α Consistent Spelling and Correct Use of Orthography trial 2

Correct spelling consists of correct use of the orthography and consistency. This course will teach you to use the spell checking features in ParaTExt to help you produce a text that is spelled correctly and consistently.

Why is spelling important? What do I need to know about the language to check spelling?

1) Factors that determine correct spelling

You will be able to describe what you need to know about the language to start checking spelling in ParaTExt.

 

Defining Orthography

 

The goal of your translation work is to publish Scripture.  It is very important that your translation have good spelling when it is published.  This makes the translation easier to read, makes a concordance possible, and adds credibility to your publications.  But what is “good” spelling?  The first part of good spelling is using the orthography correctly and not using any characters from the orthography of another language. The second part of good spelling is consistency.

The key part of any orthography is the alphabet. (See the following link for more information on orthographies: http://www.sil.org/literacy-and-education/orthography-development.)   If you tell ParaTExt what the alphabet for the target language is, then it can find any characters not in the approved alphabet. But, the orthography is also more than just individual letters.  Many languages have accents or other diacritics that need to be specified. Some examples are: ã, ó, ò, ô, ë, and č but there are many more that are used in the world's languages. In some languages combinations of letters are used to represent a single sound.  Things like "ch", "th", "gb", "nkw" or even "ng'".  These are called digraphs when two characters are used or multi-graphs when more than two characters are used for one sound.  ParaTExt will actually work reasonably well if you don't specify the multi-graphs as long as alphabetic characters are used.

However when characters that are normally punctuation, like the apostrophe, are used as a word-forming character, then ParaTExt can become confused and not work as you expect.  Two of the most common punctuation characters that are used as word-forming are the apostrophe and the hyphen.  Since the apostrophe is so commonly used in some parts of the world, later in this course we will show you the extra configuration that ParaTExt needs to use the apostrophe as if it were a "letter". The procedure will be the same for any other punctuation characters used as a word-forming character.

NOTE:  Orthography also includes rules for punctuation, numbers, the marking of direct and indirect quotes and some other things but those topics will be covered else where in this course. 

Configuring Orthography

Configuring an orthography in ParaTExt is a three step process.  The first is listing the characters in upper and lowercase in alphabetical order.  This includes any characters with accents or diacritics and any multi-graphs that are important in the target language.  The next step is to specify any word-medial punctuation.  The last step is to generate a list of all characters in the text and approve or disapprove them as valid in your orthography.  We will now go through the steps in more detail.

NOTE: The goal of this course is to teach the basic operation of ParaTExt.  We cannot cover all possible orthographic issues.  But our aim is to show in principle how ParaTExt handles the typical issues related to orthography and spelling.  If you need additional help contact a Language technology or linguistics consultant. (See the following articles  http://www.sil.org/literacy-and-education/resources-developing-orthographies for additional help.)

Language Settings

The alphabet is specified in two places in ParaTExt to accommodate all of the checking and sorting  that ParaTExt can do.  The first is Language Settings for the project and the second is the Character Inventory.   We will cover the Character Inventory later. The Language Settings is where upper and lower case of each letter is defined and the alphabetical sort order is set for the language. Any time ParaTExt sorts words it will use the order set in Language Settings.

It is important to list all of the characters with diacritics and important multi-graphs in order in the Language Settings so that ParaTExt will sort words as you expect.  Otherwise, you many not be able to find words when doing searches or working with any of the tools that make lists of words. To open Language Settings, click on your project to make sure it has focus, click the Project menu, then click Language Settings...

Specifying the alphabetic characters

Below is a screen capture of the Language Settings for Spanish.  All the characters needed for the language (here Spanish) are listed in alphabetical order. The lowercase character should be listed first followed by "/" then the uppercase character.  Doing this tells ParaTExt what the upper and lowercase letters are and the alphabetic order that you want to use.

Sample Language Settings

Accents and other diacritics

Characters with diacritics are typically placed on the same line as the base character.  In the screenshot above, the line a/A á/Á follows this rule.

Digraphs and multi-graphs

Spanish has two multi-graphs: the "ch" and the "ll".  Notice that these are placed on a separate line. Words beginning with "ch" will now be sorted after "c", and words beginning with "ll" will be sorted after "l".  

Specifying multi-graphs is more important for some languages than others.  For example, in languages with frequent pre-nasalized multi-graphs (like nd, mp, mb, and nt) or labialized multi-graphs (like bw, tw, and dw) ParaTExt will work better if it knows to treat them as single units:  When you want to hyphenate long words, ParaTExt will never place a hyphen in the middle of a multi-graph which has been defined in Language Settings.  However, if you do not define the multi-graphs, ParaTExt's hyphenation tool will quickly learn what the multi-graphs are anyway when you correct incorrectly hyphenated words.

If you have trouble specifying your characters, you can find more information by searching for "language settings" in Help.  If you need more help ask your project administrator, a consultant or a language technology specialist.

Punctuation used as a word-forming character

In some orthographies, characters that are typically thought of as punctuation are used as word-forming character.  One example is the apostrophe.  It is often used to represent the glottal stop.  When the apostrophe is used in this way it is unclear to ParaTExt whether to treat the character like punctuation or a letter. Because of this confusion, it is strongly recommended not to use the apostrophe (UNICODE 0027) as a glottal stop or any other word-forming character.  It is recommended to use either the modifier letter apostrophe (UNICODE 02BC) or the Latin small letter saltillo (UNICODE A78C).  You can read about these recommendations as well as tips on how to type these characters under "What is recommended character for glottal stop?" in the ParaTExt Help.

For a description of UNICODE click on the following link:

http://www.unicode.org/standard/WhatIsUnicode.html

 

Below is an example of an language that uses the saltillo to represent a glottal stop in orthography.  Notice how the ' is placed on the line after z\Z and that the uppercase is not shown.If you do use the normal apostrophe as word-forming, but you do not add it to the Alphabetic Characters list under Language Settings and the apostrophe is not listed as Word-medial punctuation that is found on the Other Characters tab (see Takwane example below), then ParaTExt will break words into parts every time it finds an apostrophe.   An example would be that a word like vong'onong'ono would be interpreted as three words vong, onong, and ono. If you have this situation do not approve the spelling of each part, correct the Language Settings so they accurately reflect the orthography being used.

Non-standard diacritics

This feature is for older non-UNICODE fonts.  Most projects will not need to put anything in the non-standard diacritics box.  However, if you type specific characters to represent diacritics, enter them in the Non-standard diacritics box.   For example, if you type e# to represent ê, or n^ to represent ñ, enter # ^ as in the example below.

 
If you already have a translation project in ParaTExt you may want to open it and look at some of these menus and features yourself.  If you don't already have an editable ParaTExt project, you could download the practice project PEh. (Download the practice project PEh by clicking on the link: http://lingtran.net/tiki-download_file.php?fileId=985 . I will download as a backed up project.  You will need to "restore" PEh into your ParaTExt.  This is done from within in ParaTExt.  For information on how to restore a project, search in help for "how do I restore a ParaTExt backup".)

 

3) Where is the menu for specifying alphabetic characters, their correct order, and word-medial punctuation?

Click on the menu where you can specify alphabetic characters, alphabetic order, and word-medial punctuation.

4) Where is the tab for specifying the alphabetic characters (also called word-forming characters)?

Click on the tab where you can specify the alphabetic characters in the correct order for the target language.

5) Can you specify the next 13 alphabetic characters for this project?

Drag the letters to the correct spots on the alphabetic characters list.  Remember they have to be in alphabetical order.
  • b/B
  • c/C
  • ch
  • d/D
  • e/E
  • é/É
  • f/F
  • g/G
  • h/H
  • i/I
  • í/Í
  • j/J
  • k/K
  • l/L
  • ll

6) Where is the tab for specifying word-medial punctuation?

Click on the tab where you can specify word-medial punctuation such as the hyphen.

7) Character Inventory and checking for invalid characters in a text

Character Inventory

Now we are ready for the last step in configuring the orthography. That step is to generate a list of all characters in the text and marking them as valid or invalid in the Characters Inventory. Once this is done then ParaTExt can identify characters in the text that don't belong, and you can do this check routinely to find future errors.  (This check is called the Character Check which is part of Basic Checks.  There is a separate unit in this course teaching all of the Basic Checks.)  The Characters Inventory tool is found on the Checking menu.

When you click on Character Inventory and the Character Inventory Tool looks like the following:

A new feature of ParaTExt 8 is that all the alphabetic characters, and word-medial punctuation that were entered into Language Settings will automatically be marked as valid in the character inventory. This feature should mark all of the valid alphabetic characters for the target language, unless the Language Settings were not filled in correctly. Using the Character Inventory you can quickly see any alphabetic characters that you forgot to add to the Language Settings, and  letters that should not be in the text and need changing.

The purpose of this inventory is to allow you to:

  •         check the characters in a text and the context in which they occur,
  •         confirm which characters are valid, and
  •         flag or correct any invalid or unknown characters.

Each character that is found in the text must be marked as valid, invalid, or unknown. If you have Paratext installed, stop now and open your project. Check to make sure that all the valid characters are marked as valid.

Once you have checked that you are only using the characters and diacritics approved for the target language, you are ready to work on the consistency of the spelling in the translation. This is the bigger job, since ParaTExt has to be told if a word is spelled correctly or not.  ParaTExt has tools to organize the words to show you similar words to help you as you mark words as correct or incorrect, but someone has to mark each unique word as correct or incorrect.  Fortunately, once a word is marked as being spelled correctly, ParaTExt will automatically mark it as correct everywhere else it occurs, and ParaTExt will remember incorrect spellings and mark those spellings mistakes if they are repeated in the future.

Watch the video below demonstrating the Character Inventory tool, and checking for invalid characters in a text.

 

8) Which menu item do you choose to mark which characters are valid and which are invalid?

Use the mouse to choose the correct item in the menu below.

You will learn to identify the principle features in ParaTExt for verifying the spelling of words, and to identify the terms used to indicate the spelling status of words.

1) Characteristics of good spelling

If you are using ParaTExt to prepare a Bible translation, then most likely you are using a language that has not been written very much, the rules for spelling are new, and there are no electronic spell checkers available for that language.  ParaTExt has tools to help you find words that have not used the orthography correctly, and to verify that words have been spelled consistently.  The three principle tools for checking spelling are:

  1. The Wordlist Tool
  2. The Display Spelling status feature
  3. The Spell Check Current Book feature

Word List Tool

The Word List tool is a stand-alone tool that displays all the words in a translation project along with the spelling status of each word.  A word can have one of three statuses:

  1. Unknown
  2. Correct
  3. Incorrect

Here is a sample view of the Wordlist tool displaying the words from a practice project in English:

The Word List tool keeps a list of all the words in a project and gives the spelling status of each. It is best practice to use the Word List tool for spell checking for new projects  or projects that have not been spell checked before. This is because you can approve correct spellings or correct spellings of large number of words quickly as we will show you later in this course.

Display Spelling Status

ParaTExt can be set to underline misspelled words much like other word processor software, but with a significant difference: you must teach it which words are correct. (Remember there is no commercially available spell checker available for most target languages.)  ParaTExt attempts to learn about the orthography of the language by analyzing the morphology of the words and it can make your work less tedious by guessing when words are spelled incorrectly. The display spelling status feature is activated from the Checking menu. Once display spelling status is activated, your project will look something like the following sample:

Below is a short clip showing how Display Spelling is activated:

Note: In projects with large numbers of words with unknown or incorrect spelling status ParaTExt will only underline the words that it has analyzed as being the most likely to be misspelled.  Later when many of the words marked as correct, ParaTExt will underline all of the words with unknown or incorrect spelling status, when the Display Spelling Status feature is activated.

Later in this course you will learn to mark the spelling status of correctly spelled words, and to define the correct spelling of  misspellings.   

Spell Check Current Book

The Spell Check Current Book feature can be activated from the Checking menu. It will open the Word List tool but will limit the words displayed to only those with unknown or incorrect spelling status for the current book.  Below is a example showing the unknown and incorrect words from Matthew:

 

2) Identify the three tools used for spell checking

  • The Wordlist tool
  • Spelling Analyzer
  • Display Spelling
  • Spell Check Current Book
Using the mouse, click on the names of the three tools used for spell checking.

3) Select the answer with the three possible spelling statuses that a word can have in ParaTExt.

  • Good, wrong, and borrowed
  • Unclear, right, and wrong
  • Unknown, correct, and incorrect

4) What are the ways that the spelling status of a word in ParaTExt can be displayed?

  • The Display Spelling status feature displays the misspelled and unknown words that ParaTExt thinks are most likely misspelled.
  • The Wordlist tool shows all the possible spellings of a word.
  • The Spell Check The Current Book feature underlines in red all incorrectly spelled words.
  • The spelling status of all words in a project are shown in the Wordlist tool.
Mark true or false the following statements about how the spelling status of a word in ParaTExt can be displayed.

Word List Tool: You will learn to open the Word List tool, mark the spelling status of words, and make notes about spelling issues. You will learn to mark common words as correct, and to use features for finding common spelling mistakes.

1) Word List Tool Description

The word list tool is the most important tool for ensuring that your text is spelled correctly and consistently.  If you have a reasonably large number of verses translated, it is recommended that you begin with the word list tool, and not the Display spelling status, or Spell check current book features.

 

 

2) Where to find Word List tool.

Clicking anywhere on the line where Word List... is will open the Word List tool. Below is a sample of what the Word List tool looks like.

 Using the mouse, click on the menu to find Word List tool.

3) Click on the symbol for marking "abandoned" as correct.

4) Click on the symbol to mark Aarron as incorrect.

5) Click on the symbol to change the spelling status of all-wise to unknown.

6) Making spelling notes

Sometimes there will be questions about the spelling of a word, and you will want to make a note about the issue to discuss it later with other speakers of the language or consultants. There is a place in the Word List tool to easily make a spelling note and you and others working on the project will be able to read the note later when there is opportunity to read it and discuss it.

After double clicking on the question mark a window similar to the one below will open. You will be given a rectangle to enter you note about spelling issues.

Type in your note, then click on OK.

The spelling note window will close.

The question mark will now be bright blue, letting you and your coworkers know that there is a note concerning the spelling of the word "Aaron".

 

 

The video below will demonstrate adding a spelling note:

 

7) Where do you double click to add a spelling note?

Click on the icon for adding a spelling note.

8) Where do you type a spelling note?

Click on the spot where you would begin typing a spelling note.

9) Where do you click to save a spelling note and close the spelling note editing window?

Click on the place to save a spelling note and close the pop-up window.

10) Marking common or frequent words as correct

If you have not checked spelling before and have several chapters drafted in ParaTExt, then there is a way to quickly mark common words as being spelled correctly.  The idea being that if a word occurs in your text many many times, the odds that it is spelled correctly are very high.  If you believe that your text is generally spelled correctly, you can use the Approve Spelling of Common Words feature in the Wordlist tool.

The above screen shot shows the Word List tool for an English translation that has eleven chapters of Mark and 2 chapters of Revelation entered. As you can see even in thirteen chapters there are words that occur several hundred times.  We can go along way towards spell checking a project by using the Word List tool to mark common words as correct.  When the tool is opened ParaTExt will suggest approving all words that occur 100 times or more, but you can use a smaller number depending on how confident  you are of the spelling in the translation project. In the example below we will change the 100 to 400 or more appearances in the text. We will use this large number as a demonstration to more easily show how the feature works.  (Notice that all of the words are marked as unknown.)

Once we enter the minimum number of times a word must appear and click on OK, a dialogue box will open telling you how many words were marked correct.  In our example it marked three words as correct since only three words occurred 400 or more times.

Next we click on the Yes button to close the dialogue box.

As you can see the words "the", "to" and  "and" have all been marked as correct because they appear more than 400 times in the text.

Next watch this short video showing how to approve the spelling of common words in live action:

 

 

11) Approve Spelling of Common Words Menu

Using the mouse, click on the menu that starts the process of marking common words as correct.

12) Enter in the number of appearances a word must have before it is marked as correct

Review the video "Top 150 Words", if you are having trouble.

Top 150 words from Jeff Shrum on Vimeo.

 

Click where you would enter the number of times a word must appear in the test before it is marked as correct.

13) Practice marking common words as being spelled correctly

Open the practice project PEh in ParaTExt. Open the Word List tool, then sort the entries by count.  Click on the image below that matches your result. (Download the practice project PEh by clicking on the link: http://lingtran.net/tiki-download_file.php?fileId=985 . I will download as a backed up project.  You will need to "restore" PEh into your ParaTExt.  This is done from within in ParaTExt.  For information on how to restore a project, search in help for "how do I restore a ParaTExt backup".)

14) Practice using the "Approve Spelling of Common Words" tool to mark words as correct

Next with the Wordlist tool still open in PEh and the words sorted by count use the Approve Spelling of Common Words feature to mark all of the words appearing 200 times or more in the text as being spelled correctly.  Click on the screen capture that shows the word list sorted by count, and has the word with the lowest number of appearances in the text that was marked as correct.

15) Finding common spelling mistakes

The Word List tool can help you find common misspellings such as confusing "s" and "z", or "m" and "n" or whatever pairs of letters that are a problem in your target language.

In the Word List tool, click on the Tools menu, then click on Find Similar Words.

Enter the letters that sound or look alike that you want to compare in the Letters that sound alike box.  Note: Letters that look alike, but do not necessarily sound alike, such as "b" and "d", can be worth checking, because misspellings involving them can trick the human eye.

In this example we want to compare all the words in the project that are spelled the same except for the letters "m" and "n".  Notice that we separate the letters to be compared with a forward slash "/".

 

After you have entered the letters that sound alike, click OK to continue or Cancel to cancel.  After you click on OK, the Wordlist tool will open with of all the words that look alike except for "m" and "n".

 

The video below will demonstrate finding words that have "th" typed in wrong as "ht".

 

16) How to start a search for similar words

Click on the menu that will open the window where you can ask ParaTExt to find all words that may have confused two similar letters "s", and "z".

17) Entering letters that are commonly confused

Click on the spot where you would enter similar or easily confused letters.

18) Starting the search for similar words.

Click on the button that will start the search for similar words with the letters "s" and "z".

19) Practice using the "Similar Words" tool to find words that may have been misspelled because they have easily confused letters in them.

Open the practice project PEh in ParaTExt. Open the Word List tool, then sort the words by count, then using the Find Similar Words feature of the Word List tool, make a list of words that may have confused "f" and "ph".  Click on the screen capture that matches your results, then click on  Submit.  You may click on the magnifying glass icon to see more of an image if needed.  PEh practice project

Finding words and filtering for groups of words in the Word List Tool

1) Finding the words or groups of words that you want to see in the Word List Tool

The Word List Tool has various ways to help you find a specific word, or words of a certain type.  For example if you only want to see the words from a specific chapter, or only those with a specific root, you can tell the Word List Tool to only display the kind of word you are wanting to work with.

 

2) Change the sort order of the words in the Word List tool

Click on the spot to sort this word list in descending alphabetic order.

3) Sort the words with the most frequent first and the least frequent last.

Click on the spot that will sort the words according to frequency count.

4) Filter or limit the types of words to be displayed in the Word List

  • Incorrect
  • Names
  • Unknown
  • Incorrect and Unknown
  • Verbs
  • Unresolved Spelling Discussion
  • Unread Spelling DIscussion
Click on the types of words that can be filtered for when clicking on the All Words drop down arrow. (If you have trouble remembering, go ahead and open ParaTExt and click on the drop down arrow in the Word List tool and see what the options are.

5) Filter or limit the parts of the text that words will be taken from.

  • Current Section
  • All Books
  • Current Verse
  • Current Chapter
  • Chapters Assigned to Me
  • Current Book
  • Choose Verse(s)
Select the parts of the Bible text that the words-to-be-displayed will be taken from.  If you have trouble remembering, open ParaTExt and see what the options are.

6) Filter or limit for words that have a specific stem

Click on the screen capture of the word list filtered for all words containing "head".  (Click on the magnifying glass if you want to make an image larger.)

7) Filter or limit for words that have a specific ending

Click on the screen capture of the list that shows words ending in "tion".  (Click on the magnifying glass if you want to make an image larger.)

8) Looking up a word from the text in the Word List

9) Steps for looking up a word from the text in the Word List Tool

Place in the correct order the steps for looking up a word in a text in the Word List Tool. If you have trouble remembering the steps, open ParaTExt and try jumping right from a word in a text to its entry in the Word List Tool. If you don't have a translation project to use yet, try the PEh project. (Download the practice project PEh by clicking on the link: http://lingtran.net/tiki-download_file.php?fileId=985 . I will download as a backed up project.  You will need to "restore" PEh into your ParaTExt.  This is done from within in ParaTExt.  For information on how to restore a project, search in help for "how do I restore a ParaTExt backup".)
  • Step 1
    Place cursor over the word you want to look up in an active translation project.
  • Step 2
    Right click.
  • Step 3
    Click on "Word List".

10) View menu

The words in the Word List tool can be sorted using option from the view menu.  Some of the options are the same ones that we demonstrated by clicking on the column headings such as Word, Spelling or Count.  However, there are two additional sorts that can be useful to beginning ParaTExt users.  Those are Word Length and End-of-Word sort orders. There is one other sort on the view menu, Stem, but that will not be covered in this course.

Watch the video below for a demonstration of these sorts that are available to you:

 

11) Sorting that is only available from the View menu

  • Spelling Status
  • End of the Word
  • Beginning of the Word
  • Word Length
Click on the two sort orders only available from the View menu that could be useful for the beginning ParaTExt user.

Using Word List tool to spell check a text

1) Spell checking using the "All Checks" feature of the Word List tool

Overview of Spell Checking with the Word List Tool

Earlier we used features of the Word List tool to do specialized searches to find words that were more likely to be misspelled.  The Word List tool can analyze the words in a text and find unusual words for you.  Words that do not follow the patterns of the majority of the other words need to be looked at for spelling errors.  The Word List tool can also look at corrections that you have made in the past and use that information to find words that might have similar errors, such as transposed letters.

The Word List tool has the following "intelligent" spell checks available:

  • Missing Capitals
  • Single Character typos
  • Unusual Letter Combinations
  • Diacritic Errors
  • Common Typos
  • Unknown Morphology
  • All Checks

Watch the following video for an overview of spell checking with the Word List tool, and the "All Checks" feature for spell checking.

Word List Spell Check-1 from Language Technology on Vimeo.

Note:  The “All Checks” mixes all the types of errors in one list.  If you know that you have a particular issue such as capitalization or diacritics (accents), you may want to only run that specific check so you can see them side by side in a list to help you see the problems better.  This course will go through the individual checks (minus the unknown morphology check.) in  greater detail later.
 

 

1b) Where are the spell checking tools in the Word List tool?

1c) The "All Checks" spell checking tool is usually the best to use because:

  • It will resolve spelling questions for you
  • It looks for words that are unusual in some way and are more likely to be misspelled.
  • It looks for words that have spellings similar to misspellings that you have already made and presents them to you for review.
  • Makes all the checks that it has information for in one step.
Click on all that apply.

1d)  Match the statements on the right about the spell check with those on the left.

  • When you have approved or corrected all the words found by "All Checks" and you want more words to check, you should:
    Click on the "More Items Available" link at the end of the list.
  • You might want to use one of the individual checks such as "Missing Capitals" or "Diacritic Errors" and not the "All Checks" when:
    You know that you have spelling problems of a specific type and you want to see only that type of error on the list.
  • You may want to stop using the Word List tool for spell checking and switch another method when:
    The spell check tool is only finding correctly spelled words that only need to be approved by you.

2) Spell checking using the "Missing Capitals" feature of the Word List tool

Missing Capitals  Spell Check

Using correct capitalization is an important part of correct spelling. The Word List tool can find words that are the same except for different capitalization.  It is likely that these words should be more capitalized in a more consistent manor.  It is helpful to ask ParaTExt to find inconsistently capitalized words for you. This spell check is called Missing Capitals and is found under the tools menu in the Word List tool.

This tool examines all occurrences of a word in the text.  If 75% are capitalized, then the tool assumes that they all should be capitalized and adds it to the list to be reviewed. If all of the occurrences of the word are NOT capitalized, then the word will not be added to the list to be reviewed. This tool examines all occurrences of a word in the text. 

Watch the video below to see how the Missing Capital feature works:

word list Missing Capitals-3 from Language Technology on Vimeo.

 

 

2b) What are the steps to start the Missing Capitals spell check?

  • Tools→Word List→Tools→All Checks→Missing Capitals
  • Checking→Spell Check Current Book→Missing Capitals
  • Tools→Word List→Tools→Spell Check→Missing Capitals
Click on the choice that has all the steps in the correct order.  (Assume you are looking at an editable project, and that the Word List tool is not currently open.)

2c) How to approve the spelling of a word that can be either capitalized or not capitalized?

Click on the spot that will approve "woe" being spelled both with and without capitalization.

2d) How to approve the spelling of a word that must always be capitalized?

Click on the best spot that will tell ParaTExt that "psalm" must always be capitalized.

3) Spell checking using the "Single Character Typos" feature of the Word List tool

Single Character Typos Spell Check

The Word List tool can find words that are the same as a word with approved spelling except for one character that is different.  It is likely that some of these pairs of words are spelling errors caused by the typist pressing the wrong key.  It is helpful to ask ParaTExt to find these pairs of words for you, so you can verify their spelling. This spell check is called Single Character Typos and is found under the tools menu in the Word List tool. 

Since Paratext is doing a statistical analysis by comparing unknown words to words with approved spelling, this tool will find more possible errors as you approve the spelling of more words.

Watch the video below to see how this feature works:

 

Word List Single Character typos-2 from Language Technology on Vimeo.

 

3b) Single Character Typos spell check questions

1) Single character typo feature compares words to other words that are different by one letter AND

2) The single character typo feature will likely find more errors, when you

3c) Where to approve the spelling of a word that does not need to be corrected.

Click on the spot that would approve the spelling of "dinoodha".

3d Where to change the spelling of a word to a suggestion made by ParaTExt.

Click on the spot to change "murogo" to "mulogo".

4) Spell Checking using the "Unusual Letter Combination" feature of the Word List Tool

Unusual Letter Combination Spell Check

Letters occur in regular patterns in languages, and the patterns of letters in one language is different than those of another language.  ParaTExt can use this fact to help you find words that were typed incorrectly by finding words with rare and/or unusual combinations of letters.   It is likely that some of these words with unusual combinations of letters are misspelled and need to be verified.  The spell check for this is called Unusual Letter Combinations and is found under the tools menu in the Word List tool. 

This check will put words on the list to be reviewed for errors if a combination of letters only occurs in one word, and that one word occurs four or fewer times in the text. Unusual combinations of letters that occur in multiple words may be found by other checks such as the Common Typos check described later in the course.

Watch the video below to see how the Unusual Letter Combination feature works:

Word List Unusual Letter Combinations Spell Check from Language Technology on Vimeo.

 

4b) Unusual Letter Combination check questions

  • Unusual Letter Combination check will find rare letter combinations that occur in four or more different words.
  • When all the remaining words found by the check are actually correct and only need to be approved you should consider using the "Spell Check Current Book" or "Display Spelling" features for further spell checking.
  • Unusual Letter Combination check will not list words with unusual letter combinations that occur more than four times.
  • It is possible to manually correct the spelling of word when the correct spelling is not in the Suggestions pane of the Correct Spelling pop-up window.
Mark all of the true statements.

4c) Unusual Letter Combination tasks

Click on spots to 1) approve the spelling of "foxy", 2) mark the spelling of "mixop", and 3) ask ParaTExt to add more words to the list for checking.

5) Spell Checking using the "Diacritic Errors" feature of the Word List

Diacritic Errors  Spell Check

Many languages use accents or other diacritics.  For languages that use diacritics,  it is a useful check to compare all words that are written the same except for differences in diacritics (accents). By comparing these words, you may  find inconsistencies or other errors on how diacritics are being used. You can ask ParaTExt to do this comparison. This spell check is called Diacritic Errors and is found under the tools menu in the Word List tool. 

This check works by comparing an unknown word to an approved word that is different only by a diacritic.  When it finds such a word, it is added to the list of words to be reviewed.

Watch the video below to see how the Diacritic Errors feature works:

word list diacritic errors check-1 from Language Technology on Vimeo.

 

6) Spell Checking using the "Common Typos" feature of the Word List Tool

Common Typos  Spell Check

Paratext uses information about the mistakes that you have found and corrected in the past to discover words that are common typographical mistakes. For example, if you type "teh" instead of "the", then you notice it and correct it, Paratext can make a guess that other words like "tehm" might be a similar mistake and suggest that you might have meant to type "them".

.  Now what you have done is given ParaTExt the information that "th" is often typed incorrectly as "ht".  After you have corrected a good number of words you can ask ParaTExt to look for "common" errors for you using your corrections as patterns of what to look for.  This spell check is called Common Typos and is found under the tools menu in the Word List tool. 

Watch the video below to see how the Common Typos feature works:

word list Common Typos-1 from Language Technology on Vimeo.

 

Spell Check Current Book

1) Spell checking can be done for whole books

After working with the Word List tool to approve the most common words, and finding words with similar spellings, you can spell check the words in a book that you are currently working on.  The Spell Check Current Book feature is found under the Checking menu.

When you click on it, the Word List Tool will open but will be set to only show words from the book you were currently working on. The list will be sorted to only show incorrect or unknown words.  In this example we are spell checking Romans.

Next click on the word or the white space on the line of the word that you want to spell check. In this example we clicked on "amukala-kala".  Notice that it is highlighted in gold, and a bit of the context from Romans 16:26 is shown to help us see what the word means.

This word is spelled correctly, so we want to mark its spelling status as correct.  To do this, click on the green check mark.

It will then look like the example below.  Notice that it is now marked as being spelled correctly.

We are ready to spell check the next word in the list.  To begin checking "bapama" click on the white space on the line that has "bapama".  Do not click on the blue words, or the three spelling status buttons because they do other

After clicking on "bapama" or any white space on the same line, it will be highlighted in gold color, and any verses in the translation project that have the word "bapama" will be shown in the bottom of the pop-up window. There is a difference between this case and "amukala-kala". The wordlist tool has added two words in blue "wapama" and "yapama" underneath "bapama".  ParaTExt has looked at all of the words in the translation project and thinks they may be related to each other, and that bapama might possibly be a misspelling.  Why might we think that "bapama" is spelled incorrectly?  Because there is only one occurrence of the word in the text, while "wapama" occurs 84 times and "yapama" occurs 33 times.  So the reasoning is that a word that only occurs once but  is very similar to other words that occur many many times, is likely to be a mistake.  But since it could still be spelled correctly, ParaTExt shows you such words, so you can teach ParaTExt if it is correct or not.

Note: The Word List might show 1 occurrence of a  word in a particular book, however, in the replacement process it will look in all  books in the project. You will see this in the concordance list of the correction window.

A speaker of the language has looked at the Romans 7:16 and has told us that "bapama" is spelled correctly in the context "Mulugu bapama", so we  click on the green check mark and approve this spelling.  The Wordlist tool window will then look like the example below:

The next word on the list is "dakopolo".  ParaTExt thinks that this word may be spelled incorrectly because there are 6 occurrences of a very similar word "akopolo".  A speaker of the language has told us that "dakopolo" is incorrect and that it should be "akopolo".  To make this change you click on the blue "akopolo" and ParaTExt will change "dakopolo" to "akopolo".  Also, ParaTExt will "remember" that you have taught it that "dakopolo" is an incorrect spelling and will mark "dakopolo" as incorrect if you ever type "dakopolo" in the future.

When you click on a blue word, that will begin the process of changing the incorrect spelling to the correct spelling.  ParaTExt will present you a window like the one below that shows the entire verse as it currently is, and how it would be if the change were actually made.  The purpose of this seemly extra step is to give you another chance to see the word in its context.  It is possible that once you see the word in the entire verse, you might see that the word actually is spelled correctly.  So after you see the word in context and still believe it to be spelled incorrectly, then you would click on Yes.  But if after seeing the word how it is being used in the verse and you decide that it is actually spelled correctly, then you would click on No to reject the change for that verse.

After you click on Yes, the change will be made in your text.  And the word "dakopolo" will be removed from the Word List tool because it no longer appears in your text. Note: If you click No for a particular occurance, it will still be marked disapproved in the Word List tool, but ParaTExt will not change the spelling.  So. if the word is spelled correctly in that context you should make sure that when you return to the word List you mark the word as "correct". Clicking Cancel will reject the change for any remaining words.

Next we will see what happens when you find a word in the word list that is incorrect and ParaTExt has not given you blue words to choose from.  A speaker of the language has told us that "edidelaga" is not spelled correctly, so we will click on the red "X" to mark its spelling status as incorrect.

The Spelling Correction window will open like the example below. The word "edidelaga" will be in the Correct Spelling box, and it will be on the list of suggestions that ParaTExt thinks might be the correct spelling.

Look at the list of suggestions and see if one of them is the correct spelling.  First we will look at what happens when the correct spelling is on the list, and then we will look at what happens when the correct spelling is not on the list.

We will look at the first case that the correct spelling is on the list of suggestions being made by ParaTExt.  A speaker of the target language has told us that "edidelaga" is incorrect because it is the pronunciation from a neighboring language.  The correct spelling is "mudidelaga".  So we click on "mudidelaga", and "mudidelaga" now appears in the Correct Spelling box as in the example below.

When the correct word is in the Correct Spelling, click "OK".  The Replace window will open like before showing the entire verse where the word appears in the text. It shows you the verse both with the old word and with the new word to help you be sure that the change would be good in context. We are sure that we want to change "edidelaga" to "mudidelaga" so click "Yes".

Next, we will look at the second case where the correct spelling is not on the list of suggestions being made by ParaTExt.  A speaker of the target language has told us that "edidelaga" is incorrect because the orthography rules for the target language say that words never start with the letter "e", they must start with"ye".  That means that the correct spelling is "yedidelaga".  So we click in the Correct Spelling box and add the letter "y" to "edidelaga", and "yedidelaga" now appears in the Correct Spelling box as in the example below.

Next, review the change, then click on "Yes" to accept the change.

Continue to check words on the list until you reach the bottom.  When you reach the bottom click on "More items available", and ParaTExt will add more words to the list. You can continue clicking on "More items available" until all of the words in your text are marked as correct.

When you have marked all the words in the book as correct, the phrase "More items available" will not appear at the end of the list, because there are no more words in that book that ParaTExt does not know how to spell.

Finally, when you have either spell checked all the words in the current book, or you need to stop spell checking, click on the red "X" in the upper right hand corner to close the Wordlist tool.

 

 

Watch the video below to see Spell Check Current Book being used:

 

2) Where is the "Spell Check Current Book" menu option found?

Click on the main menu where you would find Spell Check Current Book menu option.

3) Where do you click to start spell checking the current book of the Bible?

Click on the menu to start spell checking the current book of the Bible.

4) Word List Tool shows the most questionable spelling in the current book

  • What book of the Bible is being spell checked in this image?
    Luke
  • How many times does "biili-biili" appear in Luke?
    Two
  • What word did ParaTExt find that is spelled very similar to yoreelihiwa?
    ooreelihiwa
  • "Dhing'onog'ono" is in what verse?
    17:35
  • What other words did ParaTExt find that are spelled very similar to "mulibe"?
    musibe and muliba
  • How many words did ParaTExt find that were spelled similar to "dhing'onog'ono"?
    One

5) Where do you click to mark a word as being spelled correctly?

Click on the spot to mark "mwaana-pongwe" as correct.

6) Where do you click to accept a spelling suggestion made by ParaTExt?

Click on the spot to change the spelling of "dhing'onog'ono" to the suggestion made by ParaTExt

7) Where do you click to mark a word as being spelled incorrectly?

Click on the spot to mark "emuthwe" as incorrect.

8) Selecting correct spelling from list of suggestions

Click on the spot to select "emuthu" as the correct spelling of "emuthwe".

9) Where to you click to accept a new spelling?

Click on the button that tells ParaTExt to accept your selection of a new spelling.

10) Where do you click to tell ParaTExt to make a spelling change in a specific verse?

Click on the button to tell ParaTExt to change the spelling of "emuthwe" in Luke 1:59.

11) Practice spell checking Romans in PEh project

Start ParaTExt, then open the practice project PEh.  Navigate ParaTExt to Romans chapter one, verse 1. Now tell ParaTExt to check the spelling of the words in Romans only. When the wordlist tool opens look at the list of unknown and incorrect words that ParaTExt found. The  first five words on list are
 .  (Fill in the blanks with the first five words on the list.  Please put them in the order they appear in ParaTExt.)

12) Practice -- Approve the spelling of "everyday" and "seeking".

Mark the spelling of "everyday" and "seeking' as correct.  Click on the image that looks most like your results.

13) Practice --Correcting the spelling of "exapmle"

Change the spelling of "exapmle" to "example".  How many words did ParaTExt change to "example"?

14) Practice --Correcting the spelling of "snake's"

Change the spelling of "snake's" to "snakes".  How many words did ParaTExt change to "snakes"?

Display Spelling {Status}

1) The last step in spell checking is the Display Spelling {Status} feature of ParaTExt

Once you have looked for invalid characters in your text, used the wordlist tool to approve common words, check words with similar spellings, and checked one or more whole books, then  turn on the Display Spelling feature to have ParaTExt underline words with unknown spelling status.  It works similarly to other word processor programs that you may have used, and will look like the example below.

You will notice that some words are underlined in grey and others are underlined in red.  The difference is that the grey ones are similar to words that ParaTExt already knows, so ParaTExt thinks that they might be spelled correctly.  On the other hand, the words underlined in red do not match the patterns for correctly spelled words that ParaTExt has learned so far, so ParaTExt thinks that the red words are more likely to be spelled incorrectly and should be looked at especially closely.

Note:  If you use Display Spelling to check spelling before using the wordlist tool to approve common words and verify words with similar spellings, then you will not see any words underlined in grey, because you have not taught ParaTExt anything at all about correct spelling in the target language.

Watch the video below to see the Display Spelling {Status} feature of ParaTExt:

Display Spelling Status 1 from Jeff Shrum on Vimeo.

 

COMMENT [PCL] As to the meaning of the red and grey, the help files says the following:

Meaning of wavy red and wavy grey underline:

  • Words which are incorrect or which are considered suspicious will have a wavy red underline.
  • Words for which Paratext does not have enough information to consider correct, incorrect, or suspicious will have a wavy grey underline.

COMMENT [PCL] In the video example you mention one word where you say yes and then one no. It is important to then go back to that word and mark it correct for the word since it is correct in some cases.

2) Where do you click to activate the Display Spelling feature?

Click on the spot that  activates the Display Spelling feature.

3) How well do you know what the spell checker does?

Watch the video again, if you are having trouble answering the questions.

 

[COMMENT PCL] The last statement is kind of strange. Once you mark a word "incorrect" then it is incorrect. You can say no to a particular context, but the wordlist will continue to say that word is incorrect until you mark it as correct. What you are actually saying is that the word is a correct word, but not spelled correctly in this context - this is a very complex process.

  • To spell check an underlined word, you must left click on the word.
  • The Spell checker can learn if a word should be capitalized all the time.
  • When the spell checker thinks that a word is very unlike other correctly spelled words and is therefore more likely to be spelled incorrectly, it is underlined in grey.
  • When you right click on an underlined word, the spell checker suggest similarly spelled words to help you spell better.
  • When the spell checker thinks that a word is very similar to correctly spelled words and is therefore more likely to be spelled correctly, it is underlined in red.
  • The spell checker allows you to approve a spelling change in some contexts, and to deny the change in other contexts.
Answer the questions below about the workings of the spell check with "true" or "false".

4) Practice--Activate Display Spelling in the project PEh or your own and spell check 8 words, approving or correcting as needed. Spell check 2 capitalized words, one of which is a proper name and the other a sentence initial word.

Where you able to spell check eight lower case words? .

Where you able to spell check a proper name? .

Where you able to spell check a capitalized word that was not a proper name?  .