Advertising Overview

This course is designed to help you understand the most common advertising tactics that we model in Nielsen MMM. 

TV

Television Tactic Overview

TV is often the largest portion of advertising budget. It tends to be the most expensive, but offers the widest reach of all advertising tactics. There are several different types of TV that advertisers can buy. The most common types in MMM are as follows:

Network TV (sometimes called Broadcast)

 Includes basic, over the air channels like ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox, etc. 

Spot TV (Spot network or Spot Cable)

TV advertising that is bought at a DMA level (market-by-market), rather than nationally. 

Cable TV

Channels where consumers need to subscribe to a cable package in order to access. These would include ESPN, Freeform, AMC, TBS, USA, etc. 

The above roll up to non-addressable TV.

Addressable TV

TV advertising with the ability to target beyond standard Nielsen demographics using ethnicity, HH income, children in the household, etc. This format is typically more expensive than non-addressable TV on a cost/GRP basis. It can include Dish, Direct TV, Cablevision, and Comcast video on demand, but depends on the scope of the campaign.

How is TV bought?

Advertisers partner with media agencies in order to place advertising. Cost is dependent on the following factors.

Daypart

Advertisers can choose programming that fall in the Nielsen dayparts. Pricing is dependent on daypart - controlling for all other factors, prime time ads are more expensive than other dayparts. After prime time, daytime is the second most expensive.

Demographic Target

TV advertising is bought against a key demographic. This can vary depending on the type of product or category being advertised. For example, Toll House media is bought against W25-54, whereas Corona Extra media is bought against M21-34. Men, Women, Adults, and their Hispanic counterparts are common groups, and can be targeted by age bracket. Children can also be targeted, starting with children as young as 2. 

 

Pricing is dependent on daypart, but common situations are below. 

  • Adult buys are heavier in prime time programming and can be more expensive. Primetime is also heavier in younger adults (18-34), which is a valuable target for many advertisers - and is an additional factor in driving cost up. 

  • Male targets tend to be heavier in Cable networks (ESPN for example) and Live Sports, which are more expensive. 

  • Women targeted buys are heavy in daytime programming, which can drive cost up

  • Hispanic targets are much more efficient than General Market targets, due to a smaller audience- at times more than half the cost of GM. 

Ad Duration

The most common durations are 15 second and 30 second ads. 60s can be bought, and are typically bought during larger events (Superbowl, Olympics). Sub-15s can also be bought (5s, 10s). Cost varies by ad duration - controlling for all other factors, longer ads are more expensive than shorter ads.

Special Events

Larger TV events that our advertisers buy media against are the Super Bowl, Summer Olympics, and Winter Olympics. Due to the large live viewership and younger demographic, advertising during these events can be very costly. A 30s slot during the Super Bowl XLVI cost upward of $3.5MM.

Other Types of Programming

Similarly, any type of live sports programming can be expensive to buy media against. These include NFL, NBA, NHL, MLB, which are the largest sporting leagues in the US.

Seasonality

TV airing during Q4 (or September onward) tends to be more expensive on a CPP basis compared to other time periods due to the start of the Holiday season (Halloween, Thanksgiving, Christmas, New Year). Stronger demand in the marketplace for inventory causes CPPs to rise due to limited supply.

Upfront or Scatter

Broadcast and Cable networks sell inventory in two different ways to advertisers: Upfront or on the Scatter Marketpalce

Upfront 

Every year in the early spring, networks host large events for agencies and advertisers to showcase the upcoming TV programming and metrics that advertisers/agencies can buy. The majority of TV is bought upfront for the entire year, and it typically is less expensive to buy upfront due to the longer time to negotiate terms (think of it as buying in bulk).

 

Upfront buys are typically guaranteed buys - meaning that any impressions promised by the network are guaranteed. If the ratings fall short, the network will often reimburse the advertiser with ADUs (audience deficiency units) which they can use to buy other media on that network. 

Scatter 

Although the majority of inventory is sold during the Upfronts, networks can reserve a portion of their inventory to be sold on an ad-hoc basis. This is called Scatter TV, or buying on the scatter market. Cost can vary depending on the type of programming, daypart, and contract terms. 

How is TV measured?

The two primary metrics used to measure TV delivery are Gross Rating Points (GRPs) and Targeted Rating Points (TRPs).

GRP = 100 x Population Reached %Total US Households x Average Frequency

TRP = 100x Population Reached %Target Demographic x Average Frequency

Where Average Frequency is the number of times the population viewed the commercial during the campaign or week.

TV cost is measured in several different ways and is calculated as total campaign cost/total unit delivery.

  • Cost per GRP (CPP or Cost per Point)

  • Cost per TRP (also can be called CPP, but would need to specify)

  • Cost per 1000 impressions (CPM, less frequently used)

TV Vocabulary

Campaign - Continuous stream of messaging that either shares a product focus or a single piece of copy.

Creative or Spot or Copy - Refers to the actual messaging within the commercial and can be used interchangeably. Creative can refer to both the audio and visual of the commercial. Spot is used the same way as creative, and is most frequently used by media agencies. Copy specifically refers to the wording used in the commercial. For example, a hypothetical commercial could have 2 creatives where the visual is the same, but the dialogue (or copy) can be different between the two.

Duration - sometimes also referred to as Unit Size. This refers to how long the commercial is - 15s, 30s, 60s, etc.

DMA - Stands for Designated Market Area, created by Nielsen. See list of DMAs here.

ScanTrack Market -  An aggregation of DMAs. Nielsen models media across 73 ScanTrack markets, and extrapolate to the remaining US.

Flighting - The pattern of weekly TV support levels. Below, each color in the execution bar chart represents a different campaign. The way the support levels change across the campaign is referred to as flighting. Can also be used as a verb.

Weight - refers to the magnitude of GRPs/support. Often used to refer to the percentage of 15s and 30s in a given campaign (eg. Higher weight of 15s…)

Adstock - A transformation of GRPs that we model. MMM estimates the retention rate of the campaign, and uses it to spread out GRPs in order to better represent consumer behavior.

Reach - The population that a campaign has reached

Frequency - The amount of times a population has viewed the ad during a single campaign

Effective Frequency - The average frequency with which an ad is viewed before it elicits an action. EF is dependent on a variety of things, including messaging of the ad (simpler copy, lower EF), 15s vs 30s (more 15s, higher EF), product maturity (newer product, higher EF).

Over/Under-delivery - When the ratings for guaranteed buys under or over perform the expected impressions, that is called campaign under-delivery or over-delivery. A campaign that has under-delivered

Re-Air/Original Airing - The original airing of a commercial is the first time that the creative was shown. When that ad is aired again in a separate campaign, it is called a re-air.

Tandem Ads - Tandem ads are when an advertiser buys a 30s slot, and splits it into two 15s, airing separate pieces of creative in each slot, back to back. Hillshire ex.

Property TV - Kayla, can you add some context here?

Ad Intel (formerly Ad*Views) - A Nielsen data portal where TV, Print, Radio, and some forms of digital data can be pulled at varying granularity and time periods.

Nielsen Brand Effects - A Nielsen study that can be done on a single piece of creative that measures the resonance of the messaging. Ad memorability (The percentage of an ad’s natural in-home viewers who are able to remember its content the next day), brand linkage (Of those viewers who remember an ad’s content, the percentage that also remember the advertised brand), and brand memorability (Of all ad viewers, the percentage that remember both the ad’s content and the advertised brand).

BRP Analysis (Brand Rating Point) - An analysis done by the TCS modeling team that is often an add on to marketing mix. This study overlays Spectra consumer profiles on top of TV GRP delivery, to show how well media is hitting the target demographic.

What are the most common non-addressable TV?

  • Network TV, Online TV, Cable TV
  • Cable TV, Direct TV, Network TV
  • Network TV, Cable TV, Direct TV
  • Network TV, Spot TV, Cable TV

The 4 types of tactics

  • Network TV
    Includes basic, over the air channels like ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox, etc.
  • Spot TV
    TV advertising that is bought at a DMA level (market-by-market), rather than nationally.
  • Cable TV
    Channels where consumers need to subscribe to a cable package in order to access. These would include ESPN, Freeform, AMC, TBS, USA, etc.
  • Addressable TV
    TV advertising with the ability to target beyond standard Nielsen demographics using ethnicity, HH income, children in the household, etc. This format is typically more expensive than non-addressable TV on a cost/GRP basis.

Ways TV is Bought

  • Ad Duration
    The most common durations are 15 and 30 second ads. 60s can be bought, and are typically bought during larger events (Superbowl, Olympics). Sub-15s can also be bought (5s, 10s). Cost varies by duration longer ads are more expensive than shorter ads.
  • Daypart
    Advertisers can choose programming that fall in the Nielsen dayparts. Pricing is dependent on daypart - controlling for all other factors, prime time ads are more expensive than other dayparts. After prime time, daytime is the second most expensive.
  • Demographic Target TV
    TV advertising is bought against a key demographic. This can vary depending on the type of product or category being advertised. For example, Toll House media is bought against W25-54, whereas Corona Extra media is bought against M21-34.
  • Special Events
    Larger TV events that our advertisers buy media against are the Super Bowl, Summer Olympics, and Winter Olympics. Due to the large live viewership and younger demographic, advertising during these events can be very costly.
  • Other Types of Programming
    Similarly, any type of live sports programming can be expensive to buy media against. These include NFL, NBA, NHL, MLB, which are the largest sporting leagues in the US.
  • Seasonality
    TV airing during Q4 (or September onward) tends to be more expensive on a CPP basis compared to other time periods due to the start of the Holiday season. Stronger demand in the marketplace for inventory causes CPPs to rise due to limited supply.
  • Upfront
    Every year, networks host large events for agencies and advertisers to showcase the upcoming TV programming and metrics that they can buy. The majority of TV is bought upfront for the entire year, and it typically is less expensive to buy upfront.
  • Scatter
    Although the majority of inventory is sold during the Upfronts, networks can reserve a portion of their inventory to be sold on an ad-hoc basis. This is called Scatter TV. Cost can vary depending on the type of programming, daypart, etc.

What is the equation for GRP?

  • GRP = 100 x Population Reached %Total US Households x Average Frequency
  • GRP = 100 x Population Reached %US Households with TV x Average Frequency
  • GRP = 100 x Population Reached %Target Demographic x Average Frequency
  • GRP = 100 x Population Reached %US Households with TV x Average Frequency

Print

Print Overview

Print advertising is any ad that shows up in a printed medium. This most commonly includes magazines and newspapers. It is often considered to be more targeted than TV is. Buying print inventory requires a lot of lead time, and changing Print strategy is not as agile as other tactics.

How is Print Modeled?

We can model several splits, depending on the client’s business questions.

Page Size

Ads can come in various sizes such as full page, half page, ⅓  page slim, as well as other configurations. Print ad sizes can impact the cost and effectiveness of a print campaign.

Premium vs. Non Premium

Premium publications are more well known (Time, National Geographic, Cosmopolitan, Good Housekeeping, etc). Non Premium publications are smaller in circulation (Dr. Oz, Vegetarian Times, etc).

Campaign Creative

Within print data, we also receive the creative and can split out execution by copy. The creative asset can be pulled by the DS team if the agency does not send it themselves. 

Print is modeled in TRPs (targeted rating points). When print execution data is processed by the DS team, it will often differ from the client/agency provided TRPs because Ad Intel takes “lagged impressions” into account, such as an older edition of a magazine at a doctors office. Because we take this into account, the demographics that we are able to pull for Print are limited, and often don’t exactly match the client’s demographic target.

Print Cost Background

Cost can be given by publication and issue date, or at the campaign level. Cost is shown at a Cost/TRP basis, and can vary depending on several factors.

  • Premium vs. Non Premium publications

  • Page size - ½ page, full page

  • Placement - front cover, back cover, table of contents, etc.

Print Vocabulary

Circulation - The total average number of distributed copies of a publication during a specified standard time (day, week or month).

P4CB  -  Page, 4 color bleed, or a full page ad, in full color (four-color process), printed to the edges of the page.

Fanned TRPs - The transformation from raw print data (which is skewed to the start of the month) into the lagged TRPs that we model.

On-Sale date/Issue Date - When a magazine goes on sale to consumers. Typically the 1st of the month, or the last week of the previous month (April issue may come out in late March).

Which of the following are ways that Print is modeled?

  • Page size
  • Billboard Size
  • Premium vs. Non Premium
  • Campaign Creative
  • TV air time
  • Page Number

Vocabulary Review

  • Circulation
    The total average number of distributed copies of a publication during a specified standard time (day, week or month).
  • P4CB
    Page, 4 color bleed, or a full page ad, in full color (four-color process), printed to the edges of the page
  • Fanned TRPs
    The transformation from raw print data (which is skewed to the start of the month) into the lagged TRPs that we model.
  • On-Sale date/Issue Date
    When a magazine goes on sale to consumers. Typically the 1st of the month, or the last week of the previous month (April issue may come out in late March).

Radio

Radio Overview

Radio Cost Background

  • How is radio bought?

    • Advertisers select particular stations to run ads on

      • Stations are selected based on their primary demographic (age and gender of listeners)

        • Can also be selected based on language (Hispanic)

      • Ads can be :10-:15s (This program brought to you by…”), :30s, :60s

        • :60s typically more effective

        • Ads played earlier in a block of ads more effective

    • Cost is based on time, frequency of ad, and listener base

      • “Drive times” (5-10am, 3-7pm) are the most expensive, especially in metro areas with many commuters

      • More frequent is more expensive

      • More daily listeners is more expensive

      • So similar to most advertising methods, cost goes back to reach and frequency

    • Radio campaigns are bought and executed in flights (see TV for explanation)

  • In other words, advertisers are paying for the number of impressions

    • Paying for reach (higher for bigger listener base, during “drive times”) and frequency

    • Paid vs. posted

      • As the number of listeners as any given time is highly variable, the number of impressions bought can greatly differ from the ultimate number of impressions delivered

      • Paid: The number of impressions that the advertiser paid for

      • Posted: How many impressions the station actually delivered

  • Regions are based on MSA, not DMA

    • MSA: Metropolitan Statistical Area

    • Established by Census Bureau, typically bigger than a DMA

    • Reason: Radius of radio broadcast cannot be controlled like TV

  • Data is always provided by the client, so depending on the unit they send, you  can be modeling radio in TRPs or impressions. Nielsen does collect radio data, but we do not use this in MMM.

 

Out of Home (OOH)

Out of Home Overview

Out of home advertising is any advertising that happens away from your household. Below are a few examples.

Out of Home Examples

OOH will either be provided at as a GRP, TRP, or impression, and can be coded as otheradv in the model.

What is Out of Home?

  • Any Advertising that happens away from your household
  • Any Advertising that comes from an outside source

Out of Home Examples

  • Digital Displays
    Digital billboards that are placed in similar locations as traditional billboards. Costs are often lower than a traditional billboard because the creative is easy to update
  • Billboard
    Traditional billboards are often located along interstates, and can reach a large and diverse audience.
  • Public Transportation
    Advertisements can be placed in bus shelters, on buses/trains, and at train stops. These ads can target urban commuters
  • Other
    Wall units, truck billboards, etc

Digital

Intro to Digital and Digital Measurement

Digital advertising spend exceeded TV advertising spend for the first time in 2017, and this applies to many of the brands that we model. Digital advertising includes multiple different tactics, including social media, digital display, and online video. In this section, we’ll go over the basics of digital measurement and a high level overview of what each digital tactic is.

Digital Vocabulary

Impression - the number of times an advertisement was displayed

Click - the number of times an advertisement was clicked on 

Click Through Rate  (CTR) - the number of clicks on an ad divided by the number of impressions for that ad, expressed as a percentage

Conversion - the intended action a consumer takes after viewing or clicking on an advertisement. Can range from creating a user account to making a purchase.

Conversion Rate (CVR) - the number of conversions divided by the number of impressions (typically for an entire campaign or for a specific time period), expressed as a percentage

Digital Buying Methodologies

Digital is bought using several different models, all based upon a payable action. When this action occurs, advertisers are then charged, typically per 1000 actions. 

CPM  - Cost per Mille (1000 Impressions) - Advertisers are charged per 1000 impressions or views of an advertisement. This is the most common cost structure for display advertising, and also how we show cost within our deliverables.

CPV - Cost per View - Advertisers are charged per 1000 viewable impressions (sometimes called CPMV if it’s display). Online video is often bought on a CPV basis.

CPE or CPA - Cost per Engagement (or Action) - Advertisers are charged per 1000 engagements or action. This is often how Social can be bought. CPE buying tends to be more expensive due to the quality of the inventory.

CPC - Cost per Click - Advertisers are charged per 1000 clicks on an advertisement. Search is bought on a CPC basis. Other digital tactics can be bought on a CPC basis as well.

Digital Tracking Metrics

AVOC - Audibility and Viewability on Complete. The percentage of measurable impressions where the ad played to completion and was both visible on-screen and audible on complete.

In-View - The number of impressions where the ad played for at least one continuous second with at least 50% of the player visible on-screen and the page in-focus

NHT or IVT - Non Human Traffic (NHT) or Invalid Traffic (IVT). Impressions generated by bots or web crawlers. Typically, IVT % is low, less than 3%.

Digital Targeting Strategies

There are several different targeting methods over digital tactics. The most common types are detailed below.

Demographic: Targeting based on gender, age, education, income, ethnicity, etc. This is the most common type of targeting, and often is the basis of most audience segmentations.

Designated Media Area (DMA): Targeting based on Nielsen DMAs

Dayparting: Targeting consumers that are active on digital at a particular time of day, or day of week

Retargeting: Targeting based on site cookies, in order to target previous visitors of your site. Advertisers can also use user lists if they are available. Google Display Network is a digital tactic that often uses retargeting.

Purchase Based Targeting (PBT): Targeting users based on purchase history through a third party vendor that has access to store loyalty card data. Nielsen Catalina Solutions (NCS) is a Nielsen solution that offers PBT targeting. This can also be overlaid with traditional demographic targeting. The additional targeting often comes at a premium, and causes CPMs to increase.

Types of Digital Buys

Facebook

  • Ad types and placements
    • Domain Ad

      • Very simple and cheap: Title, short description, URL, and small picture

      • Can only be placed on the right column, and thus is desktop-only

  • Page Post Link/Newsfeed Ads
    • Can be placed in Newsfeed, thus has high exposure and engagement. Is mobile-friendly

    • A large image or video with written content, linked URL with URL description, and ability to like/comment/share. Essentially looks like a Facebook post with a link

  • Multi-Product/Carousel
    • Placed in Newsfeed and is mobile-friendly

    • Displays a series of up to five products or image links that users can scroll between.

  • Dynamic Product Ads (DPA)
    • Impressions are reported and modeled

    • Can bid for prices based on clicks (CPC) or impressions (CPM)

    • Facebook users can be targeted based on demographics (age, gender, etc.) as well as interests (based on page likes, follows, tags and hashtags, etc.)

    • Can look like Domain Ad, Newsfeed Ad, or Carousel Ad

    • Can be placed on right column or in Newsfeed and is mobile-friendly

    • Advertiser uploads a product catalog to Facebook and places a Facebook pixel on corresponding pages of their website. That pixel fires when a user views a particular page. When the same users returns to Facebook later, an ad with the product(s) they were viewing is displayed

    • A remarketing display ad that displays content based on what they viewed on advertiser’s website (outside Facebook)

Instagram

  • Also owned by Facebook, can be purchased alongside or independent of Facebook ads on same basis (CPC or CPM)
    • Ad Types

      • Photo Ads: Simple photo with a URL to advertiser’s website

      • Video Ads: Same as photo ads, but with videos! Videos can be up to 60 seconds

      • Carousel Ads: Use a single ad to display multiple pictures or videos. Users swipe between them to view

      • Stories Ads: Displayed on Instagram Stories, they are longer collections of videos and pictures

    • Users are targeted the same was as Facebook and leverage information from connected Facebook accounts

    • All ads are placed on the user’s feed

  • Impressions are reported and modeled

Twitter

  • Promoted Tweets, Accounts, and Trends appear with content on a user’s feed. These typically look like a tweet with an image and accompanying URL

  • Carousel ads
    • Impressions are reported and modeled

    • Can target based on language, gender, interest, device, behavior, keywords, location

    • Content is delivered to users based on Twitter activity: user’s Tweet content, hashtags, searches, follows, favorites, retweets, replies to tweets

      • Also based on location, apps installed on device, cookies, email list subscriptions

    • Paid for based on type of campaign. Impressions are free

      • Website visits: Pay for clicks through to website

      • Followers: Pay for followers acquired from a campaign

      • Tweet engagement: Pay for favorites, retweets, replies

      • App installs: Pay for app installs generated from campaign

Pinterest

  • Ads are “promoted pins,” or an image with a short description and URL

  • Buying is based on bid for 1000 impressions (CPM)
    • Impressions are reported and modeled

    • Targeting is based on gender, device, language, location, defined keywords, and interests (based on a list provided by Pinterest)

      • Can also target users who have already visited the website or app, or users who have clicked pins to the website or app

Snapchat

  • Ad types
    • Snap ads are videos or animations that can have sound. They can be short- or long-form and can have an associated URL, article, app install link, or can simply be a standalone ad similar to a TV commercial. Campaigns can be displayed for selected publishers in Snapchat Discover

  • Nationwide/local geofilters are graphical overlays for a picture that are created by a brand. They can have brand messages, new product graphics, etc. They can also be geo-fenced, such that they are only able to be used within predefined geographical areas (e.g., within a particular city or store), or available nationwide

  • Sponsored lenses allow advertisers to build branded experiences for users. They add sounds and motion effects to snaps that are responsive to user’s facial movements. Advertisers can also pay to be exclusive lenses, which disables all other lenses for the length of the campaign

  • Snap to unlock is similar to a QR code. An out-of-home, digital, or TV advertisement will include a unique Snapchat code that will unlock a branded video, lens, filter, or even a coupon or other offer
    • Impressions are reported and modeled

    • An ad for 'The Girl on the Train.'

Search

Digital Display

Digital Display includes all type of desktop, mobile, and tablet advertising that appear on websites. This sometimes can be referred to as Banner ads, OLA (Online Advertising), OLM (Online Media), or ODA (Online Display Advertising). Client display advertising can be searched for and found on moat.com, similar to how we find TV creative using iSpot.

Below is context around the most frequently modeled digital display tactics.

Desktop and Mobile Display

These include any type of static, rich media, or native advertising that appears on websites. Desktop Display appears exclusively on desktop computers, while Mobile includes tablet and other mobile devices. 

Static Displays or Banners

Non-moving images of the advertising.

Rich Media Displays

Often interactive (mouseover to expand, animation, sound, etc). 

Native Advertising

Any type of advertising that matches the purpose of the website. For example, sponsored articles on a news site. It can also sometimes be referred to as sponsored content.

Google Display Network (GDN)

A Google owned network for display ads that includes a collection of partner websites, as well, as different Google properties covering 95% of internet traffic. GDN ads fall into two types:

Display Ads

These appear as either a text or image format and are the most common types of GDN ads.

Engagement or Lightbox Ads

Engagement or ‘Lightbox’ ads are expandable display ads. When the user hovers over (desktop) or taps (mobile) the ad, a progress bar is displayed for 2 seconds to notify users that the ad is expanding. The ad expands once the user has shown interest to engage with the brand’s message by continuing to hover/touch past two seconds.

Yahoo Native (Gemini)

Native advertising that appears on Yahoo’s desktop and mobile content properties.

 

Pandora/Spotify/iHeart Radio

Advertising that appear on Pandora, Spotify, or iHeartRadio can either be display only, audio only, or bothaudio and display. We model it most frequently along with digital display.  

Catalina BuyerVision Display

Display advertising bought through Catalina. Catalina offers additional targeting capabilities beyond standard demos and can target to individual users.

Vocabulary Review

  • Impression
    the number of times an advertisement was displayed
  • Click
    The number of times an advertisement was clicked on
  • Click Through Rate (CTR)
    The number of clicks on an ad divided by the number of impressions for that ad, expressed as a percentage
  • Conversion
    The intended action a consumer takes after viewing or clicking on an advertisement. Can range from creating a user account to making a purchase.
  • Conversion Rate (CVR)
    The number of conversions divided by the number of impressions (typically for an entire campaign or for a specific time period), expressed as a percentage

Which of the following are Digital Buying Methodologies?

  • CPM  - Cost per Mille (1000 Impressions)
  • CPV - Cost per View
  • CPG - Consumers Per Good
  • CPD - Consumer Product Development
  • CPE or CPA - Cost per Engagement (or Action)
  • CPC - Cost per Click

Tracking Metrics Review

  • AVOC
    Audibility and Viewability on Complete. The percentage of measurable impressions where the ad played to completion and was both visible on-screen and audible on complete.
  • In-View
    The number of impressions where the ad played for at least one continuous second with at least 50% of the player visible on-screen and the page in-focus
  • NHT or IVT
    Non Human Traffic (NHT) or Invalid Traffic (IVT). Impressions generated by bots or web crawlers. Typically, IVT % is low, less than 3%.

Which of the following are Targeting Strategies?

  • Demographic: Targeting based on gender, age, education, income, ethnicity, etc. This is the most common type of targeting, and often is the basis of most audience segmentations.
  • Designated Media Area (DMA): Targeting based on Nielsen DMAs
  • Purchase Based Targeting (PBT): Targeting users based on purchase history through a third party vendor that has access to store loyalty card data. Nielsen Catalina Solutions (NCS) is a Nielsen solution that offers PBT targeting. This can also be overlaid with traditional demographic targeting. The additional targeting often comes at a premium, and causes CPMs to increase.
  • Retargeting: Targeting based on site cookies, in order to target previous visitors of your site. Advertisers can also use user lists if they are available. Google Display Network is a digital tactic that often uses retargeting.
  • Dayparting: Targeting consumers that are active on digital at a particular time of day, or day of week

Online Video Advertising (OLV)

Hulu and More

Hulu

Hulu provides content from traditional television networks online. Offers non skippable video advertising. Often, advertisers choose to run their TV spots on Hulu. Because of its similarities to linear TV, it is often the most expensive provider of OLV advertising.  

eCommerce

Amazon

  • Amazon Display- Amazon’s machine learning algorithm and a selected optimization goal such as click-through rate, purchase rate, or detail page view rate.
    • Amazon has strict creative rules and guidelines such as:

      • Total words in the custom image may not exceed 10 words. Disclaimer copy and text within the logo does not count toward the overall word/character limit.

      • No more than two type variations may be used, including font size, color, and style.

      • Products must have an Amazon star rating of at least 3.5 and a minimum of 15 customer reviews.

    • Amazon eCommerce ads can also be placed offsite, but needs to have the amazon logo featured in the creative.

    • Amazon offers different ad placements on their site such as Gateway Above the Fold (ATF), Gateway Below the Fold (BTF), Search Skyscraper, Read All Reviews (RAR), Detail Page, and Thank You Page.

Facebook

Facebook eCommerce

  • With Facebook ads, you can prompt people to purchase by showing them products based on interests they expressed on your site, app on Facebook or other places online. eCommerce is very similar to traditional Facebook ads, but they contain a call to action.

  • Facebook offers different types of eCommerce ads: Video, Canvas, Carousel, Slideshow, Photo, and Links

    • Video: shows up in a users newsfeed 

    • Canvas: made of full-screen video and images, text and call-to-action buttons—it's up to you. With Canvas, people can swipe through, tilt and zoom in on images

    • Carousel: Show more than a single ad on Facebook and Instagram

    • Slideshow: lightweight and cost-effective video ads out of images or an existing video

    • Photo: use images to showcase your ads

  • Sponsored ads appear in the right hand side of Facebook, and are a form or retargeting consumers who have already visited your site using cookies. These ads are bought through Facebook ads manager, and can also be bought through DSP’s.

DFSI

Patricia

PR

PR Overview - To be Changed

  • Types of PR? News placements, satellite media tours, influencers

  • Impressions are an estimate!!

  • Hard to replicate

  • Common situations… how to model

  • Common checks of PR data -

    • Impressions, scaling, etc

Cinema

Cinema Overview - To be Changed

Cinema is considered another type of Out Of Home advertising. Ads can be bought based on the type of movie that is playing. One advantage to cinema advertising is  that unlike home viewers or those surfing the Internet, cinema-goers can't change the channel or opt out of viewing, leading to a very captive audience.

Cinema can often be a very effective tactic due to the highly engaged and highly targeted audience. One downside is that cinema advertising can be very costly and placement can be very competitive with other brands.

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