Instructional Design 101

This course will familiarize you with the instructional design process.

Key Instructional Design Terms

Key Terms


  • eLearning: A combination of content and instructional methods delivered by media elements such as words and graphics on a digital device intended to build job-transferable or organizational performance. May be designed for self-study and or instructor-led training.
  • Behavioral Engagement : overt actions taken by a learner during a lesson intended to improve learning 
  • Psychological Engagement : Promotes learning that helps learner achieve the instructional goal by engaging in relevant cognitive processing 

  • Asynchronous: Self-study, self-paced, Access anytime, access anyplace

  • Synchronous:  Instructor-led, Access same time, access anyplace


Principles Key Terms

  • Multimedia Principle: 
    • Use relevant graphics with text
  • Contiguity Principle:
    • Place text near corresponding graphics 
  • Coherence Principle:
    • Use simple Graphics 
  • Modality Principle:
    • Use brief audio narration to explain grphics 
  • Redundancy Principle: 
    • Do not use both on-screen text and narration with a graphic 
  • Personalization Principle 
    • Use a conversational writing style ( first and sceond person) 
  • Embodiment Principle
    • Use instuctional agents with life-like features to relay audio content 
  • Segmenting Principle 
    • Break content into smaller chunks 
  • Pretraining Principle 
    • Teach important concepts and facts prior to procedures and processes 

Fill in the blank

A combination of content and instructional methods delivered by media elements on a digital device

 Self-study, self-paced, Access anytime, access anyplace

  Instructor-led, Access same time, access anyplace

Instructional Design

Definition, Purpose, Use


  • Instructional design

    • Definition: the systematic process by which instructional materials are designed, developed, and delivered

    • Purpose: to save us time and make learning easier and more effective

    • It’s use: It is used as a method for developing instruction



True or False

  • TRUE
  • FALSE

The purpose of Instructional Design is to save us time and make learning easier and more effective

Instructional Design Theorists

Benajmin Bloom

His research showed educational settings and home environments can foster human potential , transformed education. Bloom developed a "taxonomy of educational objectives", which classifies the different learning objectives and skills that educators set for students. 

John Dewey

Arousal Theory is the idea that embedding entertaining and interesting elements in a lesson causes learners to become more emotionally aroused, and therefore students work harder to learn the material. Arousal theory predicts that the students will learn more from multimedia presentations that contain interesting sounds and music than from multimedia presentations without interesting sounds and music. American philosopher , psychologist, and educational reformer argued that adding interesting adjuncts to  an otherwise boring lesson will not promote deep learning. 

M David Merrill

Developed a second generation Instructional Design Theory as an attempt to extend Gagne's condition of learning. Merrill's research has lead to the development of The Component Display theory, Instructional Transaction Theory and the First Principles of Instruction , which had the capacity for automated instructional design . 

argued that adding interesting adjuncts to a boring lesson will not promote deep learning.

Select the correct theorist that correlates with the explanation. 

research has lead to the development of The Component Display theory, Instructional Transaction Theory and the First Principles of Instruction.

developed Taxonomy of Educational Objectives to divide educational objectives and skills that educators set for students.

ADDIE Model

The ADDIE Model

The Addie Model


This is The ADDIE Model, it is an instructional Design Model that is used by instructional designers and training developers, in HRD to improve knowledge, skills, and attitude for current and future job responsibilities.

A: Analysis


The A stands for Analysis

In this phase, the instructional problem is clarified. 

You will establish the instructional goals and objectives.

You will also identify the learning environment and learner’s existing knowledge and skills.


Questions you may ask yourself in this phase:

  • Who is the audience and their characteristics?
  • Identify the new behavioral outcome?
  • What types of learning constraints exist?

  • What are the delivery options?

  • What are the online pedagogical considerations?

  • What is the timeline for project completion?



D: Design


The D stands for Design

This design phase deals with:

  •  learning objectives
  • assessment instruments
  • exercises
  • content
  • subject matter analysis
  • lesson planning 
  • media selection


Steps of the design phase:

  • Documentation of the project’s instructional, visual and technical design strategy
  • Apply instructional strategies according to the intended behavioral outcomes by domain

  • Create storyboards

  • Design the user interface and user experience

  • Prototype creation

  • Apply visual design


D: Development


The D stands for Development

The development phase is where the developers create and assemble the content assets that were created in the design phase. Programmers work to develop and/or integrate technologies. Testers perform debugging procedures. The project is reviewed and revised according to any feedback given.


I: Implementation


The I stands for Implementation

During the implementation phase, a procedure for training the facilitators and the learners is developed. The facilitators’ training should cover the course curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery, and testing procedures. Preparation of the learners include training them on new tools, student registration.


E: Evaluation


The stands for Evaluation

The evaluation phase consists of two parts: formative and summative. Formative evaluation is present in each stage of the ADDIE process. Summative evaluation consists of tests designed for domain specific criterion-related referenced items and providing opportunities for feedback from the users.


Comparing and Contrasting


How is analysis different from designing: 

Analysis should always do this step first to see who needs training and what kind of training they need. This step is just to gather information. By doing a post test the instructor can see if the trainees know the material they should know. You should also see what objectives are need and what are your goals. Without doing an analysis you can not to go designing a course.This step makes designing the course easier since you know what you need. Designing can be creating a storyboard to present the material gathered from analysis. Also this step includes lesson planning or creating exercises.

Comparing and Contrasting

Difference from Developing and implementing: 

The developing step is when you actually creating the course. You will put all the information collected from the designing phase. Implementing is a teaching the trainees.  Implementing is assuring you have all the books, tools, software needed to teach.

Comparing and Contrasting

The last phase:

In this phase, there is formative and summative steps done in the evaluation. Formative is judging through out all the phases. The summative step is used at the end of the course. To see what were the outcomes of the course. In the evaluation phase you can see if the goals were met.  This is why evaluation has to be the last phase.

Click what you know!

Click on the step that is different from developing because this step focuses on planning the course.

Useful Tools

Four Different types of Tools

Four different tools types of e-Learning Style:

  • Google Docs
  • Easygenerator 
  • Prezi 
  • Powtoons 

Defining Tools


  • Google docs 

    • Create and edit web-based documents, spreadsheets, and presentations. Store documents online and access them from any computer.

  • Prezi

    • A presentation of text and visuals that you zoom in and out of. It is similar to Power Point, except you do not make slides. Instead you make one big prezi and zoom in different views. 



  • Easygenerator

    • A elearning authoring software. A tool for people without an e-learning background. To create courses and quizzes. 

  • Powtoons

    • Company which sells cloud-based software for creating animated presentations and animated explainer videos 


Matching Tools

These puzzles pieces need their match.
  • Google Docs
    Create and edit web-based documents, spreadsheets, and presentations. Store documents online and access them from any computer
  • Easygenerator
    A elearning authoring software. A tool for people without an e-learning background. To create courses and quizzes.
  • Prezi
    A presentation of text and visuals that you zoom in and out of. It is similar to Power Point, except you do not make slides. Instead you make one big prezi and zoom in different views.
  • Powtoons
    Company which sells cloud-based software for creating animated presentations and animated explainer videos

References

Work Cited

"E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning, Third Edition." E-Learning and the Science of Instruction: Proven Guidelines for Consumers and Designers of Multimedia Learning, Third Edition - Clark - Wiley Online Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2016.