Instructional Design 101

Welcome to Instructional Design 101! This course is designed to familiarize learners in the Instructional Design Process.

1. List and explain key instructional design terminology.

Section 1.

Instruction

is the delivery of information and activities that facilitate learner’s attainment of intended learning goals.

Learning Objective

is a statement of what students will be able to do when they have completed instruction. 

A learning objective has three major components:

1. A description of what the student will be able to DO.



2. The conditions under which the student will perform the task.

3. The criteria for evaluating student performance.



Mobile Learning


Learning that is delivered using mobile communication technologies, such as smartphones, laptops, tablets, and similar devices. Mobile learning can include performance support systems, checklists, brief tutorials, videos, and access to the learning content at any point during the lessons.


E-learning

A combination of content and instructional methods delivered by media elements such as words and graphics on a digital device intended to build job-transferable knowledge and skills linked to individual learning goals or organizational performance. May be designed for self-study or instructor-led training.

ID Model

Is a graphic representation of a systematic approach. Designed to facilitate efficient and effective development of instruction.


Module

Instructional package with a single integrated theme that provides the information needed to develop mastery of specified knowledge and skills, and serves as one component of a total course or curriculum.

Media Element

Text, graphics, or sounds used to convey lesson content. 



What is a learning objective?

  • is a statement of what students will be able to do when they have completed instruction.
  • the goal of the entire course
  • a quiz given at the end of an instructional course
Choose the correct statement for the question above.

Which one of these images is the ADDIE model?

Choose one correct image to answer the question.

Which one of these options is an example of a media element?

  • graphics
  • writing a research paper
  • creating a rough draft for a book

2. Define instructional design, its purpose, and its use in HRD

Section 2.

Instructional Design

is the practice of creating instructional experiences which make the acquisition of knowledge and skill more efficient, effective, and appealing.

https://youtu.be/uBs5qPzmPdg


The purpose of Instructional Design


  • Identify the outcomes of the instruction after the audience have gone through training and basic coordination from the instructor.
  • To guide the developing scope. This ensures that the audience are aware of what is going on and the possible developments.
  • Establishing how instructional effectiveness will be evaluated.


The use of Instructional Design in Human Resources


Instructional design is used in Human Resources to effectively develop training that is needed for a targeted population of employees or individuals. 



Which of these choices is an important purpose of Instructional Design?

  • To make training because I was told to.
  • To make learning easier and more effective.
  • To Describe, Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate.

What is the use of Instructional Design in Human Resources?

  • To design training.
  • To design Instruction.
  • To help HR.
  • To Maximize Performance, Efficiency, and Productivity in an organization.

Instructional Designers often _________________________________.

  • use technology and multimedia as tools to enhance instruction.
  • Make training because they are told to do so.
  • Work under Human Resources.
Fill in the blank based on information that was provided in the learning content.

3. Summarize the work of 3 key instructional design theorists/experts

Robert Gagne

Robert Gagne was a experimental psychologist, who was also involved in applying concepts of instructional theory to the design of computer-based training and multimedia-based learning. He composed the five categories of learning, which were used as a guide to develop more theories by others that followed him.

Intellectual Skills

Creative individual competence and ability to respond to stimuli. Using concepts or rules to solve a problem.

Example: Using PEMDAS to solve a calculation.


Cognitive Strategies

Capability to learn, think, and remember.


Example: Creating a way to remember a list of items.

Verbal Information

Automatic memorization of names, faces, dates, phone numbers, etc. 


Example: Being able to recite your mothers phone number in case of an emergency.

Motor Skills

Capability to learn how to physically do things, such as ride a bike, drive a car, or shoot a basketball.

Attitudes

Choices we make to behave a certain way.


Example: Choosing to be polite when conversing with an elder.


Learning how to shoot a basketball is an example of which category of learning?

  • Attitudes
  • Verbal Information
  • Motor Skills

Which of the following images is an example of an intellectual skill?

Benjamin Bloom

Benjamin Bloom was an educational psychologist who created a taxonomy of educational objectives. This taxonomy was later name "Bloom's Taxonomy." His taxonomy classified the different learning objectives and skills that educators set for students, which were divided into three domains: affective (feel), psychomotor (do), and cognitive (know). The first three objectives require higher order thinking, as opposed to the last three objectives that require lower order thinking.


Create

Highest order skill. Combining parts to make a new whole.


Example: Write a manual on how to operate equipment.

Evaluate

Judging the value of information or ideas.


Example: Surveying employees to learn their reactions to new training programs.

Analyze

Breaking down information into component parts.


Example: Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training.

Apply

Applying the facts, rules, concepts, and ideas.


Example: Calculate an employees vacation time.

Understand

Understanding what the facts mean.


Example: Summarize a chapter in your own words.

Remember

Lowest order skill. Recognizing and recalling facts.


Example: Recite a poem.

Sort the domains from the highest order skill, to the lowest order skill.

  • Create
  • Evaluate
  • Analyze
  • Apply
  • Understand
  • Remember

Robert F. Mager

Robert Frank Mager was a psychologist and author, who was concerned with understanding and improving human performance. He is most known for developing the ABCD model for creating instructional objectives. 

Audience

Who are the learners?

Behavior

What will they be able to think, know, or do?

Condition

Under what circumstances will learning occur?

Degree 

How much will be accomplished and to what level? (usually a quantitative value)


Select the behavior in the following learning objective.

4. Explain the steps in the ADDIE model

Introduction to the ADDIE Model

What is the ADDIE Model

The ADDIE model is the generic process traditionally used by instructional designers and training developers. The five phases – Analysis, Design, Development, Implement, and Evaluation – represent a dynamic, flexible guideline for building effective training and performance support tools.

 

Analysis Phase

Analysis Phase 

In the analysis phase, instructional problem is clarified, the instructional goals and objectives are established and the learning environment and learner's existing knowledge and skills are identified.




Questions Addressed During Analysis Phase :

  • Who is the audience and their characteristics?
  • Identify the new behavioral outcome? 
  • What types of learning constraints exist?  
  • What are the delivery options? 
  • What are the online pedagogical considerations?  
  • What is the timeline for project completion?


Design Phase

Design Phase

The design phase deals with learning objectives, assessment instruments, exercises, content, subject matter analysis, lesson planning and media selection. The design phase should be systematic and specific. Systematic means a logical, orderly method of identifying, developing and evaluating a set of planned strategies targeted for attaining the project's goals. Specific means each element of the instructional design plan needs to be executed with attention to details.

Steps Used in the Design Phase 

  • Documentation of the project's instructional, visual and technical design strategy
  • Apply instructional strategies according to the intended behavioral outcomes by domain (cognitive, affective, psychomotor).
  • Create storyboards
  • Design the user interface and user experience
  • Prototype creation
  • Apply visual design (graphic design)


Development Phase

Development Phase 

The development phase is where the developers create and assemble the content assets that were created in the design phase. 


Development Phase Assembles : 

  • Designers create/integrate storyboards and graphics. 
  • Programmers develop or integrate technologies. 
  • Testers debug materials and procedures.
  • The project is reviewed and revised according to feedback. 

Implementation Phase

Implementation Phase

During the implementation phase, a procedure for training the facilitators and the learners is developed. The facilitators' training should cover the course curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery, and testing procedures.

Implementation Phase Check List: 

  • Ensure Reading Material, Hands-On Equipment and Tools are available. 
  • Ensure the Correct Software is in place. 
  • Verify Learning Application or web-site functional. 



Evaluation Phase

Evaluation Phase 

The evaluation phase consists of two parts: Summative and Formative. 

Summative evaluation consists of tests designed for domain specific criterion-related referenced items and providing opportunities for feedback from the users.

Formative evaluation is present in each stage of the ADDIE process. 


Summative Evaluation Phase Goals : 

  • Ensure that the stated goals of the learning process will actually meet the required business need.
  • Ensure learners meet all the learning course objective. 
  • Find possible aspects of the learning course that need revision. 
  • Generate feedback for further improvements.

Formative Evaluation Phase Goals : 

  • In Analysis, it looks at deciphering whether the performance problem is a training problem. If it is, how will a learning platform positively impact a business need or goal? 
  • In Design, evaluation occurs when you identify what must be learned by the learners that will enable them to fulfill the required business need or goal.
  • In Design, evaluation occurs when you identify what must be learned by the learners that will enable them to fulfill the required business need or goal.
  • In Implementation, you find out if the learners have now become performers.


Which question is addressed during the Analysis Phase?

  • Who is the audience and their characteristics?
  • How long is the audience available?
  • How does the audience implement computer software?
  • Will food be available?

The ADDIE Model is a dynamic, flexible guideline for building effective training and performance support tools.

  • True
  • False

5. Compare and contrast the activities in each phase of the ADDIE model

The analysis phase

Assessing business goals. Conducting need analysis.

The analysis phase clarifies the instructional problems and objectives, and identifies the learning environment and learner's existing knowledge and skills. Questions the analysis phase addresses include:

Who are the learners and what are their characteristics?

What is the desired new behavior?

What types of learning constraints exist?

What are the delivery options?

What are the pedagogical considerations?

What adult learning theory considerations apply?

 What is the timeline for project completion


The design phase


The design phase depends on the analysis phase where the findings in the first step will determine the second. Identifying instructional design strategy. Selecting appropriate delivery method.


The development phase


The development phase also depends on both the design phase and the analysis phase to determine the best procedure to follow (Nelson, et al. 2014). Creating a prototype. Developing the training materials.


The implementation phase

The implementation phase however, does not depend on the phase that was selected before but works to implement what has been given at the particular point. Establishing schedule for training. Launching the course.



The evaluation phase


The evaluation phase highly depends on the phases that have been used and the interaction of the audience and the instructor (Gibbons, 2013).


Which of the following are the steps of implementation phase?

  • Gather and create documents
  • Train the trainers
  • Prepare the environment
  • Conduct the training
  • Document deviation
  • All the above

6. Select appropriate tools used to execute instructional design tasks and activities

Tools for training design and evaluation

 . Eval: is a tool that supports the evaluation of an adapt training blueprint on the basis of dedicated test data that are gathered during the use of the training materials.

. Easygenerator: Creating context, defining learning objectives and measuring learners success through assessment

. Core: supports designers with analyzing complex skills and designing competency-based training blueprints according to various methodologies used. 

. Google docs:  s a free Web-based application in which documents and spreadsheets can be created, edited and stored online

. Prezi: producing a cloud-based presentation software and storytelling tool for presenting ideas on a virtual canvas.



What are the tools for training design and evaluation

  • Eval
  • Core
  • Easygenerator
  • Google docs
  • None the above
  • All the above

References

References

Chiniara, G., Cole, G., Brisbin, K., Huffman, D., Cragg, B., Lamacchia, M., & Norman, D. (2013). Simulation in healthcare: a taxonomy and a conceptual framework for instructional design and media selection. Medical teacher, 35(8), e1380-e1395.

Gibbons, A. S. (2013). An archi tectural approach to instructional design. Routledge.

Nelson, R., & Staggers, N. (2014). Health informatics: An interprofessional approach. Elsevier Health Sciences.