Urinalysis Interpretation (copy)

Why do we attend Urinalysis?.

As it provides health professionals with valuable information about a patients health status. Urinalysis can detect indications of renal, urological and liver disease, diabetes mellitus, urinary tract infection and general hydration. It is an important part of patient assessment and could potentially indicate the presence of a serious disease. 

Urinary analysis (copy)

Urinary analysis

Urine contains many components that are assessable.

Specific Gravity (S.G)

Is an indicator of urine concentration or the amount of solutes ( metabolic wastes & electrolytes) present in urine.

S.G normally ranges from 1.010 - 1.025.

As urine becomes more concentrated, it's S.G increases. A high S.G may indicate fluid deficit or dehydration.

Excess fluid intake or diseases affecting the ability of the kidneys  to concentrate urine can result in low S.G.

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Urinary pH

Is measured to determine the relative acidity or alkalinity of urine.

Urine is slightly acidic, with an average pH of 6. 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, greater than 7 is alkaline.

The kidneys play a role in regulating acid-base balance, therefore assessment of urine pH can be useful in determining wether the kidneys are responding appropriately to acid -base imbalances.

In metabolic acidosis, pH decreases as the kidneys excrete hydrogen ions.

The pH increases with metabolic alkalosis.

Ketones

Are normally not present in the urine.

Ketones are a product of the breakdown of fatty acids.

Are found in urine of patients with poorly controlled diabetes. 

Effective to evaluate ketoacidosis in patients whom are alcoholic, fasting, or  consuming high protein diets.




Urinary Analysis

Protein

There should be no detectable quantities in the urine, as protein molecules are too large to escape from glomerular capillaries into the filtrate. 

If the glomerular membrane is damaged, it can become leaky allowing proteins to escape. This is known as proteinuria.

Albumin is one of the smaller proteins, and if the kidneys begin to show dysfunction it may show an early sign of kidney disease.

Injury to the urinary tract, bladder or urethra can illicit protein in the urine.






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Urinary pH (copy)

How would you identify if a patient has kidney disease with urinalysis?.

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