City Cycle Proficiency Exam

This test will assess your proficiency and suitability to hold a bicycle card for the CityCycle Program

Disclaimer & General Information

Information

Disclaimer

This learning object has been created for the express purpose of being assessment for the subject 3723ICT Educational Design in Multimedia. This subject is part of the Bachelor of ICT Degree at Griffith University, course code 1042. 


Student Details:

Name: Ferguson Donald McBryde

Student Number: S2917560

Email: [email protected]

Topic: 6 - Bicycle Road Rules

Lecturer: Mr. Dejan Stantic


Credit:

Queensland Government Website

Queensland Transport Website

Top 10 Bike Fixes Website

Cycling Queensland Website



Learning Outcomes

What can I expect to learn?

You can expect to learn the following:

Simple Bike Repairs & Mechanics

Bike & Road Rules

Bike & Road Safety

Basic First Aid

Section 1 - Background Information

What is your Name?

What Gender do you identify as?

  • Male
  • Female
  • Other

What is your Home Address

What is the best contact Phone Number for you?

What is your Drivers License  or Passport Number?

How old are you?

Section 2 - Road Rules & Safety

Please read the following information on Common QLD Road & Safety Rules - Line Markings

Road markings

Road markings in Queensland include lines, painted islands, traffic lane arrows, dividing strips, and turning bays—with most being painted white.

Lines are painted on the road to guide you when driving.

Painted lines include:

Continuous centre lines

Single continuous line

Car crossing a single continuous line

Crossing a single continuous line

You can cross a single continuous centre line to enter or leave a road, including entering or leaving a property, and to safely pass cyclists.

You cannot cross a single continuous centre line to overtake or do a U-turn.



 

Single continuous centre line left of a broken line

Car crossing a single continuous line left of a broken line

Crossing a single continuous line left of a broken line

You can enter or leave a property or road by crossing a single continuous dividing line to the left of a broken line. You can also cross the line to pass a cyclist, provided it is safe to do so.

If you are on the same side of the road as the continuous line you cannot cross the line to overtake or do a U-turn.


 

Double continuous centre lines

A road with double continuous centre lines

Double continuous centre lines

You must not cross a double continuous centre line except to safely pass a cyclist.






 

Video of continuous centre lines

Watch the video to learn more about continuous centre lines.

View transcript

Broken centre lines

A road with a broken centre line

Overtaking across a broken centre line

You can overtake across a broken single centre line, or broken centre line to the left of a continuous centre line. You can also turn or do a U-turn across this type of line.


 

Double broken lines

Double broken centre lines have the same legal standing as a single broken centre line.

Continuous lane lines

You must not cross a continuous line separating 2 lanes unless the lane you are moving to or from is a special purpose lane, such as a transit lane, and the driver is allowed to use the special purpose lane.

Continuous edge lines

Edge lines mark the edge of the road. The area to the left of the edge line is called the shoulder of the road and is not an extra lane for vehicles to travel. Cyclists may travel on the road shoulder.

Motorcyclists—with an open licence for the type of motorcycle they are riding—can also use the road shoulder on roads with a speed limit of 90km/h or over, to pass stationary or slow moving traffic providing they’re not travelling over 30km/h.

You must not cross the continuous white line at the edge of the road unless you are:

  • overtaking to the left of a vehicle that is turning right or making a U-turn
  • driving a slow-moving vehicle—to allow other vehicles to overtake or pass.

You can cross a continuous white edge line and travel for up to 100m when you are:

  • entering or leaving a single lane road
  • turning at an intersection from a single lane road
  • stopping at the side of a road—unless signs or markings say not to.

If you are on a multi-lane road you should not cross any edge line before turning.

If the edge line is yellow, stopping and parking is prohibited where the line is marked.

Painted traffic islands

Crossing a painted traffic island with a single continuous line

Crossing a painted traffic island with a single continuous line

You can drive on a painted traffic island that is surrounded by a single continuous line for up to 50m to:

  • enter or leave the road
  • enter a turning lane that begins immediately after the island.

You can also drive on a painted island to safely overtake a cyclist.

You must not drive on a painted traffic island if the island:

  • is surrounded by double continuous lines
  • separates traffic flowing in the same direction—like where an onramp merges onto a motorway.

Stop and give way lines

Stop and give way lines have the same meaning and authority as stop and give way signs.

If you approach a stop line or give way line, where there is no corresponding sign installed, you must obey the road markings as if there was a sign in place.

Wide centre lines

A road with wide centre lines

A road with wide centre lines

A wide centre line or strip replaces the existing centre lines with 2 new lines that are up to 1m apart—but the road rules remain the same.

It is illegal to overtake or do a U-turn across a single or double continuous centre line, or a continuous centre line to the left of a broken line.

You can overtake or do a U-turn across a double broken centre line or a continuous centre line with a broken line to the left of it.

 

 

 

Can a car-driver LEGALLY go over a solid double white centre line if trying to pass a cyclist?

  • Yes, they can as long as it is safe to do so
  • no, that is illegal

Can a car-driver LEGALLY go over a solid single white centre line if trying to pass a cyclist?

  • No, it is illegal
  • Yes, as long as it is safe to do so

Please read the following information on Common QLD Road & Safety Rules - Sharing the Road

Sharing the road with bicycle riders

Bicycles are a type of vehicle and bicycle riders and motorists have the same rights and responsibilities when using the road.

Bicycle riders must obey the same general road rules as motorists as well as thebicycle road rules.

Bicycle riders who break the law are subject to the same fines as motorists.

Laws for motorists passing bicycle riders

Motorists must stay wider of bicycle riders by giving a minimum of:

  • 1m when passing a bicycle rider in a 60km/h or less speed zone
    or
  • 1.5m where the speed limit is over 60km/h.

Passing a bicycle rider means that you (as a motorist) and the bicycle rider are travelling in the same direction. This includes when you are travelling side-by-side in separate lanes on a multi-lane road. It does not apply if you are travelling in opposite directions.

The passing distance is measured from:

  • The rightmost part of the bicycle, or the person on the bicycle
    to
  • The leftmost part of the vehicle, or something sticking out from the vehicle (e.g. a side mirror).

The minimum passing distance applies even if the bicycle rider is riding around an obstacle.

These road rules apply to all motor vehicles—including cars, motorcycles, heavy vehicles and public transport vehicles.

Crossing lines to pass a bicycle rider

To pass a bicycle rider—as long as it is safe to do so—you are allowed to:

  • drive over centre lines (including double unbroken centre lines) on a 2-way road
  • straddle or cross a lane line (including a continuous lane line) on a multi-lane road
  • drive on a painted island.

If it is not safe to pass a bicycle rider, you must wait until it is safe to pass.

Indicating when passing

Drivers must indicate when passing bicycle riders if they need to change their position on the road.

  • Indicate 'right' long enough to warn other road users that you are about to veer right to pass a bicycle rider
  • Then indicate 'left' when you have passed the bicycle rider and are returning to your original position on the road.

You must indicate if you need to change your position on the road, even if you do not need to cross the centre or lane lines.

Passing 2 bicycle riders riding side-by-side

If you want to pass 2 bicycle riders that are riding next to each other, the minimum passing distance applies to the bicycle rider closest to the right. It is legal for 2 bicycle riders to ride side-by-side on a road, as long as they are not more than 1.5m apart.

Check your blind spots

Bicycle riders are much smaller than cars and heavy vehicles, so they are harder to see. Check your blind spots before changing lanes, turning or when you open your car door.

Giving way

Make sure you treat bicycle riders like any other vehicles on the road. Give way to them when required and travel at a safe following distance.

Penalties

As a motorist, you will get 3 demerit points and a $365 fine if you do not give the minimum distance when you pass a bicycle rider. If the matter goes to court, a maximum fine of $4,876 can apply.

Be patient and considerate

Watch out for bicycle riders at all times, but especially at night, dawn or dusk. Be considerate and dip your headlights when approaching a bicycle rider at night.

Be patient. If it isn't safe to pass a bicycle rider, wait until it is safe. This should not hold you up for long and it could save the bicycle rider's life.

Turning left behind a bicycle rider

If a bicycle rider is ahead of you and you want to turn left, turn behind the bicycle rider. Overtaking and cutting off the bicycle rider is very dangerous.

Wet weather

Wet weather can cause the road to become oily or slippery and reduce visibility, so be extra careful around bicycle riders at these times.

What penalties do you receive if you don't give way to cyclists?

  • 3 Demerit Points
  • $365 fine
  • $4876 fine

Please fill in the blanks

Motorists must stay wider of bicycle riders by giving a minimum of:

  •  when passing a bicycle rider in a or less speed zone
    or
  •  where the speed limit is 60km/h.

Section 3 - Bike Rules & Safety

Bike Signs - Reading

Cycling rules

Cycling on bikeways and shared paths

Different street signs have been strategically placed to help pedestrians and cyclists understand the rules when using Brisbane's bikeways and shared pathways. Unless otherwise signed, bikeways and shared paths can be used by:

  • cyclists 
  • pedestrians 
  • skate boards, foot scooters and roller blades (wheeled recreational devices)
  • electric bikes or scooters with a maximum of 200 watts (not petrol-driven mopeds)

Types of pathways

There are three different types of paths for pedestrians and cyclists or other wheeled recreational devices.  Footpaths may be used by all, however pedestrians have right of way. 

Pathway guidelines

Shared pathway - see page text for details.

Shared pathway

  • keep left
  • pedestrians are not to block the path
  • cyclists give way to pedestrians
  • people on roller blades or skates, skate boards or electric bicycles (maximum 200 watts) give way to both cyclists and pedestrians
  • cyclists must slow down and sound bell when approaching pedestrians

Separated pathway - see page text for details

Separated pathway

  • one side is for cyclists, skate boards, roller blades and electric bicycles. The other side for pedestrians
  • wheelchairs can use either side, however, if you are travelling slow Brisbane City Council suggests using the pedestrian side of the path
  • pedestrians crossing the bicycle path must do so as quickly as possible
  • cyclists should be wary of pedestrians

Bicycle only - see page text for details

Bicycle only pathway

  • cater for high speed commuter cycling
  • pedestrians are not allowed on bike only paths
  • wheeled recreational devices and electric bikes can also use bike paths

Cycling on roads and in malls

Bicycles are legal vehicles and have the right to use the road as cars do.

This means that cyclists must also obey the road rules for cyclists. In addition, cyclists should always travel with the flow of traffic when in a bicycle lane, not against the flow of car traffic, unless cycling on a path.

Bicycles should not be ridden in public squares and malls such as Reddacliff Place, Queen Street Mall and any other public areas with a 'no bicycles' sign.  Cyclists must dismount and walk their bicycles through these areas.

Cycling safety tips

When cycling be sure to:

  • wear an Australian standards approved helmet
  • wear appropriate footwear, such as enclosed shoes
  • stay hydrated
  • know your fitness level and riding skills
  • obey all road rules (including when on bike paths)
  • be seen by using reflectors, lights and bright clothing, especially at night or during rain.  Reflective vests will also maximise your presence
  • find a bikeway or shared pathway to plan your route

Queensland Transport also provides good tips on cycling safely in the wet, at night, in traffic and in the sun and heat and on potential hazards such as magpies and dogs.  

Cycle responsibly

Our roads and shared pathways are safer and more enjoyable for everyone when all users obey the rules and treat others with respect.

The following behaviours should be adopted by all cyclist and path users: 

  • slow down if the path is crowded
  • cycle at appropriate speeds by slowing down when passing or overtaking
  • sound your bell to warn others
  • keep as far left as possible
  • be considerate to others
  • cycle in a predictable manner to reassure others around you
  • expect the unexpected
  • create a safe and friendly environment by saying a quick 'hello' or 'thank you' when passing 

Cycling signs 

Bicycle lane - see page text for details

Bicycle lane (on-road cycling facility)

Bike lanes are dedicated on-road cycling facilities. The green surface improves bicycle awareness and traction for cyclists in wet conditions. The same road rules apply for on-road bike lanes without the green surface treatment.

Bicycle Awareness Zone - see page text for details

Bicycle awareness zone

Bicycle Awareness Zones have been installed when space for bicycle lanes is restricted. They are indicated by yellow bicycle symbols painted on the road. To reduce confusion, BAZ markings are being removed as part of Council's road resurfacing program. Cyclists need to share the road with vehicles, but should keep to the left as far as possible. Normal road rules apply.

No bicycles - see page text for details

No bicycles

Riding is not permitted beyond this point. You must dismount and walk your bicycle through.

This sign may appear on a sign or painted on the ground.

Bicycle route - see page text for details

Bicycle route

Street has less vehicle traffic and is suitable for cycling. No specific facilities are provided.

Road ahead - see page text for details

Road ahead

Bikeway crosses a road up ahead. Cyclists are required to give way to vehicles.

Shared pathway - see page text for details

Shared pathway general information

This sign indicates the basic shared pathway rules which are:

  • all users to keep left
  • pedestrians don’t block the path
  • cyclists give way to pedestrians, and
  • cyclists sound their bell to warn pedestrians

Pedestrain crossing ahead - see page text for details

Pedestrian crossing ahead

This warning sign indicated that pedestrians are likely to be crossing the bike path ahead.

Which sign represents a lane shared between road users?

Which sign represents a lane exclusively for cyclists?

Which sign represents a lane with dedicated sections for Pedestrians & Cyclists?

Are bikes legally classified as vehicles?

  • Yes
  • No

Which sign indicates a dedicated bicycle lane?

Which sign indicates a bicycle awareness zone?

Which sign indicates that bicycles are not allowed?

Which sign indicates a bicycle route?

Which sign indicates that there is a road ahead?

Which sign is a shared pathway information sign?

Which sign indicates a pedestrian crossing ahead?

Section 4 - Bike Maintenance & Riding Tips

Basic Bike Maintenance - Fixing Puncture

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW 
 

 

Required Componentns:

Strong Thumbs

Spare Tubes

Sealeant

 

Time required:

30 Minutes

 

 

 

STEPS

 


 

1. Remove inner tube

insert the first tyre lever

Insert tyre lever to remove the wheel.


 

  • Remove wheel and deflate tyre: Remove the wheel. (Rear wheels can be tricky - shift up through the gears to get onto the smallest cog and then flip back the upper cog of derailleur back as you slide the wheel out of the frame). Deflate the inner tube (press down on the middle of the valve).

insert other tyre levers

Insert the levers under the bead, prise off one side of the tyre from the rim.


 

  • Prise off one side of tyre: Starting diametrically opposite the valve, insert the levers under the bead of the tyre and gradually prise off one side of the tyre from the rim. For the first 4 inches or so, insert the levers close together. Once the first 4 inches are off, the rest comes off easier.

pull out inner tube

Pull out inner tube valve first, then pull the whole inner tube out of the tyre.


 

  • Pull out inner tube: Push the valve of the inner tube up through the rim, and then pull the whole inner tube out of the tyre. Take care not to puncture the inner tube on sharp bits on the rim, or to pinch it between tyre levers.


 

 

2. Find the puncture and its cause

 

find bubbles

Immerse the inner tube in water to find puncture.

Find puncture: Inflate the inner tube, and listen for the 'hiss' of escaping air, or run your hands around the tube, and feel for its soft rush. If this fails, immerse the inflated tube in water and look for a trail of bubbles.

Can't find the puncture? It could be the valve, articularly if you had to ride on a completely flat tyre, or the tube is old or cheap.

Mark the location: Dry the tube and mark the puncture, for example, with some chalk.

Don't get another puncture for the same reason: This can happen when you fit the new inner tube. So,

 

 

 

 

  • Check tyre: visually check the tread of the tyre on the outside, and run your fingers round the inside - you might see or feel something sharp. Winkle out any offending object.
  • Check rim tape: Rim tape should shield the inner tube from sharp spoke ends, and rusty or damaged rims, but sometimes it doesn't. Replace the rim tape, and rub down anything sharp.


 

3. Patch the puncture

 

applying rubber solution

Spread the rubber cement around so that it covers a larger area than the patch.


 

  • Prepare tube: Clean and roughen the area around the puncture.

  • Add rubber: Apply a large blob of rubber cement. Spread the cement around, so that it covers an area slightly larger than patch. Wait for the solution to begin to dry and then add another blob.

a patch over a puncture

Stick the patch down all around the puncture and leave it to bond.


 

  • Apply patch: stick the patch down all around the puncture - no flapping edges to get caught. Leave it to bond.

 


 

4. Fit inner tube.

poke the valve back through the rim

To refit the inner tube, first insert the valve through the hole in the rim valve first


 

  • Replace tube: Press one bead of the tyre onto the wheel rim, so that one side of the tyre is on the wheel, but you still have access to the inside of the tyre. Slightly inflate the inner tube - enough to give it shape, but not firmness.

work around the wheel, fit the rest of the inner tube

Press tyre bead back onto rim


 

  • Then pass the valve of the inner tube through the hole in the rim. Working away from the valve and around the tyre, push the inner tube into the tyre, taking care not to twist or scratch the inner tube as you go.

use thumbs to replace bead of tyre

Strong thumbs are needed to press home the last few inches of tyre bead


 

Take care not to snag the inner tube inbetween rim and tyre. The last few inches of the tyre will become very stiff, but resist the temptation to use the tyre levers to lever the tyre back on - the inner tube is easily pinched between the two.

 

When the tyre is finally on, pat around it to make sure the inner tube and tyre are sitting comfortably on the rim. Then inflate to half pressure, before remounting the wheel ... you're FIXED! (Fully-inflated tyres may not fit through your brakes, even if you open them up)

Basic Bike Maintenance - Adjusting Seat Position

1. Find the best riding position

 

Finding the best riding position for you is a gradual process of refinement and trial and error. Cyclists have different riding styles and their bodies have different proportions. So there is no universal, 'best-for-everyone' solution.

First, ask yourself a couple of key questions:

  1. What kind of ride you are looking for - more relaxed? more sporty? something inbetween?
  2. What are you like physically? - longer than average legs? shorter than average body? less flexible than average back?

Then, use your answers to guide making adjustments. How are you riding? How does it feel? If you are not happy, consider making one of the adjustments below. If you think an adjustment might help, try it out and see.

Repeat this process of review and adjustment until you can't make it any better!


 

2. Adjust saddle height

Knee angle around 25-30 degrees

Knee angle rule: Adjust the saddle so that the angle at the knee is 25-30 degrees.

Saddle top to pedal spindle = crotch to floor x 1.09

Saddle-spindle rule: Adjust the saddle so that the distance of the pedal spindle to the saddle equals your inside leg x 1.09.

Knee Angle Rule: With the pedal at the bottom of the downward stroke, set the saddle so that the angle at the knee is 25-30 degrees. Mechanically, this is an efficient arrangement, so it is common amongst 'sporty' riders.

 

Saddle-Spindle Rule: Set the saddle so that the distance from pedal spindle to top centre of the saddle equals your inside leg (crotch to floor) x 1.09. This formula approximately describes many sporty riders' set ups - strange but true!

 

Other rules: as you pedal sitting on the saddle:

  • keep your hips stationary - they should not move up and down as you stretch around the bottom of a stroke;
  • keep your knees bent - they should never lock straight.

Working joints hard outside their natural tolerances will lead to injury.

 

Comment: New bikers often set the saddle quite low, so that, when seated, toes still touch the ground. As you get more confident, a more efficient, comfortable position might be higher.

 



 

3. Adjust saddle forwards and back

Riding Style Adjustment

Sporty

set the saddle so that, with the pedal pointing forward and the crank horizontal, the front of the leading knee is directly above the pedal spindle.

Relaxed

set the saddle slightly further back, so that with the pedal pointing forward and the crank horizontal, the front of the leading knee is fractionally behind the pedal spindle.

Front of the knee above the pedal spindle

For a sporty riding style, adjust the saddle so that the front of the leading knee is directly above the pedal spindle.


 

Why sit further back?: Sitting further back transfers a little weight from the handlebars onto the pedals and saddle - worth a try, if you are getting aches and pains in your wrist, neck and shoulders.

Does sitting back make you bend and reach?: If you sit further back, all other things being equal, you will need to bend your back more, and stretch out your arms more to reach the handlebars. Too much of this can lead to aches and pains in your back and arms, so adjusting the saddle back is often followed by raising the handlebars and/or shortening the stem (see Adjust handlebars).

Saddle angle: A horizontal saddle is usually right for everyday riding. If the saddle tilts, you'll either slide forwards onto the narrow front of the saddle, or backwards and have to cling on.

Saddle design: The more upright your position, the wider the saddle. The more leaning forward your position, the narrower the saddle.


 

4. Adjust handlebar height and reach

 

More sporty - lower bars, saddle more forward, more arched back

For a sporty riding style, set the handlebars lower than the saddle

 

Adjustment: set the bars lower - many sporty riders have bars 2-3 cm lower than the saddle to reduce their profile to the wind. But remember - aerodynamics do not count for much under 20mph. Are your really going that fast?

More relaxed - higher bars, saddle more to rear, less arched back

For a relaxed riding style, raise the handlebars slightly, lower than the saddle .

 

Adjustment: raise the handlebars. A more upright position is often preferred by older riders with less bendy backs, commuters who need a good view of their surroundings, or on long rides.

 

 

Other rules:

  • keep your arms slightly, and comfortably bent. Most of your weight should be borne by the pedals and saddle - not the bars.
  • do not ride for long periods with wrists flexed (in, out, up or down). Keep your hand, wrist and lower arm within the range of 'natural' alignments.

 

Buy the right stem: As you lean forward, so your hands extend further forward also. Similarly, as you sit up, so your 'reach' is reduced. But your handlebars stay in the same place. So, as you adjust your position, your bike may begin to feel too short or too long.

In this case, consider flipping over your stem (the 'stick' that connects the steering column to the handlebars), or consider buying a new one. Stems have different amounts of 'rise' (increase in height) and length (forward extent), and the right stem will give you the handlebar position you need.


 

5. Adjust feet on pedals

Cleats are the 'clips' on special cycling shoes that securely attach the shoe to the pedal. They make for more efficient riding.


Ball-of-foot-above-spindle rule: place the ball of the foot directly above the centre of the pedal axle. This is efficient, stable and reduces stress around the ankle.

Leg-inline rule: try to keep the knee in line with the hip joint and ball of the foot. It is mechanically inefficient, if your knee wavers in an out during the stroke. That said, not everyone has perfectly straight, symmetrical legs so find your 'natural' alignment.

 

Hip, knee and ball of foot in a straight line

Leg-inline rule: keep the hip, knee and foot aligned

6. Try out new position

You don't feel FIXED? Any new position may feel a strange at first - your muscles will be accustomed to your old position, so try a new position for a while - it may feel better eventually.

Chart of Bike Parts

Please observe the following diagram. This will assist you with the next question.

Identifying Bike Parts

Please match the words to their respective parts
  • Spoke
  • Pedal
  • Chain
  • Seat
  • Handlebar
  • Brakepad
  • Brake
  • Tyre
  • Tubing

Section 5 - Simple First Aid & First Response Procedures

Simple First Aid - Reading

Simple First Aid Tips:

  1. Take instant ice packs 
  2. Hydration is key
  3. Take a portable first aid kit
  4. Make sure someone knows where you're going
  5. Slip slop slap
  6. If you feel like the situation is serious, call 000 IMMEDIATELY!






First Response Procedures - DRSABCD

NOTICE

There will be no questions for this section, due to this not being a professionally accredited medical course.


What next?

Where to from here?

To receive your card please contact Nebraro City Council and Quote your Name & Email Address.