Basic Math & Units

Basic Math

Steel Tape or Metrosan

A.) Steel Tape

              - a tool used to measure regular and irregular shapes. Units used are Centimeters, Millimeters, Meters, Feet and Inches.

How to take measurement?

Fraction to Decimal        (for alliance)

1/16= 0.0625                                   9/16= 0.5625    

1/8= 0.125                                       5/8= 0.625         

3/16= 0.1875                                   11/16= 0.6875                               

1/4= 0.25                                         3/4= 0.75      

5/16= 0.3125                                   13/16=0.8125

3/8= 0.375                                       7/8= 0.875

7/16= 0.4375                                   15/16= 0.9375

1/2= 0.50                                         1 inch = 1.0

Or just simply 1 divided by 16 is equal to 0.0625, and so on...

 

Steel Tape measurement guide:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Examples in taking measurements:

 

Take the measurement of the following items.

1.  Ballpen length measurement.

Answer:  5 1/2 inches or 5.50 (alliance)

 

 

 

2. Frame length measurement. 

Answer:  10 inches

Note: When getting measurements from customers, always ask and record which is HEIGHT? Which is WIDTH?

 

Glass Standard sizes

 

B.)Standard Sizes

     B.1) Glass Standard Sizes: selling is per sq. ft,  per sheet &  per crate

  • For Glass Slats or Louvers:  4"
  •  For Glass Shelves: 6”, 8”
  • All Others: 12”,18”,24”,30”,36”,48”,60”,72”,84”,96”,120”,144”,168”,192”

Note: Always ask in charge if sheet and cut size is available.

Remember:   1/16"=  2 mm, 1/8" = 3 mm, 3/16" = 5 mm, ¼" = 6mm

                           5/16" = 8 mm, 3/8" = 10 mm, ½" = 12mm

 

Available Glass sizes per sheet

Clear Glass:

           2 mm                   30"x 48",  36" x 48"

           3 mm                   48" x 72"

           5 mm                   48" x 72",  48" x 84" , 60" x 84" ,  72"x 96" , 84" x 120"

           Sold by crate:   48" x 72"

                

           6 mm                   48" x 72", 48" x 84", 48" x 96", 60" x 84" , 72" x 96" , 84" x 120",  84" x 130",

                                          84" x 65" , 96" x 120"

          Sold by crate:     48" x 72"   & 72" x 96"

               

           8 mm                   84" x 120"

          10 mm                 60" x 84" , 72" x 120" , 72" x 60" , 72" x 96" ,84" x 120",  84" x 144",

                                         96" x 120",   96" x 144" , 96" x 60"

          12 mm                 72" x 120", 84" x 120", 84" x 144",  96" x 120", 96" x 144"

 

 

Bronze:

                    3 mm                       48" x 72"

                    5 mm                       48" x 60",  48" x 72",  48" x 84" , 72" x 96"

                    Sold by crate:      48" x 72"

 

                    6 mm                      48" x 72",  48" x 84",  48" x 96", 60"x 84",  65" x 84", 72" x 96",   

                                                     84" x 130" , 96" x 120" 

                   10 mm                     60" x 84",  72" x 120",  72" x 144" , 72" x 60",  72" x 96",  84" x 120"

                   12 mm                     72" x 120",  72" x 96", 84" x 120",  84" x 144"

 

Tinted

           Dark-Blue (6  mm)         84" x 130" , 65" x 84"

           Light-Blue (6 mm)         84" x 130"

           Dark-Green (6 mm)       60" x 84",  84" x 130" , 65" x 84"

                                   (10 mm)     84" x 130",  65" x 84"

                                   (12 mm)     65" x 84"

           Light-Green (6 mm)      84" x 130"

           Dark-gray (3 mm)          48" x 72"

           Dark-gray (5 mm)          72" x 96", 48" x 72"

                     Sold by crate:        48" x 72" , 72" x 96"

           Dark-gray (6 mm)          72" x 96", 48" x 72",  84 " x 120" , 60" x 84" ,  84" x 126"

                     Sold by crate:        72" x 96",  48" x 72",  84"x 120",  60" x  84"

 

Reflective Glass (6 mm)

           Pink                               84" x 130",  65" x 84",  72" x 96"

           Bronze                          84" x 130" ,  65" x 84"

           Dark Blue                    84" x 130",  65" x 84" , 84" x 120" , 60" x 84"

           Dark Green                 84" x 130" , 65" x 84"

           Dark gray (5 mm)      60" x 84",  84" x 120"

           Dark gray (6 mm)      60" x 84" , 84" x 120"

           Gold                                60" x 84" ,  84" x 120"

 

Mirror

         2 mm                36" x 48"

         3 mm                48" x 72"

         5 mm                84" x 130" , 84" x 144" ,  84" x 65'

         6 mm                65" x 84",  72" x 96" , 48" x 72",  84" x 120",  60" x 84",  84" x 130" , 84" x 144", 

                                    72" x 84"

                                     84" x 120" (Asahi), 60x84(Asahi)

 

Figured Glass

        Sampaguita clear (3 mm)    48" x 72"

        Sam. Blue (3 mm)                   48" x 72"

        Sam. Green (3 mm)                 48" x 72"

        Sam. Yellow (3 mm)                48" x 72"

Luningning (3 mm)                        48" x 72"

Luningning (5 mm)                        48" x 72",  48" x 60",  48" x 72",  72" x 96"

        Kara-clear(3 mm)                    36" x 48",  48" x 72"

        Kara-clear (5 mm)                   48" x 72"

        Kara-dark gray (5 mm)          48" x 72"

 

Ultra-clear

       6 mm

      10 mm

      12 mm

 

Low-E(6 mm)

Mistlite(10 mm)

For tempered glass:

           -    42” is used, but not applicable to 168” and 192”.

 

 

 

Aluminum Standard sizes

 

B.2) Aluminum Standard Sizes:   Selling is per foot & per length 

Note: if customers want cut size (retaso) always ask in-charge if size is available 

Available Colors:

 Anodized (A or BDA)

 

 

Analok (HA or RYA)

 

 

Powder Coated-White (PCW)

 

Powder Coated (special order for other colors)

 Kinds of Aluminum:

Store Front Section

Entrance Door Section

Awning and Casement Section

SD (Sliding Door) Section

ASW (Sliding Window) Section

Swing Screen Section

Spaghetti Section

Furniture Section (new)

 

Note:

1.) All aluminums are sold per length (see below for retail exceptions)

2.) If there is retaso available. Computation is per foot.

3.) If a full aluminum length needs to be cut for retail, the following is a guide: 

Product ID Description Cutting Standards
EF 114 Snap-on Base per 3 ft
EF 114A Snap-On Cover
SD-103B Lockstile per 7 ft (Vertical sections of door)
SD-104B Interlocker
SD-134B Double Jamb
SD-106 Astragal
SD-107 Pocket Interlocker
SD-135 Fix Stile
SD-140 Screen Jamb
SD-142 Single Jamb
SD-147 Double Jamb with Screen
SD-131B Double Sill minimum 6ft retaso (Horizontal sections of door)
SD-132B Double Header
SD-133B Top Rail
SD-204B Bottom Rail
SD-137 Screen Header
SD-138 Screen Sill
SD-141 Single Header
SD-143 Single Sill
SD-144 Step Sill Cover
SD-145 Double Sill with Screen
SD-146 Double Header with Screen
SD-149 Double Flat Sill
FD-100 Frameless Door Rail per 3 ft  (Horizontal sections of door)
ED-101 Bottom Rail
ED-101PBH Push Bar Handle
ED-102 Top Rail
ED-104 4" Threshold
EF-111C Split Tube
EF-111D Split Tube Cover
ED-103 Stile with Groove per 7 ft (Vertical sections of door)
ED-103A Bullnose Stile
SF 101 Screen Door Frame
SF 102 Screen Door Frame Clip
SF-105 Screen Crossbar per 3 ft (Horizontal sections of door)
SF 106 Screen Door Crossbar
MF-306B Alcomesh Door Crossbar
LC-2T Mill Finish Angulars per foot

Kinds of Aluminum

 

KINDS OF ALUMINUM

Store front Section:   1 Length = 21 feet

                                           •   Rectangular Tube (1/2 x 1, 1 x 1 ½, 1 x 2, 1 x 3, 1 x 4)

                                           •   Square Tube (1x1, 1 ¼ x1 ¼, 1 ½ x1 ½, 1 ¾ x 1 ¾)

                                           •  Snap-on base and Cover

                                           •  Open-Back

Awning/casement section :  1 Length =  21 feet

                                           •    YC 1-Transom bar

                                            •   YC2- Vent Frame

                                            •   YC2a- Side frame

                                            •    YC12- Moulding clip

                                            •   YC 16-Muntin

                                            •   YC4-Center

Sliding window/door Section:   1 Length = 21 feet

             1.  SD/ASW Double head                Magic 7

             2.  SD/ASW Double Sill                          "

             3.  SD/ASW Top-rail                                "

             4.   SD/ASW Bottom-rail                        "

             5.   SD/ASW Lock stile                            "

             6.   SD/ASW Interlocker                         "

             7.   SD/ASW Double Jamb                     "

             •   SD/ASW Astragal

             •   SD Pocket Interlocker

             •   SD/ASW Fixed Stile

             •   SD/ASW Screen Divider

             •   SD Screen Header

             •   SD Screen Jamb

             •    SD/ASW Screen Sill

             •   SD Screen Astragal/RPC

             •   SD Sill Cover

             •   SD Screen Jamb

             •   SD Single Header

             •   SD Single Jamb

            •   SD Single Sill

             •   SD Double Sill & Screen Sill

             •   SD D. Head & Screen Jamb

             •   SD Double Flat Sill

             •   SD Screen Frame

             •   ASW Glass Divider

             •   ASW Screen Head Jamb

             •   ASW Screen divider

 

Swing Screen Frame:   1 Length  = 21 feet

            •    SF Door Frame w/ clip

            •    SF Door Frame only

            •    SF Door Frame clip only

            •   SF SC Crossbar & clip

            •   SF Crossbar

            •   SF Door Stopper

            •   Alco Mesh Door frame

             •   Alco Mesh Door Crossbar

 

Swing Entrance Door:  1 Length = 21 feet

             •   ED FD 100

             •    ED Bottom rail

             •    ED Top rail

             •    ED Push bar handle

             •   ED Bullnose with groove

              •    ED Bullnose

              •   ED swing door threshold 4”

              •   ED Split base w/Cover

 

Shower Enclosure Aluminum:   1 Length = 21 feet

                •    Shower Sash-side/bottom

                •    Shower sash

                •     Shower jamb (Swing type)

                •     Shower jamb (Sliding type)

                •     Shower Sill

 

                *      Shower head Track

 

 

Spaghetti Section

   

Spaghetti Section

             Glass Showcase Length = 12 feet

•  ¼" Glass Clip

•  ¼" Caha Upper

•  ¼" Caha Lower(bearing)

•  ¼" Caha Lower(plastic)

•  1/8" Aluminum  Caha

•  Poly Guide

•  ¼" Plastic Roller

•  ¼" Bearing Roller

•  U-channel (21 feet / Length )

 

             Angular

•  3/8"  x  3/8"  (12 feet)

•  ½" x ½"  (12 feet )

•  ½" x 1" (21 feet )

•  ¾" x ¾"  (21 feet )

•  ¾" x 1" (21 feet )

•  1" x 1"  (21 feet )

•  1/8" x ¾" x ¾"  ( 21 feet )

•  1/8"  x 1" x 1"  (21 feet )

•  1/8" x 1 ½" x 1 ½"  ( 21 feet )

 

        Counter Nosing : ( 12 feet ) ( 1/2”, ¾”, 1” )

        J-clip :  (12 feet ) (1/2”, ¼”)

      ¼" H-clip : (glass jointer) (12 feet )

 

       Counter trim:   Length =  21 feet

•   ½" x ½"

•   ½" x ¾"

•   ½" x 1"

•   ½" x 1 ½"

•   ½" x 2"

•   ½" x 3"

•   ½" x 4"

 

     1" x 1"   T- Runner:   1 1ength  =  21 feet

 

 

      Round tube :   1 Length = 21feet

•   3/8”

•   ½”

•   ¾”

•   1”

 

        Flat bar :   1 Length = 21feet

•   1/8" X  ½"

•   1/8"  X ¾"

•   1/8" X  1"

 

         I-beam MF: (16 feet )

Hand rail Aluminum ( 21 feet )

Diameter Rod  ( 6 mm diameter ) (16 feet )

 

       Van body Aluminum

•   Ventilator Blade    ( 21 feet )

•   Bus body Skin     ( 21 feet )

 

       Window Screen Frame:  1 Length = 20 feet

•   ¾" Single canal

•   ¾" Double canal

 

Aluminum discount

 

 

Take Note: for the Aluminum discount

   -   Aluminum Discount may vary depending on the Branch-area, Aluminum color,

        Retail,  Installation,  and wholesale Department.

 

   -  Keep in mind that the higher the Percent discount, the lower is the selling price.

 

Example: 

Square tube 1” x 1” (Anodize) aluminum at 50% discount is Php. 400.00/Length,  while

Php 380.00/ Length  for 55%. Customers for aluminium will mention price as “less %” not in pesos.

 

Unit of measurement conversions

 

C.) Conversion

        Formulas:

               Feet to inches                             x 12

               Centimetres to inches            / 2.54 or x 0.3937

               Millimetres to inches              / 25.4 or x 0.03937

               Meter to inches                          x 39.37

               Feet to cm                                    x 30.48

               Meter to feet                                x 3.28084

 

Example: Convert the following

•   4 ft. to inches                     4' x (12"/feet )                                     48 inches

•   108 inch. to feet               108"/( 12"/feet )                                  9 feet

•   2 meters  to inches          2 meters x ( 39.37"/1 meter )         78.74 inches

•   96 inches to meter           96" / ( 39.37"/ 1 meter )                   2.438 meter

•   60 cm to inches                 60 cm / ( 2.54"/1 inch )                    23.62 inches

•   36 inch to centimeter      36 inches x 2.54 cm./inch              91.44 centimeter

 

 

Jalousie Windows

 

D.) Jalousie Windows

                                                                                        Jalousie Guide

        NO. Of Blade

                           Standard Height

Single Control

Inches

Meter

4

14 5/8

0.371

5

18 1/8

0.46

6

21 5/8

0.549

7

25 1/8

0.638

8

28 5/8

0.727

9

32 1/8

0.816

Double Control

 

 

10

35 5/8

0.905

11

39 1/8

0.994

12

42 5/8

1.083

13

46 1/8

1.172

14

49 5/8

1.261

15

53 1/8

1.350

16

56 5/8

1.429

17

60 1/8

1.527

18

63 5/8

1.616

19

67 1/8

1.705

20

70 5/8

1.794

21

74 1/8

1.883

22

77 5/8

1.972

 

 

Remember:

            -   4” is the width of jalousie blade, length should be in even numbers, like 4" x 24" , if customers                          order  should be  4"x 21",  it should be 4" x 22" when you do the computation.

D.) Jalousie Windows                 

Example: ( Refer to the table above )     

    36” height =10 blades

    48”width/2 sets of jalousie frame = 24” (length of the blade)

    Therefore : 10 blades x 2 panels = 20 pcs. blades (4x24) for

                          2 sets of jalousie frame

 

Special Services

 

E.) Special services    ( additional to glass )

      Note:  Price used is  for sample only

•   Machine Polish       ( Price is per square  foot )

Thickness

Flat Aris

Pencil Edge

OG/3G

3/16" - 1/4"

Php 20.00

Php 25.00

N/A

3/8"

Php 25.00

Php 30.00

N/A

1/2"

Php 25.00

Php 30.00

Php 80.00

 

 

•   Machine Bevelled     ( Price is per  Linear foot )

      

Thickness

½”

1”

1 1/2”

2”

3/16"-1/4"

Php 20.00

Php 25.00

Php 35.00

N/A

3/8" - 1/2"

Php 30.00

Php 35.00

Php 45.00

Php 55.00

¾"

Php 50.00

Php 65.00

Php 100.00

Php120.00

 

•  Holing   ( Price is per hole ) 

Thickness

                             Holing Diameter

 

1/4-1/2”

1”

2”

3”-4”

3/16" -1/4"

Php 30.00

Php 80.00

Php 150.00

Php 200.00

3/8" -1/2"

Php 80.00

Php 120.00

Php 180.00

Php 250.00

 

Pass Thru   (price per hole)

                           3/16" - 1/4" =  Php.150.00

                           3/8" - 1/2"   =   Php. 250.00

 

5. Sliding Glass Notch / Finger Pull :   Price per notch   =  Php 50.00

6. Mickey Mouse Notch / Patch Notch    ( Usually charge to Tempered glass )

                                                                                 Mickey Mouse Notch

                                                                                           Patch Notch

7. Cornering :  Patay-kanto, Piso kanto & Sinko kanto     (  Additional percent of the total price )

                                                                                         Patay-kanto

                                                                                         Piso kanto                                                                                          Sinko kanto

8. Irregular shape:  Rounds,  Oval &  Arc    ( Additional Percent of the total price )

                                                                                            Round  Glass

                                                                                     Oval / Arc shape Glass  

9. Frosting charge = Price is per square  foot

                                                                        Sandblasted / Frosted glass

Other Special Services

 

Glass tempering process

Square foot and Linear foot

 

How to get the total Square Foot and Linear foot of the glass?

 

•   Square Foot  (Sq.ft.)

    Ex.  A customer wants to buy a 36” x 48” cut size 6 mm clear glass.

Method #1.

                         36 “x 48” = 1,728 inches  /  144”  = 12 sq. ft.

Method #2.   

                         Just simply convert 36” x 48” to feet.

                         3 ft. x 4 ft. = 12 sq. ft

 

• Linear Foot  ( L.ft. )

Ex. Faye bought a display 6mm mirror 36 x 48  with ½ bevelled.  

Method#1.

                     36” + 48” = 84” x 2” (for two sides) = 168 “ / 12” = 14 L. ft.

Method #2.

                     3ft. + 4ft. =7ft. x 2 = 14L. ft.

 

Observe Method #2 , if we are already familiar with the conversion, we don’t need to divide the number by 144” or 12”, just simply multiply the given by numbers by feet to get the sq. Ft and L. ft.

Computing Customer's Order

 

F.) Computing Customer’s order.

Note: Always ask warehouse in charge if retaso is available.

 1.) 6 mm clear top glass with polish with patay-kanto. 23 ½ inch x 47 inch.

        6 mm clear cut size= Php 40.00/sq. ft.

        Additional for polish=Php 20.00/sq. ft.

       10% added to total price for patay-kanto

        Standard: 24” x 48 “

        Computation:

                                  24”x48” = 1,152” /144” = 8 square foot

                                  8 square foot  x Php 60.00 = Php 480.00  + 10%=Php 528.00

2.) 12 mm clear glass with pattern.

Actual should be base on pattern

Standard size:  36” x 84”   ( 3 ft.x7 ft. = 21 square foot )

12 mm clear glass with polish = Php.130.00 / sq. ft

 Hole 2”                                            = Php.300.00

Therefore:  21 sq. ft. x Php 130.00 = 2,730.00 + 300.00 = 3,030.00 + 10% (cornering)

                       Total amount = Php 3,333.00

 3.) Refer to the drawing below, 6mm clear (hasa).

Standard size: 36” x 48” = 12 sq. ft

Glass cut size:  Php 40.00/sq. ft

                              12x 40 = Php 480.00

 Pass thru   =  Php 150.00

  Holing       =  Php  200.0

  Total Price :  Php  830.00

4.)  LU5/ Jalouplus Satin   (opening measurement)

54”height  = 15 blades

15 x 3 panels = 45pcs. of  blades

45 pcs = 4 x 20 @ P14.00 = Php 630.00

3 sets = 15 blades  JP(S) @ Php 400 = Php 1,200.00

Total: Php 1,830.00

 

5.)  6 mm mirror with polish with 1/2” bevelled

        Dimension required = 48 ¾” x 62”  

        Standard mirror size = 60”x72”  ( 5’ x 6’ = 30 sq .ft. )

        Mirror cut size: Php  60.00

        Polish charge: Php  20.00

        Total:  30 square foot x Php  80.00 = Php 2,400.00 ( Mirror polish charge )

        Bevelled: (60”+72”) 2/12” = 22 L. ft. x Php. 20.00/L. ft = Php 440.00

        Therefore: Php. 2,400 ( bevelled) + Php. 440.00 = Php. 2,800.00 (Total price)

Other item sold per meter & square foot

 

 

G.) Other item sold by per meter, and sq. ft.

      G.1 Tint

       A.)  with 60 inches (5ft.) width is sold per sq. ft

              Super black, Dark Gray, Silver, Green, Blue, Gold

       B.)   Frosted (smoke) Film width is sold by meter

                B.1)  48 inches width

                B.2)  36 inches width

                B.3)  Design Film 

Example:

    1.) One-way silver:  48 inches, 22 inches, 32 inches

          Take note that silver is 5 feet width so it is sold by sq. ft. like the standard size     

           of the glass.

If customers agree to cut it straight, add all customers order 48”+22”+32”=102” , so it will be computed by 5 ft. x 9ft. = 45 square feet , total sq. ft will be 45 sq. ft.,

But if customers want it individually cut, just simply put the individual size on the JO memo.

 

    2.) Smoke film:  36” x 60”

    Convert 60” to meter, 60”/39.37=1.52 meter , so it will be computed to 36” x 2 meter

 

G.2 Expanded and Screen mesh (sold per meter)

     A. Expanded (class A and class B)

          Available color: chrome and brown

          Available widths: 36” and 48”

     B.  Screen mesh (unimesh)

          Available color : chrome and brown

          Available widths: 36” and 48”

Example:

1.)  Customer will buy 144” of Expanded wire 36” class B (brown).

       -How many meters are there in 144”? 3.65 meters or simply 4meters.

       So it will be computed as 4 meters x 36”w.

 

2.)  Refer to the drawing below.

       Customer needs screen mesh (A).

       Customer will pay Screen mesh (A) 48” x 1.5 meter

 

 

Calculating percent discount

 

 

H. Calculating Percent Discount.

    Percent  discount is a certain amount to be deducted from the price.

Formula:

                Ex. 6mm display mirror 36”x48” is worth P600.00 with less 20%.

Method # 1.

      By manual:

1.) Original Price x Percent discount (in decimal form (Percent/100)) = Discount  Amount 

     Ex. Php  600.00 x 0.20 % = Php 120.00

2.)  Original Price – Discount Amount = New Sale Price.

       Ex. Php  600.00 – Php 120.00  = Php  480.00

 

Method # 2.

       Using your calculator:

1.)  Type original amount – Percent Discount sign % = New Sale Price.

      Ex. Php 600.00 – 20% =Php 480.00 

Calculating percent discount exercises

 

H. Calculating Percent Discount.

Sample exercises:

1.) Customer A wants to buy the display 6mm mirror w/ FA w/ ½ bevelled w/ 20% discount, how much is the new price if the original price is Php 800.00?

Method#1.

Php 800.00 x 0.20 = Php 160.00

Php 800.00 - Php 160.00 = Php 640.00 (new price)

Method#2.

Type: 800-20 sign % = Php 640.00(new price)

2.) Christmas Sale:  All Display is Less 30%.

Customer Z ask you about the price of 4 sitters set table with 36”x48” 10mm bronze top glass with metal stand with 4 veronica chairs. Original price is Php 6,000.00 / set.

Method#1:

Php  6,000.00 x 0.30 = Php. 1,800.00

Php  6,000.00 – Php.1,800.00 = Php 4,200.00 (new price)

Method#2

Type: 6,000.00 - 30%  =  Php 4,200.00 (new price)

 

3.) A 30% less for total amount is given to a customer if he will buy 2 units of display showcase. Ana bought small standard showcase with an amount of Php 5,000.00, and another medium showcase for Php 7,000.00. How much will Ana pay for the two items?

Original Price: Php  5,000.00 + Php  7,000.00 = Php 12,000.00 (total of 2 items)

Discount amount:   Php12,000.00 x .30 = Php 3,600.00

New discounted price:  Php 12,000.00 - Php 3,600.00 = Php 8,400.00

 

4.) Joan wants to know how much is the new price of all glass 36” center table with the price of

      Php  6,500.00 less 15%.

Just type:  Php  6,500.00 – 15% = Php  5,525.00