Sleep

This online module will review the basics of sleep and rest.  It will bring in the importance of sleep in the clinical setting and what nurses can do to assess and promote sleep and rest.

Basics of sleep and rest

Sleep & Rest Definitions

In sleep there are cyclical states of altered consciousness.  There is a selective response to external stimuli during sleep and decreased motor activity and sensory perception.

Rest simply means there is little to no activity that is stress-free and leads to feeling refreshed.  

Sleep promotes the following:

  • improves learning
  • helps the storage of long term memory
  • restores energy
  • improves the ability to cope
  • strengthens the immune system

Sleep and Rest Definition Fill in the Blank

When you sleep there is an  and .  In rest you experience .  During sleep there are .  Rest helps you to feel .

Benefits of sleep (select all that apply)

  • better coping ability
  • increases brain capacity
  • helps the immune system
  • improves energy levels

Factors affecting sleep

Factors that affect sleep

Many things can be detrimental to sleep, especially in a healthcare facility.  In a home environment it can be as simple as age of the individual, comfort of bedding, or sleep habits.  Sleep can also be affected by the following lifestyle factors:

  • physical activity
  • food an alcohol
  • medications
  • caffeine

At home or in a healthcare facility, sleep may be affected by the following environmental factors:

  • temperature and humidity
  • noise and light
  • noxious odors

Which items affect sleep quality?

  • Piling blankets on the patient may affect sleep quality
  • Allowing the patient to drink tea in the evening may be detrimental to sleep
  • Getting the patient out of bed to ambulate may improve sleep quality
  • Taking a diuretic an hour before bedtime may decrease sleep quality
  • Keeping the lights on in the hall and talking at the nurse's station may give the patient poor sleep

The nurse is caring for a hospitalized client who normally works the night shift at his job. The client states, “I don’t know what is wrong with me. I have been resting all day but I still feel so tired.” The nurse’s best response is...

  • “You are sleep deprived, but that will resolve in a few days.”
  • “You are experiencing hypersomnia, so it will be important for you to walk in the hall more often.”
  • “There has been a disruption in your normal sleep pattern. What can I do to help you get better sleep?”
  • “I will notify the doctor and ask him to prescribe a hypnotic medication to help you sleep.”

Nursing Interventions

Ways that nurses can promote sleep

There are many nursing interventions to promote sleep.  Begin with assessment  of the individual's normal sleep patterns and what helps the patient sleep.  Determine those factors that are currently decreasing sleep quality and create a goal/outcome with the patient.  The following interventions can be used to reach those sleep outcomes:

  • Educate the patient about good sleep hygiene
  • Explain the benefits and risks of using sleep inducing medications
  • Work with the patient to ensure food and drink are not interfering with sleep
  • Support normal bedtime rituals and routiness
  • Cluster nursing care to avoid sleep interruption
  • Create a comfortable and restful environment

What 2 items in the photo below may be factors in disrupting sleep?

Click on the correct two areas of the photo to get the question correct.

Choose the photo of an individual who is doing something that will provide for good sleep.

Sleep Disorders

Sleep disorder definitions

There are many different disorders that can affect the sleep of patients.  See definition below:

  • insomnia is a symptom that patients experience when they have chronic difficulty falling asleep, frequent awakenings from sleep, and/or a short sleep or non-restorative sleep
  • sleep apnea is a disorder characterized by the lack of airflow through the nose and mouth for periods of 10 seconds or longer during sleep. There are three types of sleep apnea: central, obstructive, and mixed apnea.
  • narcolepsy is a dysfunction of mechanisms that regulate sleep and wake states
  • parasomnias are sleep problems that include somnambulism (sleepwalking), night terrors, nightmares, nocturnal enuresis (bed-wetting), body rocking, and bruxism (teeth grinding).
  • nocturia is urination during the night that disrupts sleep and sleep cycles

Definitions taken directly from Potter & Perry 9th Ed chapter 43.

Match up the sleep disorder with its definition

  • insomnia
    a symptom that patients experience when they have chronic difficulty falling asleep, frequent awakenings from sleep, and/or a short sleep or nonrestorative sleep
  • sleep apnea
    a disorder characterized by the lack of airflow through the nose and mouth for periods of 10 seconds or longer during sleep
  • narcolepsy
    a dysfunction of mechanisms that regulate sleep and wake states
  • parasomnias
    includes somnambulism (sleepwalking), night terrors, nightmares, nocturnal enuresis (bed-wetting), body rocking, and bruxism (teeth grinding)
  • nocturia
    urination during the night that disrupts sleep and the sleep cycle