SHIPS HUSBANDRY

Welcome to Ships Husbandry 

Ships Husbandry is an important type of work performed by the Salmons Dredging Corporation Dive Team.  As a team member it is important that you understand what Ships Husbandry is and the techniques that are used.  Before you can work on or inspect ships it is important for you to learn the terminology and the parts of a ship.

 

What is Ships Husbandry

Ships Husbandry is all aspects of maintenance, cleaning, and general upkeep of the hull, rigging, and equipment of a ship.

Underwater ships husbandry can be financially advantageous when it eliminates the need for dry-dock repairs or extends the interval between dry-dockings.  It can also reduce the time that the ship is in dry-dock

Ships Husbandry - Module 1 - Nautical Terms & Parts of A Ship

ADRIFT

ADRIFT

Loose from the moorings (not tied or secured). Pictured is a boat "adrift"

AFT

AFT

At, or towards the stern of a vessel. (Opposite to forward.)

AFTER DECK

AFTER DECK

A term applied to a deck aft to the midship portion of a vessel.

AGROUND

AGROUND (RAN AGROUND)

Ship has contacted and is resting on the bottom.

Grounded

Ship has grounded on a shallow shoal.

Alee (Leeward)

Leeward side 

Opposite or "downstream to the direction of the wind

ALONGSIDE

ALONGSIDE

The position of a vessel when securely moored on a berth in port.

AMIDSHIP(S)

AMIDSHIP(S)

In the longitudinal, or fore-and-aft center of a ship. Halfway between  stem and stern. The term is used to convey the idea of general locality   but not that of definite extent.  Here shown as "Midships".

ANCHOR

ANCHOR

A heavy steel device (of variable design) so shaped as to grip the sea  bed to hold a vessel or offshore installation in a desired position.

ANODE

ANODE (SACRIFICIAL)

Zinc or aluminium or some such alloy that is fixed to the hull of a vessel. They are “eaten” up by electrical currents moving from the vessel  to the water. The anode is sacrificed to protect the metal hull of the  vessel – without the anode, the hull plating would be dissolved by electrolysis.

This zinc is over 50% deteriorated.

ANTIFOULING (PAINT)

ANTIFOULING PAINT

A marine paint composition containing toxic ingredients preventing or retarding marine underwater growth on the hull of a vessel.

ASHORE

ASHORE

On the shore (on land).

AWASH

AWASH

Level with the water (water ready to, or slightly covering  decks).

BALLAST

BALLAST

Any  weight carried solely for the purpose of making the vessel more seaworthy. Ballast may be either portable  or fixed, depending upon the condition of the ship. Fixed or permanent ballast in the form of sand,  concrete, scrap or pig iron is usually fitted to overcome an inherent  defect in stability or trim due to faulty design or changed character of  service. Portable ballast, usually in the form of water pumped into or out  of the bottom, peak, or wing ballast tanks, is utilized to overcome a  temporary defect in stability or trim due to faulty loading, damage,  etc.

BARGE

BARGE

A craft (vessel)  of full body and heavy construction designed for the carriage  of cargo or equipment but having no machinery for self-propulsion.

BEAM

BEAM

(1) The registered breadth of a vessel, measured at the outside of the  hull amidships, or at its greatest breadth. 

(2) A transverse structural  member supporting a deck and/or strengthening a hull.

BELAY

BELAY

To make fast as to a pin or cleat. To rescind an order (tie up).

BERTH

BERTH

A place for a ship to rest

BILGE

BILGE

(1) Intersection or curved transition of bottom and sides of a hull.       

(2) Lowest points within hull compartments where liquids may accumulate.

BILGE BLOCKS

BILGE BLOCKS

Supporting blocks used under bilge for support during construction or drydocking.

BILGE KEEL

BILGE KEEL

Non-retractable elongated longitudinal fin protruding from the bilge used to reduce rolling.

BILGE PLATES

BILGE PLATES

The curved shell plates that fit the bilge

BITTS

BITTS

Twin stout posts welded to the deck to which mooring lines are fastened.

BOLLARD

BOLLARD

The equivalent of a vessel’s mooring bitts used onshore.

BOW

BOW

The fore (front) end or a ship.  A "Bulbous Bow " is shown in the photo,

BULBOUS BOW

BULBOUS BOW

bulbous bow is a protruding bulb at the bow (or front) of a ship just below the waterline. The bulb modifies the way the water flows around the hull, reducing drag and thus increasing speed, range, fuel efficiency, and stability. Large ships with bulbous bows generally have twelve to fifteen percent better fuel efficiency than similar vessels without them.[1] A bulbous bow also increases the buoyancy of the forward part and hence reduces the pitching of the ship to a small degree.

BOW THRUSTER

BOW THRUSTER

Maneuvering thruster (bow thruster)  is a transversal propulsion device built into, or mounted to the bow of a ship or boat, to make it more maneuverable. Bow thrusters make docking easier, since they allow the captain to turn the vessel to port or starboard side, without using the main propulsion mechanism which requires some forward motion for turning;[1]  Large ships might have multiple bow thrusters and stern thrusters.

BRIDGE

BRIDGE

Elevated control center dedicated to the control and navigation of the vessel.  The uppermost platform erected at the level of the top of the pilot house. [Alt. Navigating bridge or wheelhouse.]

BREAK BULK (BULK CARGO)

BREAK BULK (BULK CARGO)

Cargo shipped in loose condition and of a mixed nature.  Carried on a bulk carrier vessel.

BULKHEAD

BULKHEAD

(1) A vertical structural partition dividing a vessel’s interior into  various compartments for strength and safety purposes; (termed strength       bulkhead). 

(2) Term applied to vertical partition walls (non-structural) subdividing the interior of a vessel into compartments.

BULWARK

BULWARK

Barrier of stiffened plating at the outboard edge of the main or upper deck to prevent or inhibit entry of the sea. Bulwarks may be additionally       employed at the forward edges of superstructure decks in lieu of safety  railings as a barrier to wind and spray.

CAPSIZE

CAPSIZE

A ship is said to capsize when it loses transverse stability and rolls over and sinks.

CAPSTAN

CAPSTAN

A revolving cylinder with a vertical axis used for winding a rope or cable, powered by a motor or pushed around by levers..

CARGO BOOM

CARGO BOOM

A heavy boom used in handling cargo.

CARGO DOOR

CARGO DOOR

Watertight door in the hull side through which cargo may be loaded or  discharged.

CAST OFF

CAST OFF

To let go as in "cast off a line"

CATHODIC PROTECTION

CATHODIC PROTECTION

Sacrificial (such as zincs)or impressed current (see drawing) system of corrosion protection of  hull, tanks and piping.

CAVITATION

CAVITATION

The formation of bubbles on an aerofoil section in areas of reduced  pressure. Can occur on heavily loaded ship propellers.

CENTER OF BUOYANCY

CENTER OF BUOYANCY

That point through which the buoyancy force acts. It is defined in space by its longitudinal, vertical and transverse (respectively, LCB, VCB and TCB) position relative to a set of orthogonal axes. It is also the center of volume of the displaced water.

CENTER OF GRAVITY

CENTER OF GRAVITY

The point through which the force due to gravity, that is the weight of the body, acts. Its position is defined in a similar way to the center of       buoyancy and is very important in calculations of stability.

CHAFING GEAR

CHAFING GEAR

A guard of canvas or rope put around spars, mooring lines, or rigging  to prevent them from wearing out by rubbing against something.

CHAIN LOCKER

CHAIN LOCKER

The compartment for storing the anchor chains, located near the hawse  pipes in the bow of the ship.

CHEEKS

CHEEKS

The bilgeways, or curve of the bilges.

CLEAT

CLEAT

A metal fitting having two projecting arms or horns to which a halyard       or other rope is belayed. The deck, side plating, a stanchion, or other       convenient structure serves as a support for securing the cleat.

COFFERDAM

COFFERDAM

cofferdam (also called a coffer) is a temporary enclosure built within, or in pairs across, a body of water and constructed to allow the enclosed area to be pumped out. This pumping creates a dry work environment for the major work to proceed.

COMPARTMENT

COMPARTMENT

A subvision of space or room in a ship.

COUNTER

COUNTER

The part of a ship’s stern which overhangs the stern post.

DAVIT

DAVIT

A curved metal spar for handling a boat or other heavy objects.

DISPLACEMENT

DISPLACEMENT

The weight in tons of the water displaced by a ship (blue area). This weight is the  same as the total weight of the ship when afloat. Displacement may be expressed either in cubic feet or tons, a cubic foot of sea water weighs 64 pounds and one of fresh water weighs 62.5 pounds, consequently one ton       is equal to 35 cubic feet of sea water or 35.9 feet of fresh water. The designed displacement of a vessel is her displacement when floating at her       designed draft.  

DOCKING PLAN

DOCKING PLAN

Detailed structural plan and profile of the lower hull structure required for correct location of the vessel in dry docking.

DOUBLING PLATES

DOUBLING PLATES

Extra plates (bars or stiffeners, added to strengthen sections where  holes have been cut for hawse pipes, machinery, etc. Also placed where  strain or wear is expected.

DRAFT

DRAFT (DRAUGHT)

Depth to which a ship is immersed in water below the waterline measured vertically to the  lowest part of the hull, propellers or other reference points.. The depth varies according  to the design of the ship and will be greater or lesser depending not only   on the weight of the ship and everything on board, but also on the density of the water in which the ship is lying.

DRAFT MARKS

DRAFT MARKS

Numbers marked on the hull side forward, aft (and amidships on large  vessels) indicating the draft.

DERRICK

DERRICK

1.  A jib crane having a boom hinged near the base  of mast so as to rotate about the mast, for moving a load toward or away from the mast by raising or lowering  the boom.

2. A boom for lifting cargo, pivoted at its inner end to a ship's mast working post, and raised and supported at its outer end by topping lifts.

DRY DOCK

DRY DOCK

(1) Large basin with sealing caisson for the repair and maintenance of  vessels. 

(2) General term for basin dry docks, floating docks or lift  platforms for the maintenance and repair of vessels.

DUNNAGE

DUNNAGE

Materials of various types, often timber or matting, placed among the  cargo for separation, and hence protection from damage, for ventilation   and, in the case of certain cargoes, to provide space in which the forks  of a lift truck may be inserted.

ENGINE ROOM

ENGINE ROOM

Space where the main engines of a ship are located

FAIRLEAD

FAIRLEAD

A device consisting of pulleys or rollers arranged to permit the reeling in of a cable from any direction; often used in conjunction with  winches and similar apparatus.

FANTAIL

FANTAIL

The overhanging stern section of a vessel, from the stern post  aft.

FENDER

FENDER

This term is applied to various devices fastened to or hung over the sides of a vessel for the purpose of preventing rubbing or chafing.  On small craft, such as tug boats, it consists of a timber or steel structure  running fore and aft along the outside of the vessel above the water line. On the wearing surface a strip of iron bark or a piece of flat bar iron  is attached.

FLOATING DRYDOCK

FLOATING DRYDOCK

A U-shaped dock with double skins which is filled by opening up the sillcocks, and allowed to settle so the middle section will be lower than  the keel of the ship so that repairs can be made on her hull.

FORE AND AFT

FORE AND AFT

Parallel to the ship’s centerline.

FORE, FORWARD

FORE, FOREWARD

Toward the stem. Between the stem and amidships.

FORECASTLE

FORECASTLE

A short structure at the forward end of a vessel formed by carrying up  the ship’s shell plating a deck height above the level of her uppermost  complete deck and fitting a deck over the length of this  structure.

FOREDECK

FOREDECK

Foremost section of exposed main deck.

FOULED

FOULED, FOULING

Jammed, not clear, such as a fouled sea chest or a fouled propeller

MARINE FOULING

Pertains to ships hulls, propellers , underwater structures that have become covered with barnacles and other marine growth.  Also known as bio-fouling.

FRAME

FRAME

In shipsframes are ribs that are transverse bolted or welded to the keel. Frames support the hull and give the ship its shape and strength. In wooden shipbuilding, each frame is composed of several sections, so that the grain of the wood can follow the curve of the frame.

FREEBOARD

FREEBOARD

Vertical measurement from the vessel’s side amidships from the load waterline to the upperside of the freeboard deck.

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT

Highly detailed plan drawings of the general layout of a vessel.

GRATING

GRATING

An open iron lattice work used for covering hatchways and  platforms.

GRAVING DOCK

GRAVING DOCK

A type of fixed dry dock. The vessel is floated in, and gates at the entrance closed  when the tide is at ebb. The remaining water is then pumped out, and the      vessel’s bottom is graved, or cleaned.

GROUNDING

GROUNDING

Running ashore (hitting the bottom).

GUNWHALE (GUNNEL)

GUNWHALE (GUNNEL)

That part of a barge or boat where the main deck and the side meet.

HATCH

HATCH

Opening in a deck providing access for cargo, personnel, stores,  etc.

HAWSE PIPE

HAWSE PIPE

Steel pipe duct through which the anchor cable is led overboard.

HAWSER

HAWSER

A large circumference rope used for towing or mooring a vessel or for  securing it at a dock.

HEAVING LINE

HEAVING LINE

A small line thrown to an approaching vessel, or a dock

INBOARD

INBOARD

Towards the center line of a ship (towards the center).

KEEL

KEEL (PLATE)

Lowest longitudinal strake of plating along the bottom centreline of  the hull..

KEEL BLOCKS

KEEL BLOCKS

Blocks on which the keel of a vessel rests when being built, or when  she is in a drydock.

KORT NOZZLE

KORT NOZZLE

A steel tube that surrounds a propeller, directing the water and  improving  efficiency.  Kort nozzles are engineered to improve the flow  around the propellers. They are similar in some ways to an airplane propeller.

LOA (Length Over all

LOA - Length Over All

The length of a ship measured from the foremost point of the stem to the aftermost  part of the stern at the height of the designed water line.

LIST

LIST

As pertaining to a ship, to lean to one side.

LOAD LINE MARKINGS (PLIMSOL MARK)

LOAD LINE MARKINGS (PLIMSOL MARK)

Markings on the ship’s side defining the minimum freeboard allowable  in different ocean areas and different seasons of the year. Also known as       Plimsol mark.

M/V

M/V

Ship's prefix denoting Motor Vessel or Merchant Vessel

MANHOLE

MANHOLE

A hole in a tank, boiler or compartment on a ship, designed to allow the entrance of a man for examination, cleaning and repairs.

MATS

MATS

Slabs, usually constructed of timbers, which are placed on the deck of  a vessel for the purpose of supporting and distributing the weight of  heavy loads such as cranes.

MIDSHIP

MIDSHIP

The middle of the vessel.

MOORING LINE

MOORING LINE

Cable or hawse lines used to tie up a ship to a dock, buoy or anchoring system.  Also anchoring with 2 anchors or more, such as a 3-point mooring

Onboard

Onboard

 On or in a ship.

OUTBOARD

OUTBOARD

In a direction towards the side of the ship.

PADEYE

PADEYE

A fitting having an eye integral with a plate or base in order to  distribute the strain over a greater area and to provide ample means of securing. The pad may have either a “worked” or a “shackle” eye, or more than one of either or both. The principal use of such a fitting is that is affords means for attaching rigging, stoppers, locks, and other movable  or portable objects. Pad eyes are also known as lug pads.

PILE (PILING)

PILE

A pointed spar driven into the bottom and projecting above the water;  when driven at the corners of a dock, they are termed fender   piles.

FENDER PILE


PITTING

PITTING

Areas of corrosion such as in a ship's hull

PROPELLER

PROPELLER

A propulsive device consisting of a boss or hub carrying radial blades,   from two to four in number. The rear or driving faces of the blades form portions of an approximately helical surface, the axis of which as the  center line of the propeller shaft.

QUAY WALL

QUAY WALL

An artificial wall or bank, usually of stone, made toward the sea at  the side of a harbor or river for convenience in loading and unloading  vessels.

RAILWAY (MARINE)

Marine Railway

A marine railway is an inclined plane extending from shoreline into water, featuring a "cradle" onto which a ship is first floated, and a mechanism to haul the ship, attached to the cradle, out of the water onto a slip. It is a less expensive alternative to dry docks for marine vessel repairs, in particular below waterline. Larger modern marine railways can handle vessels of thousands of tons.

RUDDER

RUDDER

rudder is a primary control surface used to steer a ship or boat  through the water.  A rudder operates by redirecting the fluid past the hull thus imparting a turning or  motion to the craft. In basic form, a rudder is a flat plane or sheet of material attached with hinges to the craft's stern, or after end. Often rudders are shaped so as to minimize hydrodynamic drag.

RUDDER POST

RUDDER POST

The vertical post in the stern of a vessel on which the rudder  hangs.

RUNNING GEAR

RUNNING GEAR

This is that GEAR outside of the hull that provides drive and direction.  that includes a portion of the drive shaft that protrudes from the shaft log, struts that hold the shaft in place, the propellers, and the rudders.

SEA CHEST

SEA CHEST - A sea chest is a rectangular recess near the bottom of a vessel from which piping systems draw raw water for cooling or other uses. A sea chest acts in much the same way as distilling basis or distilling well, offsetting the affects of vessel speed and providing an intake reservoir. Sea chests are protected by grates and can contain baffle plates to further dampen the effects of vessel speed. The size of sea chests can vary from 1.5 sq ft for a small inland tug up to several square feet for a larger vessel


STERN TUBE

STERN TUBE

The bearing which supports the propeller shaft where it emerges from the ship. A cast iron or steel Cylinder, fitted with brass bushings which  are lined with lignum vitae or white metal bearing surfaces, upon which the propeller shaft, enclosed in a brass sleeve, rotates.

SUPERSTRUCTURE

SUPERSTRUCTURE

General term for sections of a vessel constructed on and above the upper or main decks of a vessel.

THRUST BLOCK

THRUST BLOCK

A bearing arrangement, aft of the engine(s), by which the thrust of the  propeller is transmitted to the ship.

TOPSIDE

TOPSIDE

That portion of the side of the hull which is above the designed  water  line.

TRANSOM

TRANSOM

SQUARE ENDED STERN ON A VESSEL

TUG

TUG

Small powerful and highly maneuverable vessel designed for towing,  assisting and maneuvering larger vessels in port or restricted  waterways.

Z - DRIVE

Z - DRIVE

Propulsion train configuration where the engine output and propeller shafts are horizontal and parallel and linked via an intermediate vertical       shaft.

STEM

STEM

The upright post or bar of the bow.

STERN

STERN

The after part of the vessel.



SACRIFICIAL ANODE

SACRIFICIAL ANODE

Anode of zinc attached to the immersed parts of a hull to prevent  deterioration of the hull steel through electrochemical reaction.

SALVAGE

SALVAGE

The rescue of a wrecked or disabled ship or its cargo from loss at sea."a salvage operation was under way"

SCALE

SCALE

A formation of rust over iron or steel plating.

SCUPPER

SCUPPER

Any opening or tube leading from the waterway through the ship’s side,  to carry water overboard away from the deck or drains.

SHACKLE

SHACKLE

A link with a bolt fastened through its eyes, used for fastening chains  and eye loops together.

TYPES OF SHACKLES


SHAFT ALLEY

SHAFT ALLEY

Sometimes covered, are tunnels through which the shaft passes

SHEER STRAKE

SHEER STRAKE

The uppermost strake (line) of side shell plating immediately adjacent  to the strength deck.

SKEG

SKEG

The after part of the keel, upon which the stern post rests.

SLACK WATER

SLACK WATER

The condition of the tide at the moment when there is no horizontal motion.

SOUND

SOUND

Measuring the depth of water or other liquid in a tank or body of liquid using a "sounding" line.

STERN THRUSTER

STERN THRUSTER

A stern thruster is of the same principle as a bow thruster, except it is fitted at the stern.

SPREADER

SPREADER

Beam or beam structure temporarily attached to and spanning the  extremes of an item being lifted.

SPUD

SPUD

A steel or wooden post that is placed vertically through a well in the hull of a vessel and which, when lowered to the bottom of the waterway , anchors the vessel.

STARBOARD

STARBOARD

The right side of a vessel looking forward.

Ships Husbandry - Module 1 - Knowledge Test

As a diver you are swimming towards the rear of the vessel.  The direction you are traveling is considered ....

  • forward
  • aft

When a ship bottom runs into shallow water and strikes the bottom, it is said to run ...

Which of the following would be located at the fore end of the vessel?

  • bow
  • transom

Make the best match

  • Bulbous
    bow
  • Running Gear
    Propeller
  • Anchor
    Hawse Pipe

A diver identifies rust scale on a hull. It may look like this.

What is a Graving Dock?

Graving Docks are types of 

A helpful aid for a ship survey

Before starting an underwater survey of a ship, it would be advantageous to obtain a 

Ships Husbandry is important because...

  • of ability to make repairs and inspections wherever the ship's location
  • it is often more cost effective than dry docking
  • underwater welding is usually easier to perform in a wet environment
  • of all of the above

Name the parts on this vessel

  • Spud
  • dolphin
  • Cleat
  • Barge
  • Spudwell

Name the parts on this ocean going vessel

  • Foreword
  • Afterdeck
  • Bridge
  • Running gear
  • Ground tackle
  • Foredeck
  • Bulbous Bow

Where would you most likely find a Kort Nozzle located

  • With the ship's firefighting equipment
  • Around the propeller
  • In the engine compartment

Plimsol Mark

A Plimsol Mark aids in  

List items in proper order from stem to stern

  • Bulbous bow
  • forward hull section
  • midships
  • keel coolers
  • stern tube
  • propeller

Formation of bubbles on a propeller

  • can cause pitting and failure
  • is caused by cavitation
  • can be caused by decaying anerobic bacteria

Best match

  • Slackwater
    No tidal action
  • Flood
    HIgh
  • Ebb
    Low
  • Barnacles
    Biofouling

Sealing out water

In order to make a shaft seal change on a Naval ship, water must be blocked from entering shaft alley through where the seal is being removed.  As a diver you might use a to seal the water out so that the repairs can commence.

Which of these are used for mooring?

  • Anchors
  • Bollards
  • Davits

Interior of ships

The interior of ships are typically divided into  

Which of these is a Z-drive

Measuring the beam

  • To measure the beam you must measure across the ship from port to starboard.

Supporting blocks

  • Supporting blocks used under bilge for support during construction or dry docking are known as bilge keels.

Antifouling paint

  • Ships are typically coated with antifouling paint to inhibit organisms from growing on the hull

The lowest place inside the hull of a ship is the

  • engine room
  • bilge
  • bilge keel

A common way to cool engines on ships is with

  • coolant radiators
  • eductor cooling pumps
  • keel coolers

A life boat may be launched using...

  • davits
  • bollards
  • hawsepipes

Best Match

  • List
    Leaning
  • Capsize
    Full of water
  • Cathodic Protection
    Anode
  • Scupper
    Water drain

Ships float due to

  • Boyles Law
  • displacement
  • cavitation

A good way to protect a hose is with

  • chafing gear
  • cheeks
  • duct tape

Name the parts on this ship

  • Hawsepipe
  • Cargo boom
  • Bridge
  • Midship
  • Stern

Working smart

In the shop you are asked to pick up a large object that is not on a pallet.  Before setting it down again you should use to make sure it easy to get under with the fork lift

Select all images with fenders

Ships Husbandry

  • Underwater ships husbandry can reduce or eliminate dry dock time for a vessel

Bow thrusters ...

  • help a ship to travel faster
  • aid with maneuvering while docking
  • can be found at the aft or fore end of a vessel

Thrust blocks are typically found

  • are used for dry docking
  • in the rigging locker
  • are found in the engine compartment

Which of the following is a Z-drive

This is a photo of a .......

Which photo is of a sacrificial anode