Anthropology Includes You

Anthropology Includes You, is a course on the introduction of Anthropology and it's four sub-fields. The class is High School age appropriate and is used to introduce those students to the Humanities through the study of Anthropology. Through this class you will discover what Anthropology is and how it is used to navigate our globalized world.

Class Introduction

Meet the class Instructor:

Lily Valibaba-Sullivan

Lily holds a Bachelor's degree in Anthropology from the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. She is currently seeking her Masters degree in Learning System Technologies. Lily hopes to design courses for classrooms operating under a blended classroom scenario. She is working on a design to incorporate disabled students more fluidly into the classroom environment by minimizing their outside classroom resources. Lily loves to travel and take incredibly bad pictures of the places she visits. Most recently she has traveled to London, England and The Blue Ridge Mountains in North Carolina. 

How does this course work?

Review each Block:

Click on each block for a different Anthropological experience. Each block covers a bit of information that forms into the larger section. Three blocks at a time.. The course will take twelve weeks to complete.The sections are as follows:

Introduction to the class

Part I Introduction to Anthropology

Part II Sociological/Cultural Anthropology

Part III Linguistic Anthropology

Part IV Archeology

Part V Biological Anthropology



All written discussions that are to be turned in should be in APA format. For participation discussions you must sign into our Live Talk Forum and be present during the scheduled time. You must submit thoughtful ideas, questions, summations, etc. on Anthropological topics using Anthropological terminology. You must comment/converse with at least three different classmates. All other assignments should be completed as directed in the instructions of the assignment. 

The lectures will be posted at 10:00 am and the following two hours 11:00 am-1:00 pm I will be in the Live Talk Forum to discuss anything that needs to be explored. 

Audio is included with of the many of the items. Sometimes the audio plays automatically, listen first and then read the dialogue. Other times, you will click on the audio as it expands or reviews what the dialogue presented. 

How this course works.

How do you participate?


As previously stated, discussion forums should be used to post thoughts on Anthropological subjects, using Anthropological terminology. The topics are provided. You must comment/converse with at least three classmates. During the video lectures please submit all questions to the Video Lecture portion of Live Talk Forum and I will address them between 11:00 am - 1:00 pm following the video lecture. 

How do you participate?

Part I Introduction to Anthropology

Introduction to Anthropology

Anthropology Includes You

Instructor: Lily Valibaba-Sullivan

University of Arkansas at Little Rock

Introduction to the Introduction

Terminology - Define the terms before moving to the next block.





Participant Observation


The Four Sub-Fields:





What is Anthropology?



The study of humans, their societies, their cultures and the driving forces behind them.

Anthropology Pronunciation

What is an Anthropologist?

So Your Kid Wants to be an Anthropologist.

While this video is meant to be humorous it does touch base on the reality that many do not know what Anthropology is, much less an Anthropologist. There are many ways you can use an Anthropology major. For example, Law School, Medical School, Primate Studies, Evolutionary Studies, Cultural Anthropologist, Forensic Anthropologist and the list goes on and on. Watch the video below for more ideas on what an Anthropologist does. 


The study of human beings, their culture, their material remains, their biological remains, language, religion, government and so much more make up our societies. Anthropologists study humans using a holistic (the bit parts make up the whole) approach. By examining the things humans have touched, explored, built, cultivated, modernized, etc., we can begin to understand the driving forces behind our humanism.  What the video below for a deeper look into the study of humans.

Which sub-field explores the use of slang, dialect, language and speech?

  • Cultural Anthropology
  • Linguistic Anthropology
  • Biological Anthropology
  • Archaeology

Which sub-field would I be working within if I studied the effects of temperature on bone formation and growth?

  • Cultural Anthropology
  • Linguistic Anthropology
  • Biological Anthropology
  • Archeology

Match the terms to the most appropriate definition.

  • Holism
    The idea that parts make up the whole. Humans are more than the sum of their parts.
  • Anthropology
    The study of humans, their culture and society.
  • Ethnocentrism
    Evaluating others by using ones own preconceived conceptions based on your own experiences.
  • Ethnography
    Using science to describe cultures, societies and their materials.

Founding Fathers/Mothers of Anthropology

Timeline of Anthropology

Anthropology Has History

Click the link below to view an info-graphic on some of the great minds that have influenced Anthropology as we know it today. 

Watch the video on Famous Anthropologists.

Many of the theories and standards used in the study of Anthropology have been in place since the 1800's. Watch the video below to hear them argue their theories. 

Dead Anthropologists Play Golf in Heaven

In this video, a fictional game of golf brings together a lot of big names in Anthropology. Hear the creators of their theories explain their ideas. 

Which theories/theorists stand out to you?


Head over to the discussion board and post your thoughts on the theories or theorists that stand out to you and why. Students respond to at least three of your classmates posts.

Lecture One on an Introduction of Anthropology

Watch Lecture One an Introduction to Anthropology


Remember, I will be in the Live Class Forum from 11-1 today. Bring all your questions, concerns and ideas.

Review of Introduction of Anthropology

Match the terms to the correct definition.

  • Structuralism
    The premise that one small part must be looked at in its larger structure.
  • Hypothesis
    A scientific statement used to test an idea.
  • Ethnocentrism
    The premise that you view other cultures through your own.
  • Ethnography
    A written document discussing the culture of a particular group/society of people.
  • Anthropology
    The study of humans.

The Scientific Method

Terminology - Define the terms before moving to the next block.


Natural Experiment

Independent Variable

Dependent Variable

Control Group

Observational Hypothesis

By observing the world you can formulate a hypothesis. Think of a time where you saw something that made you question, Why?, and try to change the question into a statement. For example, change the question, Are babies born via a Cesarean Section more likely to have developmental delays? to Children born via c-section are more likely to have developmental delays. By changing the question into a statement you have developed a hypothesis. Now you must determine how you will gather statistical data to either refute or prove your hypothesis. 

Experimental Design

Medically your experiment has to factor out all other contributing factors to isolate the premise of your study. Consider this definition and then try and answer the discussion question...experimental design a  research  design  that  eliminates  all  factors  that  influence  outcome  except  for  the  cause  being  studied  (independent  variable).  All  other  factors  are  controlled  by  randomization,  investigator-controlled  manipulation  of  the  independent  variable,  and  control  of  the  study  situation  by  the  investigator,  including  the  use  of  control  groups.

What types of questions do Anthropologists ask?


Who built this? Who came first? Who brought about the significance? Which group of people did this? Who is responsible?

If you can ask Who/Which?, you can answer it Anthropologically. For example,Who brought the use of the spear into existence?


What are the causes? What were these used for? What came before? What came after? What is the cause? 

If you can ask What?, then you can answer it Anthropologically. For example,  What are the main cultural influences on tribal life?


When did this/they arrive? When did they use this? When is it ok to? When did this exist?

If you can ask When?, then you can answer it Anthropologically. For example, When did the Neanderthals outnumber Homo Sapiens? 


Why did they use this? Why were they here? Why are they gone? Why did this hold value? Why move on? Why stay? Why not?

If you can ask Why?, you can answer it Anthropologically. For example, Why did the trade routes move this way?


How did they do this? How did they get here? How did they live? How did they sleep? How were they buried? How did they eat? How did they use this?

If you can ask How?, you can answer it Anthropologically. For example, How did they use a cooking fire? Experimental Archeology answers a lot of functional How? questions. 

Info-graphic of the Scientific Method

The Five Step Solution

The Scientific Method consists of five main steps. When writing or submitting experimental data these five steps must be covered. You may use a few extra steps to really zoom in on your research, but ultimately these five or the BIG FIVE.

1. Identify the problem. This can be done through observation or through research on a specific problem. Start with a question and move to the next step with a statement.

2. Induction/Formulate your hypothesis. This is always a statement! This becomes important when you get to step five.

3. Collect your data. This can be accomplished either through research review or testing. 

4. Analyze your data. Use the statistics to separate the independent variable and dependent variable.

5. Support or refute your hypothesis. It is difficult to refute/support a question, this is why the hypothesis is a statement. 

An Independent Variable is...

  • The thing you change in a scientific experiment. For example, the dosage of a medication to test it's efficiency.
  • The control group where nothing is actually changed during the experiment (even if the subject does not know nothing has changed)

Can you put the steps of The Scientific Method in Order?

  • Identify a Problem
  • Induction/Formulate the hypothesis
  • Collect your data/research/test
  • Analyze the data
  • Support/Refute your hypothesis

Experimental Design Dilemma: What are the factors an Anthropological study must eliminate when designing the hypothesis C-Section births cause learning disorders?


When designing an experiment the Independent Variable must be isolated. The dependent variable is the outcome due to the Independent Variable (learning disorders).

Applying Anthropology to the real world

Watch the video on Malaria and Sickle Cell Anemia.

How did the study of the transmission of Malaria impact the diagnosis and predictability of sickle-cell anemia?

What populations would be most prone to sickle-cell anemia and why?

Review of an Introduction to Anthropology

How can ethnocentrism cause an Anthropologists problems or aide when looking at other cultures? Make sure you site at least two references from either the videos, lecture or discussion posts to support your thoughts. No citation page necessary.

What is the thing you change in an experiment called?

  • Independent Variable
  • Dependent Variable

What is it called when a researcher/Anthropologist lives and interacts with the culture they are studying?

  • Participant Observation
  • Overseeing

Match the terms to the correct definition.

  • Holism
    Viewing the society as a whole by viewing all its parts.
  • Archeology
    Material Culture
  • Natural Experiment
    If the scientific testing is to rigorous or dangerous use this type of testing instead.
  • Linguistics
    The study of a cultures language use, meanings, slang, dialect, etc.

Team Project

Team Project Part I

Task Presentation:

I have assigned each group an Anthropological dilemma. If you are in Group 1: How can the presence of books in the home aide in early reading in children? Group II: Does religion preference impact health/life span? Group III: Can time restraints effect test scores?

Role Assignments:

Submit a report outlining your hypothesis, who has which roles, rules/norms of the group and how you plan to start your research. This assignment will be submitted in full APA style writing, including sources. 

Present Idea/Experiment

The abstract of the paper should outline your hypothesis, the perimeters of research and the number of people in your test groups. 

Team Project Part II

Experiment Design:

Choose the experimental design that will work best to prove/disprove your hypothesis. You may choose from statistical published studies (review), survey(descriptive), interview (Correlation/Descriptive) or group studies (experimental). Do remember that you will have to incorporate number of test subjects to validate your claims. 


The written submission will be sent by one individual in the group. The team should lay out the chosen experiment design and the body should consist of the type of data and subjects needed to complete the experiment. APA required. 

Team Project Part III

Part III (Final)

The group will need to record a video outlining all the parts of the written paper. This will act as your peer presentation. The video should include your hypothesis, your testing strategy, your test subject perimeters, etc. One member will submit the video to the Project Board and each student will be required to comment either a yes or no and an explanation as to why you have approved or denied this experiment. 

Part II Social/Cultural Anthropology? It is all about the people.

Define Cultural Anthropology

Cultural Anthropology

 Merriam-Webster defines cultural anthropology as,  anthropology that deals with human culture especially with respect to social structure, language, law, politics, religion, magic, art, and technology.

Terminology - Define the terms before moving to the next block.














Watch this video on Symbols, Values and Norms.


Post to the discussion board defining symbols, values and norms. Students make sure to comment on three of your classmates posts. 

Cultural Relativism

Watch this video on Cultural Relativism


How is Cultural Relativism related to Ethnocentrism? Is this a good or bad? Make an arguement in our discussion forum and let us see if we can sort it out. Students make sure to comment on three of your classmates posts, as well as, create a post from yourself. 

A Study on Cultural Relativism


 Write a two page double spaced explanation of how you would carry out your participant observation culture study on the selling of children into servitude in parts of Africa where this is common practice and legal. Apply what you know about Ethnocentrism and Etnography to your paper. One citation is required in APA format both on a citation page and in text citation. 

What stereotypes do you have?

Partner Project

We all have them. It is a way for our mind to keep order and to aide in protecting ourselves. Stereotypes, bias, preconceived notions, lack of knowledge, whatever you want to call it, it exists in all of us. To prevent the negative effects of Ethnocentrism you must recognize the bias exists and then push it to the side. When exploring other cultures, you will encounter people, rituals, rites, religions, ideas, etc., that do not correlate with your own cultural morals and values. The question is can you recognize the bias and acknowledge your own perceptions.

You will be paired (using the very scientific name-out-of-hat process) by me. You will communicate with your partner however you choose (I recommend a real time technology, such as, phone, skype, IM, etc.). You will get to know your partner. The whole history. Birth to now. Let the conversation flow. Pick topics you know will cause an aspect of unease. Each of you will submit a written discussion, no less than three double-spaced pages outlining your initial bias. Keep a pen handy during your conversation and every time your mind goes to, this person is__________ or this person must be ________, write it down. Note how your life is like and dislike your partners. Does your culture influence your politics, religion, family? How does this contrast with your partner. You will disagree on many points and agree on a few. Keep it civil. This is where you practice the acknowledgement and the setting aside of your bias. The object is to realize that we are different and the same. We are complex and simple. We are humans and that means a lot of different things which is easy to see when using a comparative approach. 

Review on Cultural Anthropology

Match the term to the correct definition.

  • Bias
    Relying on stereotypes and preconceived notions to determine whether you like or dislike someone/something.
  • Norms
    The every day rules, guiding forces and standards of a group, society or culture.
  • Patriarchy
    A society where the predominant leaders are male. This can be in government, family structure, etc.
  • Matriarchy
    A society where the predominant leaders are female. This can be in government, family structure, etc.

What is the difference between a symbol and a ritual?

Video Lecture on Cultural Theorists

Watch Lecture two on Cultural Anthropology and Theorists.


Remember, I will be in the Live Class Forum from 11-1 today. Bring your questions, concerns and ideas.

Part III Linguistic Anthropology: It's all in the language.

Define Linguistics

Definition of Linguistics

The study of language and how it pertains to culture. This is seperate from the study of systematic language. The key here is how is pertains to culture. 


Terminology - Define the terms before moving on to the next block.









Language Ideology

Watch this video on Language

Podcast from Stuff Mom Never Told You

Video Lecture on Status and Language

Watch Lecture three on Status and Language.


Remember, I will be in the Live Class Forum from 11-1 today. Bring your thoughts, concerns and ideas. 

Review of Linguistic Anthropology.

Discussion Questions on Linguistics


How does speech reveal so much about a person?

What are some guesses you can make based on speech patterns, symantics, jargon and slang?

I will review your answers and respond directly to each of you.

Match the terms to the correct definition

  • Dialect
    A specific set of language use associated with a particular region of use. Ex: Southern/Northern
  • Slang
    Informal language used by a particular group of people or culture. Ex: Emojis
  • Syntax
    Well formed language structures to imply formality.
  • Pidgins
    Language formed from two/more people who do not share a language. Ex: Creole
  • Jargon
    A group of people/culture who share a set of words that has little meaning outside of the associates of the group. Ex: Medical Stat

Can language indicate whether a person is educated?

  • Yes
  • No

Part IV Archeology: Material Culture

Define Archeology

Definition of Archeology 

The study of ancient and modern societies through their material culture.

Terminology - Define the terms before moving on to the next block.


Material Culture


Field Notes


Law of Superposition


Three Age System

Watch the video," Want to be an Archeologist?"


Go to the discussion forum and post your thoughts on what you think Archeology is, what Archeologists study and it's importance to Anthropology. Students respond to at least three of your classmates posts. 

The Tuscon Garbage Project

Watch the video on Garbology


Post your thoughts on Garbology to the Discussion Forum addressing the following, Why are Archeologists looking at modern material culture? What have they discovered through the Garbology Project? Why is this important?. Students respond to at least three of your classmates posts.

Review of Archeology

What are the Three Age Systems?

  • Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age
  • Dinosaur Age, Ape Age, Man Age
  • Pre-Industrial Age, Post-Industrial Age, Technology Age

Match the terms to the correct definition

  • Material Culture
    Objects left behind by a society, culture, village, person, etc.
  • Provenance
    Place of origination.
  • Site
    A place where material culture has been found and an attempt to preserve the material is in place.
  • Field Notes
    A record of what has been measured, done, seen, explored, cataloged, etc. on a site, written by Archaeologists.

What is the Law of Superposition?

Research Paper on Biological Anthropology

Instructions: Research Paper

Biological Anthropology Research Paper

Pick a Biological Anthropology Topic to Research from the provided list. Paper will be five double spaced pages in the APA format with four outside sources listed on a citation page with in text citations. This paper is due at the end of the course. We will submit the paper in stages.

Part I:

Submit the topic you have chosen with a brief description on how you will research the topic.

Part II:

Submit the citation list you plan to use for your paper.

Part III:

Submit a rough draft of your research paper.

Part IV:

Submit your final paper.

Biological Anthropology Topics

Disease and bone growth

Forensic Anthropology and the aftermath of 9/11

The skull and human evolution

The Neanderthals extinction

The effects of cultural identity on Race from a Biological standpoint

Workload adaptations on skeletal growth

The out-of-Africa theory

Research Paper Guidelines

Part V Biological Anthropology: Evolution, Natural Selection, Forensic Science and so much more.

Define Biological Anthropology

Definition of Biological Anthropology

The study of the physical biology and evolution of humans as a species. 

Terminology - Define the terms before moving on to the next block.


Natural Selection





Gene Flow


Homo Sapiens-Sapiens



Watch this video on Biological Anthropology

Watch this video on Evolution

Video Lecture on Forensic Science

Watch video lecture four on Forensic Science.


Remeber, I will be in the Live Class Forum today from 11-1. Bring your thoughts, questions and ideas.

Survival of the Fittest

Terminology- Define the terms before moving on to the next block.


The Theory of Natural Selection

The Theory of Evolution

A short presentation of the REAL idea behind Darwin's theories on Natural Selection & Evolution

Discussion Question


Head over to the discussion board and post the difference between the Theory of Evolution and the Theory of Natural Selection.  Students respond to at least three of your classmates posts. 

Review of Biological Anthropology

The study of bones is called?

  • Osteology
  • Dentology

What is the literal translation of Homo Sapiens Sapiens?

  • Wise man man
  • human man man

Match the terms with the correct definition.

  • Mutation
    A variation in gene formation.
  • Natural Selection
    The animals who are better suited for survival reach the age of sexual maturity to procreate and pass on their genetic material.
  • Fitness
    Animals who have a particular gene that allows for better survival rates.
  • Species
    A group of animals who may breed to produce offspring.
  • Evolution
    Small changes over time in genetic code.

Explain Gene Flow.


Discussion Question


Head on over to the discussion board and tell me how you think Anthropology can be used in a globalized society. No need to respond to your classmates posts. 

Last Thoughts.

Last Thoughts

Head over to the discussion board and tell me what you found most valuable in this course. What types of topics would you like to learn more about or explore? What would have been helpful for you to feel accomplished in this course? What was not helpful? The purpose of this paper is to let me know how I can make it better for future students. 

In Conclusion:

Turn in your Research Paper.

Research Paper

Post your research paper on the discussion board under the research paper thread. No one has access to this thread but myself.

Citation & Credit

Text Citations

Benedict, R. (2005). Patternsof culture. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.1-56

Cameron, D. (2008). The Mythof Mars and Venus. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Culler, J. (1991). Ferdinandde Saussure. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press. 27-64

Durkheim, E., & Swain, J. W.(2012). The elementary forms of religious life. MansfieldCentre, CT: Martino Publishing. 68-90

Eriksen, T. H. (2001). Smallplaces, large issues: an introduction to social and culturalanthropology. London: Pluto. 

Labov, W. (2011). Sociolinguisticpatterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 43-109

Levi-Strauss, C. (1995). Mythand meaning. New York: Schocken Books. 

Myers-Moro, P. A. (2013). Magic,witchcraft, and religion a reader in the anthropology of religion.Dubuque: McGraw-Hill Companies. 

Tersigni-Tarrant, M. T., &Shirley, N. R. (2013). Forensic anthropology: an introduction.Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 

Image Citations











Scientific Method.jpg



Video Citations

Archaeosoup Productions.Human-thropology: What is Anthropology. 

Argo H., Kotar K. & MacfieR.. So Your Kid Wants to be an Anthropologist. 

Crash Course. Human Evolution:Crash Course Big History #6.

Crash Course. Language: CrashCourse Psychology #16.

Crash Course. Symbols, Values &Norms: Crash Course Sociology #10.

Discoveranthro. Introduction toBiological Anthropology. 

Georgina D..Dead AnthropologistsPlay Golf in Heaven: Anthropological Theory

Goodall M..Garbologist-TalkinTrash

HHMI Biointeractive, Malaria andSickle Cell Anemia.

INEA Project Videos. Want to bean Archaeologist? article, adaptedunder What is CulturalRelativism Mean?.

Lectures, TimeLine Info-Graphic and Audio Recordings.

Other Materials:

Created by Lily Valibaba-Sullivan. Please contact [email protected] for permission to use.