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Multiples

What is the problem: Examples

Multiple attenuation is one of our most challenging processing problems.They can interfere with primaries, mask or can be falsely interpreted as primaries.

They adversely effect imaging processes (which usually assume multiple free data)


They can effect the primary wavelet

They contaminate AVO calculations

What causes them?

Multiples occur because an interface is a bidirectional reflector ;  down-going energy is reflected to the surface, but up-going energy is also reflected back down into the data.

Definition: A multiple is energy which has at least one downward reflection in its travel path.


First we can split the multiples into those that have a bounce with the free surface which we call free surface multiples (FSM) and those that do not, which we will hereby refer to as internal multiples (IM).