Human Factors

The study of human factors is about understanding human behavior and performance. When applied to aviation operations, human factors knowledge is used to optimize the fit between people and the systems in which they work in order to improve safety and performance.

Learning Objectives

Course Objectives

At the end of the session, participants will be able to:

  •   Understand the effects and consequences of human errors
  •   Understand the Swiss Cheese Model
  •   Understand the difference between human error & technical fault
  •   Understand the factors contributing to Human Factors (Dirty dozen)
  •   Understand the safety net for each of the dirty dozen
  •   Understand the safety culture in the organization
  •   Adopt the right attitude and behavior

Dirty Dozen

Lack of Communication

Communication breakdown can happen between two or more staff. It is the failure to exchange information between each other.


The morning shift thinks that the night shift would inspect the wing of the aircraft, and the night shift thinks that the morning shift would inspect the wing of the aircraft. This assumption caused none of the shift workers to inspect the wing of the aircraft.

Effective Communication

Safety Net

  • Use logbooks to communicate  
  • Have a proper handover of shift (Discuss work to be done and what had be completed to the next shift) 
  • Use simple words and understandable language  
  • Never assume (Check with your supervisor or colleagues)


It is a feeling of satisfaction, but not the actual job satisfaction required.


I have been checking the same part over and over again for the past 5 years and I have never found any fault.

This time round I do not check, nothing would go wrong as well.

Safety Net

Always expect that you would find a fault, always look out for these faults

Never sign for anything that you have not done

Never assume, always check