Alternative Dispute Resolution or "ADR" as it is often referred to, includes Mediation, Dispute Adjudication Boards ("DAB's), Expert Determination, and Amicable Settlement (and possibly minor Tribunals).
Contracts, both standard and bespoke, now introduce alternative and generally mandatory, earlier and cheaper methods of dispute resolution other than arbitation and Litigation.
The procedures can therefore arise contractually but they can also arise consensually by agreement between the parties.
Arbitration and Litigation should be considered to be a final resort in what is often a series of dispute resolution procedures either set down in the contract or agreed to by the parties post contact after the dispute has arisen. It is not unusual for arbitration to take over two years and litigation in the courts even longer. DIFC in Dubai may be the exception to the rule in that there are only two levels of judgment, First Instance and Appeal, whereas Dubai courts add a third layer of the Court of Cassation.
"Others" is not considered in detail, it is mentioned only in that it applies to the UK but there are Tribunals here in the Middle East and RERA is one of them for domestic property disputes.