Usage of Correlatives

Welcome to the course "Usage of Correlatives"

Learning how to make use of English Grammar is one of the most challenging aspects of learning English.

Not sure when to use who and whom and many more? Pass the course and you'll get it.

WHO AND WHOM

WHO AND WHOM

1. Use who for the subject of a verb, and whom for the object, or when it is the object of a preposition.

  1. Who told you that story? (subject)

This is the person who brought the message. (subject)

But if the preposition comes at the end of the sentence or clause, then use who.

Who is that letter from? (not whom)

 Who did you give it to me? (not whom)

Note: This is always the spoken form; but in more formal English we should say:

       To whom did you give it?

2. Care must be taken, however, when the preposition governs a whole clause that begins with who  (or whom), and not merely the pronoun itself. 

In such cases,whether we use who or whom depends  on  the function of the word in its own clause ; it has nothing to do with the preposition that precede it.

  •         It all depends on who comes
  •         It all depends on whom you ask.

Do you know .... that man in the grey suit is?

  • who
  • whom

I don't mind ..... you ask to the party.

  • who
  • whom

I cannot bear people ....... are always complaining of their misfortunes.

  • who
  • whom

.....do you think we should invite?

  • who
  • whom

He is a person ....... everyone admires.

  • who
  • whom

MUCH AND VERY

MUCH AND VERY

1. Very is used to modify objectives and adverbs of the positive degree, much to modify those of the comparative degree.

  •        This room is very large.
  •        This room is much larger than the other.  
  •        He drives very carefully.
  •        He drives much more carefully than he used to.

2. Much is also used to modify participles when they have their full verbal function. (Very can never be used for the purpose.)

  •       This question has been much discussed.
  •       The picture was much admired.

But when a participle is used in a purely adjectival, and not a verbal, sense, then it is modified by very, in the same way that any other objective would be.

  •       She felt very tired.
  •       We are pleased to hear of your success.

Other such participle adjectives are: annoyed,concerned, surprised,disappointed, interested, worried, bored, limited, shocked, swollen, heated(in the sense of angry,)excited

3. Much, not very, is used before too.

  •        His speech was much too long.
  •        He speaks much too quickly.

4. Neither very nor much can be before a plain superlative

(We cannot say, This is much best or This is very best) but much can be used before a superlative preceded by the.

  •       This way is much the best.
  •       This is much the best way of doing it.

5. Very is never closer to modify verbs. Much is fairly common after the verb in questions and in negative statements, and also in conditional clauses, which are half negative in that they envisage the possibility of the condition's fulfillment, as well as of its fulfillment.

  •       Does the wound pain you much?
  •       Have we damaged the car much?
  •       I don't smoke much.

The only verb in common use that takes much positive statements is prefer. This is probably because it implies a comparison of two or more things , and so it falls in with the comparative degree of the adjectives and adverbs.

  •       I much prefer this one to the other
  •       I much prefer cricket to football.

      








He is ....... older than I thought.

  • much
  • very

It is .... cold today.

  • much
  • very

She is ...... interested in history.

  • much
  • very

You must do your work .... more carefully than this.

  • much
  • very

I am feeling ..... better today.

  • much
  • very

MUCH AND MANY

MUCH AND MANY

Much and many – they can be a bit confusing. Many people would use them properly, but most likely based on intuitive judgment. Yet, there are definite rules on how to use the words correctly.

Both ‘much’ and ‘many’ are determiners, and have the same or similar definition. They mean ‘a lot of’, or ‘in great quantities’, or ‘a great amount’. They may mean the same, but their usage differs.

The rules regarding the  usage of ‘much’ and ‘many’ in the English language:


MUCH

  • If a noun is an uncountable noun (which is often in singular form), the ‘much’ determiner should be used.

        Examples

  • How much money will it cost me?
  • This is what I get for drinking too much coffee.
  • How much sleep do you get every night?


MANY

  • On the other hand, the determiner 'many' should be used with countable nouns or plural nouns.

        Examples

  • How many brothers and sisters have you got?

  • There are many empty chairs in the event.

  • Many children are impoverished in that region of the world.


DEGREES OF COMPARISON FOR MUCH AND MANY

Both much and many , have as their comparative and superlatives degrees, more and most.

  • Many people , More people, Most people
  • Much of the land, More of the land, Most of the land

........ people were made homeless by floods.

  • many
  • much

They lost ...... of their property.

  • much
  • many

...... of the eggs were broken?

  • much
  • many

She did not make ...... mistakes in her essay.

  • much
  • many

We found the house without ..... difficulty.

  • much
  • many

STILL AND YET

STILL AND YET

Yet and still are used to talk about things that have (or haven’t) happened over time. Their meanings and uses are distinct. However, there is a situation in which they are used in a similar way to convey a similar idea. This is why learners get confused. 

Let's look at the uses of these two words separately, and then look at how their uses converge.


YET

The word yet is mainly used to refer to something that a person is waiting for and expecting, but that hasn’t happened so far. It is most common in negative statements and questions: 

  • Negative statement: It isn’t raining yet. (=Rain is expected, but it has not started.)

  • Negative statement: The research has not been completed yet. (=Research has started, and the speaker thinks or hopes it will be completed soon, but so far it has not been completed.)

  • Question: Have the kids had dinner yet? (It is expected that the kids will have dinner; the speaker is asking whether this has happened already or not.

                                                     


STILL


The word still is used mainly to refer to something that began in the past and is continuing into the present. It is most common in affirmative statements and questions:

  • Affirmative statement: He still lives far away. ( He used to live far away, and he continues to live far away now.)

  • Affirmative statement: It’s still snowing! ( It was snowing in the past, and it continues to snow now.)

  • Question: Do you still want to come over for dinner? ( Earlier you said you wanted to come over for dinner. Is that also true no

YET and STILL 

Both yet and still can be used in negative statements to talk about something that wasn’t true in the past and continues not to be true in the present. This is where yet and still converge. For example, the two sentences in each pair below, one with yet and one with still, mean nearly the same thing.

  • She hasn’t arrived yet.  =  She still hasn’t arrived.
  • The reasons haven’t become clear yet.  =  The reasons still haven’t become clear. 
  • Notice however that yet is usually placed at the end of the sentence, and still is placed before the verb. In addition, most English speakers would say that the sentences with still include a sense of impatience that the sentences with yet do not have.

    I hope this helps.

     


Have you heard from your sister......?

  • still
  • yet

I have not ...... made up my mind whether I shall accept his offer.

  • yet
  • still

When the doctor arrived the injured man was .... breathing.

  • since
  • yet

The weather forecast said that it would rain, but it is not raining .....

  • still
  • yet

Are you ..... working for the same firm as I saw you last?

  • still
  • yet

MAKE AND DO

MAKE AND DO

When do you use DO?

DO is used as follows:

1. DO is used when talking about work, jobs or tasks. Note, they do not produce any physical object.

  • Have you done your homework?
  • I have guests visiting tonight so I should start doing the housework now.
  • I wouldn't like to do that job.

2. DO is used when we refer to activities in general without being specific. In these cases, we normally use words like thing, something, nothing, anything, everything etc.

  • Hurry up! I've got things to do!
  • Don't just stand there – do something!
  • Is there anything I can do to help you?

3. We sometimes use DO to replace a verb when the meaning is clear or obvious. This is more common in informal spoken English:

  • Do I need to do my hair? (do = brush or comb)
  • Have you done the dishes yet? (done = washed)
  • I'll do the kitchen if you do the lawns (do = clean, do = mow)

Remember Do can also be as an auxiliary verb (for making questions in the present tense - Do you like chocolate?) For more about Do used in this case, see our page about Do vs Does. Here we will be talking about Do as a normal verb.

When do you use MAKE?

Make is for producing, constructing, creating or building something new.

It is also used to indicate the origin of a product or the materials that are used to make something.

  • His wedding ring is made of gold.
  • The house was made of adobe.
  • Wine is made from grapes.
  • The watches were made in Switzerland

We also use Make for producing an action or reaction:

  • Onions make your eyes water.
  • You make me happy.
  • It’s not my fault. My brother made me do it!

You make before certain nouns about plans and decisions:

  • He has made arrangements to finish work early.
  • They're making plans for the weekend.
  • You need to make a decision right now.

We use Make with nouns about speaking and certain sounds:

  • She made a nice comment about my dress.
  • The baby is asleep so don't make any noise.
  • Can I use your phone to make a call?
  • Don't make a promise that you cannot keep.

We use Make with Food, Drink and Meals:

  • I made a cake for her birthday.
  • She made a cup of tea.
  • I must go now. I have to make dinner.

Compare Do and Make

A: You have to make a cake for Simon.



The sudden pain .... him cry out.

  • make
  • do

The teacher asked the class to ..... the exercise in their note books.

  • make
  • do

This heavy rain will ..... the ground very wet.

  • make
  • do

Could you please ..... me a favour?

  • make
  • do

Untitled single choice question

  • Put your answer option here
  • Put your answer option here