan were occupied by Egypt under the  Muhammad Ali Dynasty (beginning in 1805) and later governed as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium until Sudanese independence was achieved in 1956.  

Following the First Sudanese Civil War (Anyanya I which is translated as 'snake venom' in the Madi language), the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. 

Anyana II

A second Sudanese civil war (Anyanya II) soon developed mostly between the Sudan Government and the Sudanese People Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) which was led by the late John Garang de Mabior.  Roughly two million people died as a result of war, famine and disease caused by the conflict. Four million people in southern Sudan were displaced during the war.  The 23 year war ended  with the Comprehensive Peace Agreements signed in January 2005.  John Garang died in a helicopter crash in July 30, 2005.

The South Sudan Civil War:

South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011, following a referendum that passed with 98.83% of the vote.   South Sudan has suffered internal conflict since its independence; it has the highest score on the Fragile States Index (formerly called the Failed States Index).

In December 2013, a political power struggle broke out between President Kiir and his Vice President Riek Machar, as the president accused Mr. Machar and ten others of attempting a coup.  

Although both men have supporters from across South Sudan's ethnic divides, subsequent fighting has predominantly communal, with rebels targeting members of President Kiir's Dinka ethnic group and government soldiers attacking Nuers.  (Photo below: Riek Machar and President Salva Kiir)

Close to 400,000 people are estimated to have been killed inter-ethnic Dinka - Nuer conflict.  More than 1 Million people have been displaced inside South Sudan and more than 2 Million people have fled to neighboring countries.  

At the end of September 2014, both factions of the SPLM, including SPLM-IO, agreed to a long-sought proposal by the opposition and more neutral players to a federation proposal.   

In 2015 August, despite "reservations" and under threat of UN sanctions, President Salva Kiir signed an internationally-mediated peace deal under which rebel leader Riek Machar was to return as vice-president.  The two sides agreed to form a transitional government, although it was long delayed with key deadlines having been missed. This peace deal, along with many others, were eventually broken, and fighting resumed. Riek Machar fled to South Africa, where he remained until recently.

In September 2018, a peace treaty was signed between the two leaders. Peace has remained in most areas of the country since then. 

Read carefully this PDF put together by Concern USA.  A Timeline of South Sudan's History:

www_concernusa_org_story_timeline_south_sudans_history_at_a_ (1) copy

Watch this excellent documentary by Al Jazeera called "South Sudan: Country of Dreams" (Part 1 & 2) 

Watch this more recent video and how the war in South Sudan has affected the South Sudanese.

Match the person with the position in Sudan's/South Sudan's history.

  • Sitting President of the Republic of South Sudan since 2011
    Salva Kiir Mayardit
  • Former Vice-President and Leader of the SPLA/M IO
    Riek Machar Teny
  • Sitting President of the Republic of Sudan since 1989
    Omar al-Bashir
  • Former leader of the SPLA/M who died in 2005
    John Garang de Mabior

History of Missions in South Sudan

Phases of Christian Missions in South Sudan

The history of the Church in "South" Sudan can be divided into three main phases.  

Phase I:  Daniel Comboni and the Verona Catholic Fathers

Phase II:  Protestant Missions

  • Christian Mission Society (CMS) established the Episcopal Church of Sudan (ECS)
  • The American Presbyterian Church established the Presbyterian Church of Sudan (PCOS)
  • Africa Inland Mission established the African Inland Church (AIC)
  • Sudan Interior Mission (SIM)  established the Sudan Interior Church (SIC)

Phase III:  Missionaries expelled by the Sudan government in 1964 during Anyanya I war

Phase III:  Missionaries were forced to leave during the Anyanya II war

During the times of conflict when the missionaries were not present the church grew rapidly.   The seeds had been sown and were now bearing fruit.  

Remember the dates to these phases.


d61aa351-fdaa-4d80-8f42-8640ccf8f509

Note:  

In the opening years of the 20th Century, the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium divided the "South" among the 3 largest mission agencies.  There is still a distinct difference in these areas according to the churches which were established over 100 years ago.  However, in the last decade, churches of various denominations have crossed into the other areas.  

56759405-7225-455d-aa7f-75851926b7aa

Which of the churches was not chosen among "Sphere System"  in 1901-1905?  

  • Catholic (Northern Bahr El Ghazal, Western Bahr El Ghazal and Warrap)
  • Episcopal (Western and Central Equatoria, Unity, Jonglei)
  • Presbyterian (parts of Upper Nile)
  • Pentecostal (everywhere)

The Newest Country

South Sudan, officially the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in Northeastern Africa.  

South Sudan is the world's newest country having officially gained its independence from Sudan in July 9th, 2011.  

Its current capital is Juba, which is also its largest city.   South Sudan includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd, formed by the White Nile and known locally as the Bahr al Jabal. 

Notice the White Nile, the towns in South Sudan  and the countries bordering South Sudan on the map.  

How do you build a country from scratch?  Watch this fascinating video story. 

The country was originally divided into 10 states.  Can you count all ten (former) states?

Below is a map of where the counties were before where there were only 10 states: 

In October 2015, South Sudan's President Salva Kiir issued a decree establishing 28 states in place of the 10 constitutionally established states.  Compare this map below with the 28 states and the older map.  Can you see how they were divided along former state border lines?

South Sudan is made up of at least approximately 64 language groups.  The Joshua Project lists 78 people groups in South Sudan.  How many ethnic groups can you count on this map?  

Compare this map of Ethnic Groups with this one below which divide some of the ethnic groups into smaller groups.  For example the Dinka and Nuer tribes.

These are the peoples of South Sudan.  Let us seek to disciple each of them (ethne = Nations)

Now, finally here is a rough map of the population distribution in South Sudan.  

The Rise of Salva Kiir Mayardit

The following documentary will give you a short history of South Sudan, to introduce you to key figures in the Government of South Sudan and the plans and challenges to the implementation of the government institutions.  

When did the Republic of South Sudan officially celebrate its independence?

  • July 9, 2011
  • January 11, 2011

The Cultures of South Sudan

What is Culture?

A simple definition of culture is a "people's mental map of the world which is used for determining action" (Paul Hiebert).  At the heart of a culture are the shared beliefs, feelings and values of a community of people.   The expression of culture can be found in language, religion and art forms (among other things). 

In this section, we will give a brief overview of the different aspects of the cultures found in South Sudan. 

The Languages of South Sudan

The official language of South Sudan is English.   The literacy rate of South Sudan according to the CIA World Factbook is 27% and is the lowest rate in the world.   

There are over 60 indigenous languages in South Sudan.  Most of them are classified under the Nilo-Saharan language group and collectively they represent two of the first order divisions of Nile Sudanic and Central Sudanic.  In the border region between Western Bahr Al Ghazal state and Sudan are an indeterminate number of people who primarily speak Chadian languages.

In the capital, Juba, the majority of the people use non-classical Arabic, usually called Juba Arabic.  In the states bordering with Sudan, there is a significant population of the people who speak Sudanese Arabic.  

Religion:

The most recent Pew Research Center on Religion and Public Life report from December 2012 estimated that in 2010, 60% claimed to be Christian, 32 % associated themselves with African Traditional Religion (Animism), and 6% as Muslims. 

 

 

Pastoralists:

Most of the South Sudanese tribes have livestock but the Dinka and Nuer are deeply the most dependent on their cattle.

Watch this video describing the life surrounding the cattle camp. 

Agriculturalists

All the tribes in South Sudan grow crops.  The Equatorian tribes are especially focused on agriculture as their land is very fertile.   

The tribes in the northern part of South Sudan only have one cultivation season. 

Most of the South Sudanese are cultivating by hand and do not produce enough for a full year.

Fishing, Honey keeping, etc..

There are many other sources of food that are harvested in South Sudan.  

Some tribes like the Luo harvest honey in the forests.  Other populations having access to riverways and enjoy the wide variety of fish.  


Music and Dancing:

Music and dancing are very important to the South Sudanese.  It is their way to express their cultural pride in their culture. 

Through the ministry the radio stations we help establish,  locally composed Christian music is being heard by hundreds of thousands and touching the hearts of the listeners. Listen one of the Dinka songs played on the radio. 

God, I praise you for the good things you have done (Isaiah 18)

Due to the many years of civil war, the culture is heavily influenced by the countries neighboring South Sudan. Many South Sudanese fled to neighboring countries where they interacted with the nationals and learned their languages and culture. For most of those who remained in the country, or went North to Sudan and Egypt, they greatly assimilated Arabic culture.  

Girls Choir:

This video shows a typical children's choir.  They are singing in the Sudanese Arabic language.  

Music Mix: 

Most of the modern music is a mix of traditional ethnic music with western or Arab music styles.

This video is done by American South Sudanese singing their praise of their home land. 

Emmanuel Jal:

Many music artists from South Sudan have become popular worldwide which different genres of music.  Emmanuel Jal tells his story about his life on this video.

Changing Culture:

The South Sudanese culture is changing rapidly with the influence of the war and by the nations that are flooding into South Sudan to help.   

Non-Governmental Organization (NGOs) are working throughout the country provide relief aid and seeking to bring development.  The following video from an NGO provides a taster of the South Sudanese people facing many challenges to their traditional way of life.

While there are missionaries in South Sudan who provide a gospel witness, there are many influences for good and evil from within the country and from the outside world.  The saturation and permeation of the Word of God, rightly taught and applied, is the only way to redeem a culture at all levels of society.    

According to the map of religions in South Sudan, what would be the religious landscape in the Wau area?  

  • Primarily Islamic
  • Primarily Christian
  • Mixed Christian and Animism (African Traditional Religion)

A People to Serve

The Apostle Paul wrote in 2 Corinthians 5:14-15: 

"For Christ's love compels us, because we are convinced that one died for all, and therefore all died.  And he died for all, that those who live should no longer live for themselves but for him who died for them and was raised again."

What is our motivation to be missionaries to the South Sudanese?   

It is the love of Christ.  His everlasting love compels to us give our lives for the South Sudanese because Christ has given his life for us.

To better understand the people you are serving here are the statistics on South Sudan.   Each statistic represents people who are seeking hope in the midst of massive challenges.  

Read the following statistics from the National Bureau of Statistics for the Republic of South Sudan:

Here is OCHA's Humanitarian Snapshot of South Sudan's present crisis:

Here are the statistics on the growing refugee crisis in South Sudan:

By now, you may be overwhelmed with the sad situation in South Sudan.   

We thank God he has sent many NGOs to provide relief and development to the masses in South Sudan.  

This is an answer to our prayers.  The Lord in heaven has heard the cries of the South Sudanese and he is bringing help.  

Ultimately, if the greatest need for every South Sudanese person is the gospel.   The gospel is the hope of the world.   It truly is good news for those who are suffering the effects of a fallen creation (drought, floods, disease, etc..) and fallen people (sin expressed in violence, tribalism, greed, etc..). Jesus came to redeem people (set them free) from their sins and give them hope for a New Heavens and New Earth. 

Jesus is the Hope of the World!

Let us bring that gospel of Hope 

to the South Sudanese people.  


After studying this lesson what have discouraged you and how as the gospel of hope then encouragement you.  Write your answer in 200 words or less. 

Cross-Cultural Engagement

Cross-cultural engagement 101

The Cultural Iceberg

As you head to South Sudan, you will be stepping in to a very different culture. There will be things you see and hear that are very strange to you. We must be careful to not judge something or someone just because it/they do something in a different way.

Let's talk about culture.

Culture is defined as "the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of racial, religious or social groups; the characteristic features of every day existence (such as diversions or a way of life) shared by people in a place or time".

If you live in the United States, you most likely have an American culture. However, you may notice that different parts of the country have differing cultures, these are called subcultures. You may hear terms such as "Southern culture" or "Texan culture". Even though people of the United States share some common culture in being Americans, there are subcultures within. Even among churches there are different cultures. Some churches are known for having a strong "hugging culture" or may have a particular set of words or phrases with certain meaning that become part of normal conversations that an outsider may not understand. 

No matter who we are, where we come from or where we live, we all have a culture with many sub-cultures. 

Culture drives actions and beliefs. Some parts of the culture are obvious while others are hidden or may be less visible. Culture has been likened to an iceberg. Only a small part is seen while a huge chunk of it is below the surface, unseen. The picture below helps to explain this:

 

https://akgtcanada.com/if-i-really-knew-you/

 

From this picture, we can see that there are so many things below the surface that we cannot see. Spending time in another culture can help you to uncover the reason behind why things are done a certain way. 

In the next section, we will touch on a few basic cultural beliefs and practices that are beneath the surface. You may experience some of these cultural differences during your time in South Sudan. 

 

Concept of Self

Every month, Deng gets a salary of $200. He is hoping to save up money to pay for a new roof for his house. However, on this day, many of his relatives show up at his house, asking for money--for clothes, school fees, hospital bills, etc. Deng must give money to them, if he does not, he will be seen as stingy and greedy, not contributing to the families needs. 

Concept of self is how someone views themselves. This is shaped by society and culture and is not visible right away. There is a continuum of individualism vs collectivism relating to concept of self.

Individualistic societies: intrinsic value and uniqueness of each human being & egalitarian perspective that all people should be treated equally as possible; “be all you can be”

Collectivistic societies: minimize individual identity and focus on well-being of the group; loyalty to and self-sacrifice for the sake of other group members are seen as virtuous; deep bond with various groups (tribes, employer, school, etc); church body is more deeply felt

Look at the diagram below to see where different places on the map fall along the continuum.

From the diagram, you can see that Africa falls on the far end of collectivism.

South Sudan is a highly collectivist society. Tribal identity and familial ties are strong due to this. We can see this in the situation with Deng. His money is not his own to do with as he likes, it belongs to the whole group. Keep this in mind as you interact with the South Sudanese. 

 

Concept of Time

Charlie was an American who spent a summer in South Sudan overseeing a construction project. He worked very closely with a group of South Sudanese men. Over time he became very frustrated that the men would work very slow, taking many breaks for tea and chatting a lot while working. The project was taking much longer than expected. Charlie began to view the men as lazy and resent them. He didn't realize that there is culture below the surface driving these actions. 

Concept of time is how someone views and handles time. There is a continuum between monochronic and polychronic outlooks.

Monochronic: time is limited and valuable resource; “time is money”

Polychronic: time is somewhat of an unlimited resource; tasks take the backseat to forming and deepening relationships    Few services get produced people have a deeper sense of community and belonging

As you can see in this diagram, Africa is lies on the polychronic side of the continuum, completely opposite where the US lies.

In South Sudan, time moves very slowly. Tasks take much longer to complete. Sometimes, you may only get one thing accomplished each day. This can be frustrating for westerners, as it was for Charlie. We love to be productive. Like Charlie, we may even be quick to judge the South Sudanese as lazy, when really they value relationships over production. They have all the time in the world. A good way to measure a successful day in South Sudan is not to see how many tasks you checked off but to consider each day what relationship(s) have been enhanced today.

Culture & the Gospel

Culture & the Gospel

In the previous section, we introduced the cultural iceberg and how culture drives actions and beliefs. Religious beliefs and the understanding of the Gospel is dictated by culture as well. 

(excerpt from The 3D Gospel by Jayson Georges) 

" Christian missiologists have identified 3 different responses to sin in human cultures, fear, shame and guilt. These moral emotions have become the foundation from three types of culture. 

1. Guilt-innocence cultures: individualistic societies (mostly Western), where people who break the laws are guilty and seek justice or forgiveness to rectify a wrong

2. Shame-honor cultures: collectivistic cultures (Eastern cultures), where people are shamed for fulfilling group expectations seek to restore 

3. Fear-power cultures: animistic contexts (tribal), where people afraid of evil and harm pursue power over the spirit world through magical rituals

These three types of culture are like group personalities defining how people view the world. Just as individual people have a person-ality, cultural groups share a group-ality. Groupality refers to an "organized pattern of behavioral characteristics of a group". A persons cultural orientation or groupality, shapes their worldview, ethics, identity, and notion of salvation, even more than their individual personality does. For this reason, awareness of culture types help us to anticipate cultural classes and communicate the gospel three dimensionally to the world. "


Watch the video below for a little more explanation about cultural worldviews and the Gospel. 



Analyzing global culture types

Although there are 3 distinct cultural groupalities, each individual and culture does not 100% identify with just one culture type. There may be elements of all three, with one being predominant.  

 

We see in this table the various make up of culture types.

The United States is a predominately guilt culture, with some shame and a little fear.

South Sudan is a mix of mostly shame and fear, with a little guilt. South Sudanese culture is driven by peer-pressure and maintaining societal expectations (shame), mixed with the desire to keep the spirits (animism) appeased (fear).

Take a minute to follow this link to take The Culture Test. It will help you to see more of how cultural type is determined.  

http://theculturetest.com/survey

It may be difficult for our western minds to wrap around the differences of cultural worldview, but we pray for the Holy Spirit to teach us and guide us. Praise God that His message of salvation is multifaceted and transcends culture. It is truly good tidings of great joy for all people! 

 

Additional resources (not required):

The gospel presentation to honor/shame cultures:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DLQmgPT-xOU&list=PLmyn_YywJtxtd_P4y7PRJPWZHSy7A5PvX&index=2

The gospel presentation to fear/power cultures:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A96Bwm2YrcY

The gospel presentation to guilt/innocence cultures:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=apBjEhATypE