FH-GRAPHS

In this course you can learn about the different kinds of graphs and how to describe them.

kInds of graphs

What is a graph?

A graph is a visual represe

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ntation of a relationship between, but not restricted to, two variables. A graph generally takes the form of a one- or two-dimensional figure such as a scatterplot. Although, there are three-dimensional graphs available, they are usually considered too complex to understand easily.

A graph commonly consists of two axes called the x-axis (horizontal) and y-axis (vertical). Each axis corresponds to one variable. The axes are labelled with different names, such as Price and Quantity.

The place where the two axes intersect is called the origin. The origin is also identified as the point (0,0).

pie charts-1

Pie charts are easy to make, easy to read, and very popular. They are used to represent categorical data or values of variables. They are basically circles that are divided into segments or categories which reflect the proportion of the variables in relation to the whole. Percentages are used to compare the segments, with the whole being equal to 100%.

pie charts-2

To make a pie chart, draw a circle with a protractor. Then, convert the measures of the variables into percentages, and divide the circle accordingly. It is best to order the segments clockwise from biggest to smallest, so that the pie chart looks neat and the variables are easy to compare. It is also recommended to write percentage and category labels next to each segment, so that users are not required to refer to the legend each time they want to identify a segment.

pie charts-3

Pie charts are popular types of graphs but they do have disadvantages that limit their use. For this reason, scientists are not fans of pie charts. First of all, pie charts with too many segments look very messy and are difficult to understand; therefore it is best to use pie charts when there are less than five categories to be compared. Further, if the values of the categories are very close, the pie chart would be difficult to decipher because the segments would be too close in size.

choose an appropriate chart

In which of the followings examples would you use a pie chart?

  • There are 25 people working for you and you want to show how much money they brought in last year compared to each other.
  • There are five parties in the election and you want to show the percentage of votes they got.
  • You want to show the trend of a certain product.

pictographs-1

Pictographs, also called pictograms, are diagrams that show and compare data by using picture symbols. Each of these symbols corresponds to a specific quantity and is repeated a number of times. The media often uses pictographs to compare trends; in a magazine, you may see a pictograph comparing the number of nurses in the different counties of Texas. In this case, tiny human figures may represent the nurses, with each figure symbolizing 50 nurses, for instance. Schools use them, as well, in order to train students in mathematics and other subjects in an enjoyable way. Elementary level students often encounter pictographs in their textbooks.

pictographs-2

While pictographs are easy to understand, they can be misleading because they provide a general representation. Therefore, they are not commonly used by statisticians and scientists who work with very precise measurements. It is virtually impossible to accurately display the difference between $0.56, $0.61, $11.99 and $12.32 through picture symbols on the same pictograph, for example. Pictographs would be unreliable for this purpose. Sometimes the media takes advantage of the potential unreliability of pictographs and intentionally use them to exaggerate or downplay specific data, in order to influence public opinion on an issue.

organizational chart-1

Organizational charts, also called organization charts or org charts, are diagrams that reveal the overall structure of the workforce of a company. Through an organizational chart, the formal indirect or direct relationships between the positions in a company are presented. The chart also shows how different departments are connected.

organizational chart-2

An organizational chart is usually shaped like a pyramid, with the President or Chief Officer in the top rectangle and levels of subordinates in descending rectangles according to rank listed below. Each rectangle size corresponds to the level of authority. Thus, superiors have larger rectangles than subordinates. Peers have equally sized rectangles. Solid lines between rectangles signify a direct relationship, and dashed lines symbolize an indirect relationship. Arrows represent the direction of communication flow between the components of organizational charts.

organizational chart-3

An organizational chart has its advantages. It promotes structure in an organization and defines the roles of the management. It also reveals the parts of a company that need improvement and possibly more or less employees. An organization chart also has disadvantages. It does not reveal anything about the managerial style. Moreover, organizational charts needs to be changed every time an employee leaves or joins the company.

Fill in the gaps

An organizational chart (often called organization chart, org chart, organigram(me), or organogram) is a  that shows the  of an organization and the relationships and relative  of its parts and positions/jobs.

flowcharts-1

Flowcharts are types of graphs that display a schematic process. Contemporary flow charts are modeled after the logic behind early computer games.

Businesses often use them to visually depict all the stages of a project. Therefore, individuals working on a project refer to a flow chart to see the breakdown of the process and understand the whole picture. A flowchart can effectively be used as a training tool for employees who are being introduced to a new project. It also helps in locating and correcting errors in a project.

flowcharts-2

A flowchart consists of start points, end points, inputs, outputs, and routes which are commonly represented by basic symbols that are labeled. Ovals represent start and end points. Rectangles represent the steps of a process, and diamonds represent decisions. Diamonds have two routes stemming from them; one is a true or yes route and the other is a false or no route. Circles stand for operations; arrow-shaped figures stand for transportation, while triangles represent storage, and squares stand for inspection. Arrows linking symbols signify the sequence of a process. While most flowcharts use shapes as symbols, others use graphics instead.

cosmographs

cosmograph is a graph which is used by a cosmographer to map the general features of the universe. This representation of the heavens and earth tries to explain the universe without crossing over into the science of astronomy or geography. So a cosmograph is part of cosmography and what a cosmographer would use as part of his work.

Beyond cosmography, these types of graphs and charts can be used to frame input and output models or organizations or geographical representations of points of data.

line graphs-1

Line graphs are the most popular types of graphs because they are simple to create and easy to understand. They organize and present data in a clear manner and show relationships between the data. They are used for personal, educational, and professional reasons. Particularly popular in the fields of science and statistics, they can also forecast the results of data that is not yet gathered. While line graphs and bar graphs share the same purpose, line graphs display a change in direction, while bar graphs display a change in magnitude.

line graphs-2

Line graphs are used to display the comparison between two variables which are plotted on the horizontal x- and vertical y-axes of a grid. The x-axis usually represents measures of time, while the y-axis usually represents percentage or measures of quantity. Therefore, line graphs are commonly used as time series graphs that show differences in direction. For instance, you can learn about the production of cars in the year 1960 by plotting the time variable (in this case, the months of the year) along the x-axis and the number of cars built in each month along the y-axis. After plotting, you draw a continuous line connecting the points on the grid. The result is a visual representation of the peaks and dips of car production throughout the months of 1960. You can similarly plot the number of cars produced in the years of 1961 and 1962 on the same graph. Thus, you can easily compare multiple relationships.

click the pie chart

Which of these is a pie chart?

click the bar charts

Which of these is a bar chart?

fill in the gaps

Organizational charts, also called organization charts or org charts, are that reveal the overall structure of the of a company. Through an organizational chart, the formal indirect or direct between the positions in a company are presented. The chart also shows how different departments are .

word - definition

  • Line graphs ...
    ... are simple to create and easy to understand. They organize and present data in a clear manner and show relationships between the data.
  • Pie charts ...
    ... are used to compare the segments, with the whole being equal to 100%.
  • Flowcharts ...
    ... are types of graphs that display a schematic process.
  • Organizarional charts ...
    ... are diagrams that reveal the overall structure of the workforce of a company.
  • Pictographs ...
    ... are diagrams that show and compare data by using symbols corresponding to a specific quantity and being repeated a number of times.

true or not?

  • Scientists are not fans of pie charts.
  • Pie charts are mostly used to show trends.

true or not?

There are lots of different symbols which are used in flowcharts. But the majority of flowcharts rely on just a few of the process-related symbols to do all the heavy lifting: Terminator, Process, Decision, Document, and Connector.

In fact, if you use other flowcharting shapes, many people won't know what they are for, so it woild be a good idea to add a symbol key to your flowchart.

  • In flowcharts the shape of a symbol has its special meaning.
  • Squares show the start of the process.

How to describe a graph.

basics

Watch this video carefully. Have pencil an paper ready and stop the video from time to time to write down important words or expressions.

 

Which graph is described? - 1

Which of the following graphs is described in the following sentence?

There was a gradual fall.

Which graph is described? - 2

Which of the following graphs is described in the following sentence?

Sales hit a peak.

Which graph is described? - 3

Which of the following graphs is described in the following sentence?

Sales plummeted.

video

Here is another example which shows you how to describe a graph.

 

 

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When a graph gets to a very high point you can use the expression  .

Instead of 'start' you can use the expression .

If there is no change for some time you say e.g. sales  .

When a graph goes down from the top to the bottom you say it  

the end

Now you should be able to describe any linegraph.

I hope you enjoyed learning it that way.